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THE 

HISTORY    ;i^ 

OF   THE 

CHURCH    MISSIONARY 
SOCIETY 


BY 

EUGENE    STOCK,   D.C.L, 

FORMERLY   EDITORIAL   SECRETARY,    C.M.S. 


"  Telling  to  the  generation  to  come  the  praises  of  the  Lord,  and  His 
strength,  and  His  wondrous  works  that  He  hath  done  ....  That  they 
might  set  their  hope  in  God,  and  not  forget  the  works  of  God,  but  keep 
His  Commandments." — Ps.  Ixxviii.  4,  7,  R.v. 


SUPPLEMENTARY     VOLUME 
THE     FOURTH. 


LONDON  0 

CHURCH    MISSIONARY   SOCIETY 
SALISBURY   SQUARE,  E.G. 
1916 

[All  rights  reserved] 


6V 


V,    If 


PREFACE 

WHEN  I  first  thought  of  writing  the  story  of  the  CMS 
during  the  years  that  have  elapsed  since  the  Cente- 
nary,  I  had  no  idea  of  producing  so  large  a  work 
as  a  fourth  volume  ot  the  History  published  in  1899  must 
necessarily  be.  I  only  contemplated  a  small  book  for  popular 
use.  I  had  at  first  no  intention  of  reporting  on  the  several 
Missions  111  order.  My  idea  was  a  brief  narrative  of  the  Societv's 
proceedings  at  home.  This  would  include  its  reception  of 
information  from  the  field  and  of  missionaries  on  furlough  so 
that  any  events  abroad  of  exceptional  importance  would'  in 
this  way  be  mentioned  in  the  indirect  form  of  news  coming  to 
Salisbury  Square.  _  But  the  book  would,  in  the  main,  be  the 
history  of  the  Society,  rather  than  of  the  Society's  Missions 
during  the  period. 

But  this  plan  proved  to  be  unworkable;  and  it  became 
obvious  that  the  Missions  must  be  dealt  with  separately  if 
their  story,  however  condensed,  was  to  be  intelligible  Still 
however  I  proposed  only  a  small  volume  for  general  circula 
tion  ;  and  I  began  writing  on  a  very  limited  scale  accordingly 
But  when  some  portions  of  the  MS.  were  submitted  to  the 
Secretaries,  they  were  not  satisfied.  They  urged  that  India 
and  China,  in  particular,  called  for  much  fuller  treatment 
Eventually  it  was  decided  by  the  Publications  Sub-Committee 
that  I  should  attempt  a  Fourth  Volume  of  the  History  on  a 
scale  similar  to  that  of  the  previous  three  volumes 

One  result  of  the  change  of  plan  has  been  the  delay  of  over 
a  year  in  bringing  out  the  work.  My  original  idea  was  to  stop 
at  the  Declaration  of  AVar,  August,  1914,  and  to  have  the  book 
out  by  Easter,  1915  The  period  I  should  treat  would  thus  be 

Cil  18W  yTS  T  the  ?entenary>  which  was  kept  in 
April,  1899.  As  another  year's  work  became  necessary  it  was 
also  necessary  to  bring  the  narrative  down  a  year  or  so  later 
and  practically  to  produce  a  sixteen  years'  history.  But  I  had 
already  made  a  number  of  statistical  and  other  comparisons 
based  on  the  idea  of  the  «  fifteen-year  period  " ;  and  it  ha  not 
been  possible  to  alter  all  these.  The  book,  therefore,  contains 


iv  PREFACE. 

a  good  many  references  to  the  "fifteen-year  period,"  although 
the  events  of  the  additional  year  and  a  half  have  been  added. 
In  fact,  the  narrative,  in  certain  particulars,  runs  even  into  the 
early  months  of  1916,  so  that,  in  so  far  as  those  particulars 
are  concerned,  the  period  covered  is  little  short  of  seventeen 
years.  The  result  is  that  some  slight  inconsistencies  may  be 
detected  here  and  there  ;  but  I  do  not  think  they  are  of  any  real 
consequence.  This  explanation,  however,  should  be  borne  in 
mind. 

In  one  respect  this  volume  differs  from  its  predecessors. 
Their  title  was,  "  The  History  of  the  C.M.S.  :  its  Environment, 
its  Men,  and  its  Work  " ;  and  many  of  the  chapters  practically 
embodied  a  sketch  of  the  history  of  the  Church  of  England  for 
the  hundred  years  reviewed, — a  sketch  which  in  fact  gave 
much  general  information  not  to  be  found  in  any  other  pub 
lished  history.  But  in  the  present  volume  no  attempt  has 
been  made  to  continue  this  sketch.  The  "  environment " 
described  in  these  pages  is  the  environment  in  the  Asiatic  and 
African  fields.  The  Church  at  home  is  only  referred  to  so  far 
as  the  Society's  own  history  requires,  chiefly  in  the  52nd  and 
53rd  chapters. 

On  the  other  hand,  more  space  is  given  than  before  to  the 
development  of  the  Society's  own  work  at  home.  That 
development  has  been  one  of  the  chief  features  of  the  period 
reviewed,  and  many  details  are  given  to  which  there  is  but 
little  corresponding  in  the  previous  volumes.  I  can  quite 
anticipate  that  some  of  my  friends  in  the  mission-field  may  be 
disposed  to  inquire  why  more  space  should  be  given  to  the 
personnel  of  the  home  staff,  to  Salisbury  Square  methods  and 
proceedings,  to  Local  Associations,  Summer  Schools,  Publica 
tions,  &c.,  than  to  this  or  that  important  Mission.  But  I  re 
member  how  Alexander  Mackay  wrote  from  Uganda  begging  for 
more  information  in  the  periodicals  about  the  home  organization 
and  work.  Such  information,  he  pleaded,  was  to  the  mission 
aries  in  the  field  as  interesting  as  missionary  letters  were  to 
readers  at  home.  The  result  actually  was  that  for  several 
years  notices  of  local  meetings,  &c.,  were  given  three  or  four 
pages  in  each  issue  of  the  old  Intelligencer.  Mackay 
would  have  appreciated  the  modern  Gazette.  He  himself, 
within  five  months  of  the  announcement  of  the  new  Gleaners' 
Union,  in  1886,  wrote  from  Uganda  enthusiastically  about 
it,  and  sent  home  a  remarkable  diagram,  which  he  called 

*  The  letters  "  C.M.S."  and  "  F.S.M."  will  be  noticed.  The  latter  refer  to 
the  February  Simultaneous  Meetings  of  1886,  which  also  Mackay  had  noted 
with  interest. 


PREFACE.  v 

"The  Gleaners'  Union  Chart  of  Main  Statistics"  "by  a 
Fellow  Servant  in  the  Mission."  *  It  shows,  on  strict  mathe 
matical  lines,  the  Society's  progress  in  missionaries,  stations, 
schools,  converts,  funds,  &c.  It  was  reproduced  in  the 
Gleaner  of  July,  1887.  Mackay  evidently  realized  how  much 
the  Firing  Line  depends  upon  the  Home  Base — a  lesson  we 
have  all  been  learning  by  hard  experience  in  the  present  War. 

Since  the  greater  part  of  this  book  was  in  type,  Canon 
C.  H.  Eobinson's  History  of  Christian  Missions  has  appeared. 
I  regret  that  although  I  have  read  every  line  of  that  valuable 
work,  I  have  not  been  able  to  make  much  use  of  it  in  my 
pages.  It  was  too  late,  in  fact,  to  do  so,  though  I  have 
gathered  from  it,  and  referred  to  it,  here  and  there. 

I  have  added,  by  way  of  Appendix,  a  long  chapter  on  the 
effects  of  the  War  upon  the  Missions,  that  is,  so  far — for  who  can 
tell  how  far  it  may  further  affect  them  ?  We  can  but  commit 
them  to  the  care  and  guidance  of  the  Lord  by  Whose  command 
they  are  undertaken,  and  Who  will  assuredly  overrule  all 
events  to  the  accomplishment  of  His  own  wise  and  gracious 
purposes. 

To  Him  also  I  would  humbly  and  reverently  commit  this 
book,  with  all  its  imperfections,  in  deep  thankfulness  for  the 
high  privilege,  in  old  age,  of  recording  the  further  history  of 
one  of  the  agencies  employed  by  Him  and  His  Church  for  the 
advancement  of  His  Kingdom. 

E.  S. 

April,  1916. 


THE    FEONTISPIECE. 

The  portrait  of  the  President,  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  John 
H.  Kennaway,  Bart.,  which  appears  as  the  Frontispiece  to 
this  volume,  is  from  an  oil  painting  by  Miss  C.  Ouless, 
painted  in  1915,  and  presented  to  the  Society  for  the 
Committee  IToom  at  Salisbury  Square. 


CONTENTS   OF   VOL   IV. 

tfart   I. 
PRELIMINARY   CHAPTERS. 

CHAPTER   I. 
THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 

PAGE 

The  2nd  Jubilee,  Nov.,  1898 -The  Centenary,  April,  1899— A  Week 
of  Meetings— Wednesday,  the  Centenary  Day—  The  Times 
on  the  Centenary — Meetings  in  the  Provinces — Meetings 
Abroad —  The  Centenary  Fund — The  Centenary  Volume  .  3 

CHAPTER   II. 

THE  OUTLOOK  AFTER  THE  CENTENARY. 

Retrospect:  C.M.S.  Home  Developments;  the  Church  Waking 
up— The  Outlook  Abroad:  Africa,  India,  China,  &c. — The 
Committee's  Bird's-eye  View  of  the  Period  and  Work — Pro 
blem  of  Native  Church  Organization 16 

CHAPTER   III. 

BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS. 

The  Boer  War  :  Unity  of  the  Empire  ;  a  Pattern  for  the  Church- 
Colonial  Co-operation—  A  Record  Year  for  Recruits — Death 
of  Queen  Victoria— King  Edward  and  King  George— Other 
Centenaries— Archbishop  Temple— C.M.S.  Missionaries  raised 
to  the  Episcopate — Pan-Anglican  Congress  and  Lambeth 
Conference — Edinburgh  Conference — Student  Movement — 
Doubts  in  S.P.G.  and  C.M.S.  Circles — Personal  Changes — 
Home  Developments— The  Funds—  Swanwick— The  War  .  21 


viii  CONTENTS. 


THE   FOREIGN    FIELD. 

CHAPTER   IV. 

AFRICA  :  THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

PAGE 

Retrospect  of  Public  Events-  Anglo-  German  Agreements  for 
Africa—  Anglo-  French  Questions—  Conquest  of  the  Eastern 
Sudan—  Developments  in  African  Protectorates  and  Spheres 
of  Influence  —  Boer  and  other  Wars  —  Evil  Influences  :  Congo 
Atrocities,  Liquor  Traffic,  Slavery,  &c.—  Islam  in  Africa- 
Nigeria  Protectorate  —  Uganda  :  the  Railway,  the  Kabaka  — 
British  East  Africa  —  The  Eastern  Sudan  —  Livingstone 
Centenary  ..........  33 

CHAPTER   V. 

AFRICA  :  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

Missions  in  North  Africa—  In  West  and  South-  West  Africa—  In 
East  and  South  Central  Africa—  In.  South  Africa  —  Roman 
Missions  .......  52 

CHAPTER   VI. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  WEST  AFRICA. 

Sierra  Leone  :  the  Bishops,  &c.  —  Influence  of  the  Colony  —  Diocese 
of  Western  Equatorial  Africa  -S.P.G.  on  the  Gold  Coast— 
The  C.M.S.  Staff—  Work  of  the  Mission  and  the  Native 
Church  —  The  Niger  :  the  Delta  and  up  the  River  —  -Church 
Organization  —  Northern  Nigeria  :  Advances  and  Repulses  .  59 

CHAPTER    VII. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  EAST  AFRICA. 

British  East  Africa  :  Mombasa,  Frere  Town,  &c.  —  German  East 
Africa  :  Progress  Prior  to  the  War  —  British  East  Africa  :  the 
Interior—  Kikuyu  District  —  Kikuyu  Conference  .  .  .75 

CHAPTER  VIII. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  UGANDA. 

The  New  Diocese  of  Uganda  —  Testimonies  of  Governors  and 
Visitors  —  Four  Christian  Kings  —  Conversion  and  Death  of 
Mwanga—  Bones  of  Martyrs  found  —  Bishop  Wilkinson's  Gifts 
—Progress  and  Extension  of  the  Mission  —  Educational  and 
Medical  Work  —  The  Cathedrals  —  Bag'anda  Clergy  and  Evan 
gelists  —  Baganda  Christians  —  Roman  Mission  —  Church 
Organization  :  Synod  Meeting  —  New  Heresy  —  Advantage  of 
one  Church—  The  C.M.S.  Staff—  Bishop  Tucker  :  Retirement 
and  Death  ;  the  Archbishop's  Tribute  .  .  »  .  .  83 


CONTENTS.  ix 

CHAPTER   IX. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 

PAQ» 

Plans  for  Gordon  Memorial  Mission — C.M.S.  and  the  Government 
— Gordon  College — Medical  and  School  Work  at  Khartum — 
Bishop  of  London's  Visit :  the  Cathedral — Lord  Cromer's 
Invitation  to  C.M.S. — New  Mission  on  the  Upper  Nile- 
Progress  in  Egypt — Islam  and  Christianity — Coptic  Church — 
Bishop  Maclnnes  .........  105 

CHAPTER   X. 

ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS. 

Books  011  Islam — Cairo  and  Luckiiow  Conferences  —  Student 
Christian  Movement  at  Constantinople— Moslem  Population 
of  the  World— Raymund  Lull,  Henry  Martyii,  &c.— C.M.S. 
and  other  Missions — Keith  Falconer.  Bishop  French,  the 
Z werners,  Pfander— Malays  and  Afghans — Moslem  Efforts  in 
England 115 

CHAPTER   XI. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  PALESTINE. 

The  Kaiser  in  Palestine— Young  Turk  Party— C.M.S.  Staff- 
Women's  Work,  Medical  Work,  &c.— Bishops  Blytli  and 
Maclnnes 1'24 

CHAPTER    XII. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  TURKISH  ARABIA. 
Baghdad  and  Mosul— The  Staff-A  Work  of  Faith  .     1*29 

CHAPTER   XIII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  PERSIA. 

Persia  in  Recent  Years — C.M.S.  Staff — Julfa,  Ispahan,  Shiraz, 
Yezd,  Kerman — Bahaism — The  Bakhtiari — Bishops  Stuart  and 
Stileman  —  Death  of  Dr.  Bruce — Other  Missions  .  .  .  131 

CHAPTER  XIV. 

INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 

Lord  Curzoii  and  other  Rulers — Soldiers'  Gifts  to  Missions — Royal 
Interest — King  George's  Visit :  His  Public  Profession  of 
Religion — The  Unrest,  its  Causes  and  Limitations— The 
Renaissance — Opinions  of  Sir  J.  Bourdilloii,  Sir  Mack  worth 
Young,  &c. — The  Education  Question:  Failure  of  Secular 
Education — Power  of  Idolatry  and  Caste — The  Dark  Side  of 
Hinduism — Modern  Movements  :  Arya  Samaj,  &c. — Mrs. 
Besant's  College  — The  Moslems:  Aligarh  College  —  The 
Population  of  India — The  Prospect  ......  137 


CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER   XV. 

THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

PAGE 

Statistics  of  Missionary  Societies— Summary  of  their  Work— The 
Indian  Missionary  Society— Statistics  of  Indian  Christendom 
—Indian  Estimate  of  Christian  Progress— The  Mass  Move 
ments—Character  of  Indian  Christians— British  Opinion  and 
Treatment  of  them — The  Anglo-Indians— Attitude  of  the 
Christian  Church  towards  Indian  Religions  :  Sir  J.  Bourdillon, 
B.  Lucas,  J.  N.  Farquhar,  Prof.  Hogg,  Bishop  Copleston, 
Bishop  Whitehead,  Prof.  Cairns,  &c.  ...  158 

CHAPTER   XVI. 

INDIA  :  THE  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS. 

The  Anglican  Episcopate— New  Bishops— The  First  Indian  Bishop 
—Plans  for  Synodical  Organization— Dr.  Mott's  Campaign 
1912-13— The  Memorable  December  of  1912— The  National 
Conference  —  The  National  Council— The  Future  Indian 
Church— Bishop  Whiteheacl's  Yiews— Kikuyu  anticipated  .  18( 

CHAPTER   XVII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS— GENERAL. 

The     C.M.S.     Staff:    its    Inadequacy  —  Increase    of    Women  - 
Deaths  and  Retirements— Indian  Clergy— Baptisms— Higher 
Education— Literary  Work— Native  Church  Councils       .         .     195 

CHAPTER   XVIII. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE. 

The  Field  and  the  Men— R.  Clark.  Imad-ud-din,  &c.— Growth  of  the 
Christian  Community— Amritsar,  Tarn  Taran,  Lahore,  &c.— 
The  Jhang  Bar— Kashmir :  School  and  Hospital— Peshawar  and 
Bannu— Dr.  Pennell— Baluch  Mission— Sindh— Medical  and 
Women's  Work  — New  Church  Council  —  Bishops  Lefroy 
and  Durraiit— S.P.G.  and  Other  Missions 

CHAPTER   XIX. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  BOMBAY. 

The  Staff  and  the  Work— Ruttonji  Nowroji,  Mrs.  Sorabji— The 

Parsis  and  Moslems— The  Bishops  of  Bombay—  Other  Missions     216 

CHAPTER  XX. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  NAGPUR. 

The  Field  and  the  Staff— Jabalpur,  Bharatpur,  Gond  Mission— 
Bhil  Mission  :  Famine  ;  Sickness  and  Death  —  The  Bhil 
Christians .219 


CONTENTS.  xi 

CHAPTER  XXI. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  LUCKXOW. 

The  Field  and  the  Work— Deaths  and  Retirements— Native 
Clergy  in  Important  Posts  — Mr.  Perfumi  —  St.  John's 
College,  Agra  —  Allahabad  Hostel  —  Lectures  to  Educated 
Hindus— The  Christian  Community— The  Bishops  .  .  .  223 

CHAPTER  XXII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  CALCUTTA. 

Lack  of  Men  — Baptisms — Calcutta:  Colleges,  &c.  — The  Old 
Church— K.  C.  Banerjea— Burdwan— Nadiya  District— Mr. 
Monro's  Mission — Santal  Mission  —  Other  Societies  .  .  .  230 

CHAPTER  XXIII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESES  OF  MADRAS,  DORNAKAL,  AND 

TlNNEVELLY. 

Diocese  of  Madras— Bishop  Gell— Canon  Sell  and  the  Goldsmiths 

-The  Satthianadan  Family — Zion  Church — Nilgiri  Mission 

Telugu  Mission:  The  Mass  Movement — Dummagudem — The 
Noble  College— Diocese  of  Dornakal:  Bishop  Azariah's 
Work  —  Haidarabad  —  Tinnevelly :  Mr.  Walker,  Tinnevelly 
College,  Women's  Work,  Tinnevelly  Church— Bishops  Morley, 
Williams,  and  Waller 037 

CHAPTER  XXIV. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  TRAYANCORE  AND  COCHIN. 

Christian  Population  of  the  Two  States— The  Anglican  Bishops  — 
Mission  Staff  and  Native  Clergy— Deaths — Ten  Years'  Con 
firmations — Caste  and  Out-Caste — Educational  Institutions — 
The  Syrian  Churches  :  Revival  Movements,  Syrian  Bishops 
and  Dr.  Mott,  Remarkable  Meeting  at  Calcutta  .  .  .  250 

CHAPTER  XXV. 

THE    CEYLON   MISSION. 

Features  of  the  Mission — Losses  of  Senior  Missionaries — The 
Native  Christians  —  Education  Work :  Trinity  College, 
Kandy,  &c. — Varied  Agencies — Women  Missionaries — Two 
Bishops  Copleston  .........  257 

CHAPTER  XXVI. 

THE  MAURITIUS  MISSION. 

Retrospect  of  the  Mission— Linguistic  Difficulties— The  Bishops 

and  the  Mission  Staff— Gradual  Withdrawal  266 


xii  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER   XXVII. 

CHINA  :  MODERN  CHANGES. 

PAGE 

The  Position  in  1899 — Boxer  Massacres — Newspaper  Opinions — 
China  waking  up — China  and  Japan — The  Opium  Question  : 
John  Morley's  Statement  and  its  Issues — Deaths  of  the 
Emperor  and  Dowager  Empress — Overthrow  of  the  Manchu 
Dynasty  —  President  Yuan  Shih-Kai —  British  Emergency 
Deputation  at  Shanghai — Sir  Hiram  Maxim's  Attack  011 
Missions — Chinese  Attitude  towards  Missions — The  Request 
for  Prayer 269 

CHAPTER   XXVIII. 

CHINA:  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

Griffith  John  and  Hudson  Taylor — Non-Roman  Christendom  in 
China — The  Shanghai  Conference  of  1907  and  the  Creeds — • 
The  China  Mission  Year  Book— Literary  Work,  &c. — Statistics 
of  Missions — Dr.  Mott's  Conferences — China  Continuation 
Committee — Dr.  Mott's  and  Mr.  Eddy's  Evangelistic  Meetings 
— Chinese  Christians  in  England — The  Anglican  Church  in 
China  :  Conferences  ;  Desire  for  Larger  Unity  .  .  .  283 

CHAPTER  XXIX. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESES  OF  VICTORIA  AND  KWANGSI- 

HUNAN. 

The  Staff  and  the  Converts — South  China — The  Bishops  of 
Victoria — Retrospect  of  the  Hong  Kong  Mission — The 
F.E.S.  Ladies— Extension  of  the  Work:  St.  Stephen's 
College.  &c. — Canton — Pakhoi — Kwang'si  and  Hunan  :  New 
Diocese  ...........  297 

CHAPTER    XXX. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  FUKIEN. 

Diocese  of  Fukien — Retrospect  of  the  Mission— Influence  of  the 
Stewarts— The  Women  Missionaries— Colonial  Recruits — 
Continuity  of  the  Work — Archdeacon  Wolfe.  Lloyd,  &c. — 
Educational  and  Medical  Agencies  —  Outlying"  Districts — 
Baptisms — The  Native  Christians— Union  Agencies  .  .  305 

CHAPTER  XXXI. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  CHEKIANG. 

"  Mid- China  "  and  "Chekiang" — Shanghai— Bishop  and  Arch 
deacon  Moule — Trinity  College,  Ningpo — Chinese  Clergy— 
Hangchow  Hospital — Varied  Work 31(> 

CHAPTER  XXXII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  WESTERN  CHINA. 

Retrospect  of  the  Mission — Notable  Continuance  of  Original  Staff 
—Bishop  Cassels  and  Mr.  Horsburgh — Varieties  of  Work — 
Church  Organization— China  Inland  Mission  ....  325 


CONTENTS.  xiii 

CHAPTER  XXXIII. 

JAPAN:  THE  NATION  AND  ITS  RELIGION 

PAGE 

Political  Events — Anglo- Japanese  Alliance — War  with  Russia  — 
Death  of  the  Emperor  Mutsuhito — Bushido  and  its  Influence 
— Shintoism,  Buddhism,  Agnosticism — Recent  Conferences  on 
Morals  and  Religion .  .  .330 

CHAPTER  XXXIV. 

JAPAN  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

The  Japanese  Christian  Communities— Leakage  and  its  Causes  — 
Anti- Christian  and  Neologian  Influences— Converts  from  the 
Upper  Classes— Methods  of  Work:  Classes  for  all  Classes — 
Evangelistic  Campaigns — Dr.  Mott's  Visits — World's  Student 
Federation — The  Nippon  Sei-kokwai — The  Episcopate — New 
Canadian  Diocese— Central  Theological  College — The  American 
Missions — Continuation  Committee 335 

CHAPTER   XXXV. 
JAPAN:  THE  C.M.S.  MISSIONS. 

The  Staff:  Losses,  Veterans,  &c. — Osaka  and  its  Institutions — 
Women's  Work — Other  Stations  in  Central  Japan — Tokyo — 
Diocese  of  Kiu-Shiu  —  Diocese  of  Hokkaido — The  Ainu — Work 
among  Japanese  Soldiers — Literary  Work — Chinese  Students 
at  Tokyo— Death  of  G.  Ensor 350 

CHAPTER   XXXVI. 

THE  NORTH -WEST  CANADA  MISSION. 

Retrospect  of  the  Mission — The  Dioceses  and  the  Bishops — Bishop 
Bompas— Archdeacon  McDonald — Other  Veterans,  deceased 
and  living — Diocese  of  Rupert's  Land — Western  Dioceses — 
Diocese  of  Keewatin — Diocese  of  Moosonee — The  Eskimo  : 
Peck  and  Green  shield — Diocese  of  Athabasca — Diocese  of 
Mackenzie  River — First  Tukudh  Clergyman— Herschel  Island 
—Diocese  of  Yukon — Bishop  Stringer— C.M.S.  Reductions  .  366 

CHAPTER  XXXVII. 

THE  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  MISSION. 

Retrospect  of  the  Mission— Bishops  Ridley  and  Du  Verne t — 
Church  Organization — The  Staff  and  the  Work— Results  of 
the  Mission  —  Independent  Testimonies  —  Evil  Influences — 
Past  and  Future 383 

CHAPTER   XXXVIII. 

THE  NEW  ZEALAND  MISSION. 

Transfer  of  the  Mission  to  the  Colonial  Church — Deaths  of  Veteran 
Missionaries — The  Maori  Clergy  and  People — The  New  Zealand 
C.M.  Association — Centenary  of  Samuel  Marsden  .  .  .  389 


xiv  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER   XXXIX. 

ECCLESIASTICAL  PROBLEMS  OF  THE  MISSION  FIELD. 
I.  NATIVE  CHURCH  ORGANIZATION. 

PAGE 

One  Object  of  Missions  the  Building  up  of  the  Church — The 
Memorandum  of  1901 — C.M.S.  Obligations  and  Limitations 
—Practical  Steps  towards  forming  Autonomous  Churches — 
Relation  of  the  Mission  to  the  Infant  Church — Two  more 
Memoranda— A  Common  Mistake— Summary  of  the  Subject  .  393 

CHAPTER   XL. 

ECCLESIASTICAL  PROBLEMS  or  THE  MISSION  FIELD. 
II.  THE  KIKUYU  PROPOSALS. 

Divided  State  of  Christendom — Its  Effects  (1)  on  Missions,  (2)  on 
Churches  founded  by  them — The  position  in  East  Africa — The 
Kikuyu  Conference — The  Scheme  of  Federation — The  Bishop 
of  Zanzibar— The  Archbishop's  Plan — His  Questions  to  the 
Consultative  Committee— Their  Reply— The  Archbishop's 
Statement— Opinions  upon  it — The  Real  Issue,  a  "  Valid 
Eucharist" — Important  utterances  of  the  Lambeth  Confer 
ence  of  1908 409 


THE   HOME   BASE. 

CHAPTER  XLI. 

PERSONAL:  IN  MEMORIAM. 

Queen  Victoria  and  King  Edward — Archbishop  Temple  and  the 
Bishops — Vice-Presidents  of  the  C.M.S. — Secretaries,  &c. — 
Prominent  Members  of  the  Committee — Clerical  and  Lay 
Friends — Women  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  427 

CHAPTER   XLII. 

PERSONAL  :  COMMITTEE  AND  OFFICERS. 

President  and  Treasurer  —  Vice- Presidents  —  Committee  —  Secre 
taries,  &c. — Losses  :  Fox.  Baring- Gould,  Bp.  Ingham,  &c. — 
The  Present  Staff 436 

CHAPTER   XLIII. 

SALISBURY  SQUARE. 

The  House  and  its  Enlargements — The  New  House,  1915 — Ad 
ministration  :  Committees  and  Secretaries — Women's  Share — 
Question  of  Women  on  Committees — The  Place  of  Prayer  in 
the  C.M.S.  Life  :  Meetings,  Services,  Cycle  of  Intercession,  &c.  447 


CONTENTS.  xv 

CHAPTER  XLIY. 

ANNIVERSARY  AND  OTHER  SERVICES  AND  MEETINGS. 

PAGE 

St.  Bride's  Services — Preachers — Archbishop  Davidson's  Sermon 
—  The  Halls  for  Meetings:  Exeter,  Queen's.  Albert— Chair 
men  and  Speakers — Three  Speeches :  Abp.  Lang-,  Bp.  Win- 
nington-Ingram,  Abp.  Davidson 458 

CHAPTER   XLY. 

MISSIONARIES  AND  CANDIDATES. 

(1)  Comparative  Figures — (2)  Interesting  Recruits— (3)  Training 
Arrangements :  Islington  College,  &c.,  Training  of  Women — 

(4)  Missionaries  at  Home  :  Deputation  Work  ;  the  Children 

(5)  Valedictory  Proceedings 4^4 

CHAPTER   XL VI. 

THE  FINANCES. 

Position  in  1899 — The  Next  Fourteen  Years:  Growing  Expendi 
ture,  Frequent  Deficits,  the  Debenture  Scheme — The  Swanwick 
Conference— The  £100,000— Plans  for  Advance— The  Check 
of  the  War— View  of  Financial  Progress 47^ 

CHAPTER   XLVII. 

HOME  ORGANIZATION. 

The  Home  Department — (1)  Organizing  Secretaries — (2)  Local 
Associations :  Membership,  the  new  Diocesan,  &c.,  Com 
mittees — Some  Instances  of  Progress — Comparison  of  Dioceses 
— Churches  raising  £300  a  year — "  O.O.M.'s  " — Apportion 
ment  Proposal — (3)  Hibernian  Society — (4)  The  Unions  :  Lay 
Workers',  Clergy,  Ladies',  G-leaners'  —  (5)  "  Through  Eye 
Gate " :  Loan  Department,  Exhibitions,  "  Africa  and  the 
East" — (6)  Summer  Schools  — The  London  "  School"  of  1909 
and  its  Programme — (7)  Study  Circles 487 

CHAPTER   XLVIII. 

WORK  AMONG  PARTICULAR  CLASSES. 

(1)  Among  Men:  Laymen's  Union,  Laymen's  Movement,  the 
Army,  &c.— (2)  Universities  and  Public  Schools  :  Oxford  and 
Cambridge,  Campaigns,  Student  Movement,  &c.— (3)  Among 
Women :  Retrospect  of  Former  Agencies ;  How  could  the 
Younger  Women  be  reached  ? — The  Women's  Department 
and  its  Activities — (4)  Among  the  Young  :  Sowers'  Band 
Y.P.U.,  &c '.511 

CHAPTER  XLIX. 

THE  AUXILIARIES  :  MEDICAL,  EDUCATIONAL,  INDUSTRIAL. 

Medical  Work:  The  Medical  Mission  Auxiliary— Educational : 
Value  of  Educational  Missions;  the  Auxiliary— Industrial : 
Objects  of  Industrial  Missions  ....  524 


xvi  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER  L. 

THE  PUBLICATIONS. 

PAGE 

The  Editorial  Secretaryship — The  Intelligencer  and  the  Review — 
The  Gleaner,  &c.  —Mercy  and  Truth  and  the  Gazette — Annual 
Report,  &c. — Books — Hymn  Book  .  .  .  ,  .  530 

CHAPTER   LI. 

THE  COLONIAL  ASSOCIATIONS. 

Colonial  Associations  and  Missionaries  in  1899 — Growth  and 
Present  Position — Canada  and  the  M.S.C.C. — Australia:  the 
C.M.A.'sand  the  A.B.M.— New  Zealand— South  Africa— West 
Indies— Distinctions  Conferred 536 

CHAPTER   LII. 

TlIE    CHURCH    AND    THE    SOCIETY. 

The  Archbishops  and  Bishops — The  Church  Congress — The 
S.P.G.  Bicentenary — Bishop  Montgomery — The  Boards  of 
Missions — The  Pan-Anglican  Cong'ress — The  Lambeth  Con 
ference  of  1908 — The  Day  of  Intercession — The  Society's 
Evangelical  Position  ........  .  543 

CHAPTER  LIII. 

THE  LARGER  CO-OPERATION:  EDINBURGH,  AND  AFTER. 

Retrospect:  United  Conferences — The  Student  Movement — The 
World  Conference  at  Edinburgh — Debate  on  Unity  and  Co 
operation — The  Question  of  South  America — The  Continuation 
Committee — The  New  Review- — The  Board  of  Study — "  Faith 
and  Order  "  Conferences — Other  Cases  of  United  Work  .  .  556 

CHAPTER   LIV. 

THE  HOUR  or  SETTING  Sux. 

Is  it "  the  Hour  of  Setting  Sun  "  '? — Certainly  a  "  Crowded  Hour  "- 
C.M.S.    Progress — The    Day   of   Opportunity — Dr.    Mott  on 
Present    Needs  —  Books   on    Revival — Prebendary    Fox    on 
Changing    Conditions   and   Unchanging   Principles  —  Bishop 
Palmer  on  the  Call  to  the  Church  for  Sacrifice  ....     566 

APPENDIX. 

THE  WAR  AND  THE  MISSIONS. 

The  Plans  of  July,  1914 -The  sudden  Outbreak  of  War— Anxiety 
for  German  Missions — The  Appeal  of  German  Divines — The 
Missionaries  sailing  :  the  Falcibaand.  the  Persia — Missionaries 
and  Home  Officials  join  the  Forces — Deaths  at  the  Front — 
The  Mission  Fields :  Africa,  Palestine  and  Persia,  India,  the 
Far  East— The  real  "  Holy  War  " 577 

INDEX  TO  VOL.  IV .    603 

CORRIGENDA  IN  VOLS.  I.,  II.,  AND  III.  664 


PRELIMINARY  CHAPTERS. 


CHAPTEE  I. 
THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 

The  2nd  Jubilee,  Nov.,  1898— The  Centenary,  April,  1899— A  Week  of 
Meetings— Wednesday,  the  Centenary  Day— The  Times  on  the  Cen 
tenary—Meetings  in  the  Provinces— Meetings  Abroad— The  Centenary 
Fund— The  Centenary  Volume. 

IHE  fashion  of  celebrating  Centenaries,"  said  Bishop     PART  I. 
J  ohn  Wordsworth  of  Salisbury  in  a  sermon  preached    ch!£:  L 
a  few  years  ago,  "  is  by  no  means  new.    A  trace  of  it  Ancient 
may  be  found  in  the  ancient  Eoman  state  when  at  terries, 
the  secular  games,  which  occurred  only  at  intervals 
ol  a  hundred  and  ten  years,  the  voice  of  the  herald  proclaimed  in 
solemn  words,  Come  and  see  Games  which  no  one  living  hath  seen, 
and  which  no  one  living  will  see  again.     You  have  here  the  germ  of 
the  thought  on  which  all  observance  of  centuries  rests,  that  such 
a  period  generally  exceeds  the  life  of  the  longest-lived  man,  and 
its  passage  offers  a  natural  opportunity  to  look  backwards  over 
the  road  traversed."     And   he  remarked,  "  The  thankful  temper 
which  is  needed  for  true  insight  may  be  promoted  by  occasional 
detailed  retrospects  of  past  history." 

The  History  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  did  not  include 
an  account  of  the  Centenary  Commemoration.  In  fact  Vols.  I.  and 
II.  were  published  some  weeks  before  it,  and  Vol.  III.  was  in  type, 
but  was  delayed  by  the  Index,  which  ran  to  160  columns  of  small 
type.  The  present  volume,  therefore,  must  begin  with  a  brief 
summary  of  the  proceedings  of  the  memorable  Centenary  Week. 

But  there  must  first   be  a  reference  to  what  was    called  the  C.M.S. 
Second  Jubilee.     The  Society's  First  Jubilee  had  been  held,  not  at  fgg* 
the  close,  but  in  the  middle,  of   the  fiftieth  year ;    not  in  April,  Nov.,  isos. 
1849,  when  the  fifty  years  were  completed,  but  on  Nov.  1st  and 
2nd,    1848.      It   was    thought   well    to   repeat   this   plan   at   the 
Centenary;   to  observe  the    Second  Jubilee  in  the  midst  of  the 
one  hundredth  year,  while  deferring  the  principal  commemoration 
to  April,    1899,  when   the  hundred   years  should  be  completed. 
Accordingly,  on  Nov.  1st,  1898,  there  was  a  special  service,  with 
Holy  Communion,  at  St.  Bride's  Church.     An  occasion  so  full  of 
sacred  memories  of  friends  and  fellow-workers  gone  before  could 
not  be  more  appropriately  fixed  than  for  All  Saints'  Day.      The 
preacher  was  Bishop  E.  H.  Bickersteth  of  Exeter,  son  of  a  former 


B  2 


4  THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 

PART  i.  Secretary  of  the  Society.  That  father,  the  first  Edward  Bickersteth, 
chap.  i.  had  himself  preached  one  of  the  Jubilee  Sermons,  and  had  spoken 
at  the  Jubilee  Meeting ;  and  the  Bishop  had,  as  a  young  clergy 
man,  been  himself  present  at  the  meeting,  and  not  only  so,  but 
had  been  the  author  of  a  hymn  specially  written  for  that  occasion, 
"  O  brothers,  lift  your  voices."  Then  in  the  afternoon,  at  Exeter 
Hall,  the  place  where  the  First  Jubilee  Meeting  had  been  held  in 
1848,  was  held  the  Second  Jubilee  Meeting,  the  President,  Sir 
John  Kennaway,  taking  the  chair.  In  choosing  the  speakers,  it 
was  felt  to  be  appropriate  that  all  should  be  men  who  had  some 
link  with  the  First  Jubilee.  The  President,  indeed,  Sir  John 
Kennaway,  naturally  took  the  chair,  as. his  predecessor,  the  Earl 
of  Chichester,  had  done  in  1848  ;  but  all  the  others  had  some  kind 
of  reminiscence  of  the  fiftieth  year.  The  Hon.  T.  H.  W.  Pelham 
spoke  as  a  son  of  Lord  Chichester ;  the  Eev.  Canon  Henry  Venn, 
as  a  son  of  the  great  Honorary  Secretary  of  those  days ;  the  Eev. 
Canon  C.  V.  Childe,  as  a  son  of  the  Principal  of  the  Church 
Missionary  College  at  the  time ;  the  Eevs.  T.  Y.  Darling  and  E. 
Pargiter,  as  missionaries  who  were  actually  then  in  the  field,  in 
India  and  Ceylon  respectively  ;  the  Eev.  W.  Salter  Price,  as  having 
himself  been  present  at  the  Jubilee  Meeting,  being  then  an  Islington 
student,  and  also  as  one  of  the  first  band  of  missionaries  sent  out 
in  the  year  following,  to  India  (and  afterwards  in  East  Africa) ; 
Bishop  E.  H.  Bickersteth,  the  preacher  of  the  sermon ;  and  the 
Author  of  this  present  work,  who  also,  as  a  boy  of  twelve,  had  been 
present  at  the  Jubilee  Meeting.  The  meeting  was  opened  with  the 
Jubilee  hymn  above  mentioned,  and  closed  with  the  grand  one 
which  had  closed  the  gathering  of  fifty  years  before,  "  All  hail  the 
power  of  Jesus'  Name." 

Five  months  passed  away,  and  then  came  the  Centenary.     For 

L 116  L/Gli"  •*-  •-T-T  i  ii»«T  P  1 

ienary,        the  Commemoration  in  London  the  whole  inside  of  a  week  was  set 
April,  1899.  apart__the  week  in  which  the  middle  day,  Wednesday,  was  happily 
April  12th,  the  one  hundredth  birthday  of  the  Society.     The  pro 
gramme  in  outline  was  as  follows  : — 

Monday. — Day  for  Thanksgiving  and  Prayer. 
Tuesday. — Day  for  Eeview  of  C.M.S.  Missions. 
Wednesday. — Centenary  Day. 
Thursday. — Day  for  Eeview  of  Other  Missions. 
Friday. — Day  for  Looking  Forward. 
Saturday. — Day  for  the  Children. 

MONDAY:  :  On  Monday  morning,  the  Holy  Communion  was  celebrated  at 
At.st;  St.  Bride's  Church,  when  four  hundred  members  and  friends 
gathered  round  the  Table  of  the  Lord.  An  address  was  given 
by  the  Eev.  Herbert  -James,  Eector  of  Livermere,  an  old  and 
valued  friend,  who  had  been  the  preacher  of  the  Annual  Sermon 
in  1890.  His  text  was  1  Chron.  xxix.  5,  "  Who  then  is  willing  to 
consecrate  his  service  this  day  unto  the  Lord  ?  "  In  the  afternoon 
a  prayer- meeting  was  held  at  Exeter  Hall,  which  might  have  been 
called  a  Veterans'  Meeting,  for  the  Chairman,  Bishop  Eoyston, 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY.  5 

who  had  been  Secretary  at  Madras  for  the  South  India  Missions     PART  i. 
and  also  Acting  Secretary  in   Salisbury  Square  before  becoming    Ch-^  l' 
Bishop  of  Mauritius,  was  in  his  seventieth  year,  and  both  the 
speakers,  Archdeacon  Eichardson  of  Southwark  and  Canon  Samuel 
Garratt  of  Ipswich,  were  over  eighty.     In  the  evening,  a  special  At  St. 
service  was  held  at  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  attended  by  an  immense 
congregation.     Archdeacon  Sinclair  officiated  ;  the  President  and 
the  Treasurer  (Sir  John  Kennaway  and  Colonel  Williams)  read 
the  Lessons,  Isa.  xlix.  and  Eev.  vii.  9-17 ;  and  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  Dr.   Temple,  preached   the  Sermon,  his   text   being 
Acts   xiii.   2,    "  Separate    Me   Barnabas   and   Saul  for   the   work 
whereunto  I  have  called  them." 

On  the  following  hve  days  there  were  fourteen  great  meetings,  Bishops 
eleven  at  Exeter  Hall,  one  at  the  Queen's  Hall,  and  two  at  the invited- 
Albert  Hall.  It  was  desired  to  include  as  many  Bishops  as 
possible,  and  the  following  were  invited  to  preside  or  speak,  besides 
the  Primate  : — Bishops  Creightonof  London,  Westcottof  Durham, 
Eandall  Davidson  of  Winchester,  Bickersteth  of  Exeter,  Kennion 
of  Bath  and  Wells,  Glyn  of  Peterborough,  Talbot  of  Eochester, 
Bardsley  of  Carlisle,  Eyle  of  Liverpool,  Moorhouse  of  Manchester, 
Jacob  of  Newcastle,  Eden  of  Waken" eld,  Straton  of  Sodor  and  Man, 
G.  H.  Wilkinson  of  St.  Andrews ;  Knox,  Suffragan  Bishop  of 
Coventry;  Taylor  Smith  of  Sierra  Leone;  and  Bishop  Whipple 
of  Minnesota.  It  was  a  disappointment  that  Bishop  Creighton 
and  Bishop  Wilkinson  could  not  be  in  London  at  the  time  ;  and 
Bishop  Westcott,  on  the  very  day  before  he  was  expected,  had  to 
telegraph  that  his  doctor  would  not  allow  him  to  travel.  The 
others  all  duly  appeared. 

It  should  here  be  added  that  four  Indian  and  two  African  Foreign 
clergymen  came  from  the  mission  field  to  attend  the  Centenary,  Delesates- 
and  all  were  allotted  a  part  in  the  proceedings.  The  two  Africans 
were — the  Eev.  James  Johnson  of  Lagos,  who  was  already  well, 
known  in  England,  and  who,  only  a  few  months  later,  before  he 
went  back,  was  consecrated  to  be  an  Assistant  Bishop  in  the 
Diocese  of  Western  Equatorial  Africa;  and  the  Eev.  Obadiah 
Moore,  Canon  of  Sierra  Leone,  and  Principal  of  the  Grammar 
School  there.  The  four  Indians  were—the  Eev.  William  Seetal, 
pastor  at  Agra,  ordained  in  1881 — (he  died  in  1901,  and  was 
called  by  Mr.  Gill,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Travancore,  "  the  pillar 
and  leader  of  the  Church  in  the  N.-W.  Provinces ") ;  the  Eev. 
Solomon  Nihal  Singh,  B.A.,  of  St.  Paul's  Divinity  School,  Allaha 
bad  (now  a  Canon  of  Lucknow) ;  the  Eev.  Ihsan  Ullah,  of  the 
Punjab  (now  Archdeacon  of  Delhi) ;  and  the  Eev.  W.  D.  Clarke, 
B.A.,  Pastor  of  Zion  Church,  Madras.* 

Tuesday  was  the  Day  for  Eeview   of  C.M.S.  Missions.     The  TUESDAY: 
morning  meeting  was  the  one  at  which  Bishop  Westcott  was  to  SfoSi. 
have  presided.     His  letter,  read  at  the  meeting,  said  that  he  had  Missions' 

*  An   interesting  photographic   group  of  these   six   men   appears   in    the 
Centenary  Volume,  facing  p.  206. 


6 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 


PART  I. 
Chap,  it 


Missionary 
Methods. 


C.M.S.  at 
Home. 


WEDNES 
DAY:  The 
Breakfast. 


"looked  forward  for  months"  to  the  occasion,  and  that  he  had 
intended  to  speak  "  on  some  points  in  the  message  of  hope  which 
the  advance  of  Foreign  Missions  in  the  century  had  brought  to  us 
— a  fresh  vision  of  the  heavenly  order,  an  enlargement  of  sympathy, 
a  deepening  of  fellowship,  an  increase  of  spiritual  knowledge,  a 
strengthening  of  faith,  in  a  word  a  new  revelation  of  life  that  is 
truly  life,  a  fulfilment  of  the  closing  word  of  the  Lord's  ministry 
— vevLKrjKa — with  the  sure  promise  of  a  larger  fulfilment."  A 
chairman  having  to  be  found  on  the  spur  of  the  moment,  Lord 
Kinnaird  was  invited,  and  kindly  took  the  Bishop's  place. 
Archdeacon  E.  Long,  Eector  of  Bishop wearmouth,  formerly  a 
C.M.S.  Secretary,  gave  the  first  address,  on  the  principles  that 
had  guided  the  Society  in  the  past  in  its  successive  advances  to 
new  fields  of  labour ;  and  then  three  pioneer  missionaries  in  suc 
cession  told  of  the  beginnings  of  three  of  the  latest  new  Missions, 
viz.,  Dr.  Bruce  of  Persia,  G.  Ensor  of  Japan,  and  C.  T.  Wilson  of 
Uganda. 

At  the  afternoon  meeting  the  subject  was  Missionary  Methods. 
Bishop  Eden  of  Wakefield  presided,  and  in  a  very  able  speech 
propounded  three  theses,  viz.,  Method  (1)  is  the  economy  of  power, 
(2)  lays  down  orderly  lines  for  organized  bodies  of  persons,  (3) 
has  to  do  with  life  rather  than  witli  system.  Eowland  Bateman, 
of  the  Punjab,  then  spoke  on  Evangelistic  Work ;  C.  W.  A.  Clarke, 
Principal  of  the  Noble  College,  Masulipatam,  on  Educational 
Work ;  W.  Banister,  of  Fukien  (now  Bishop  of  Kwangsi  and 
Hunan),  on  Women's  Work ;  Dr.  Duncan  Main,  of  Hangchow, 
on  Medical  Work ;  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  of  the  Punjab,  on  Literary 
Work ;  and  James  Johnson  of  Lagos  (now  Assistant  Bishop)  on 
Native  Church  Work. 

At  the  evening  meeting  Bishop  Davidson  of  Winchester  (now 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury)  presided,  and  spoke  in  the  most 
enthusiastic  way.  The  chief  business  was  a  lecture  on  the  Story 
of  the  Society  at  Home,  given  by  Canon  Sutton,  Vicar  of  Aston, 
who  had  been  Home  Secretary  of  the  Society  for  some  years, 
illustrated  by  lantern  views,  including  many  portraits  of  C.M.S. 
men  of  the  past.  At  its  close  the  Eev.  G.  F.  Head,  Vicar  of  Clifton, 
pointed  the  moral  in  an  earnest  address. 

Wednesday,  as  before  said,  was  Centenary  Day,  exactly  one 
hundred  years  since  the  memorable  little  meeting  at  the  Castle 
and  Falcon  Hotel  on  April  12th,  1799,  at  which  the  Society  was 
formed.  The  commemoration  opened  with  a  Breakfast  at  the  very 
same  lintel,  not  indeed  in  the  same  room,  as  the  building  had  been 
altered  since  then,  and  the  original  room  had  disappeared.  After 
breakfast,  a  few  words  were  spoken  by  the  Hon.  Clerical  Secretary, 
Mr.  Fox  ;  Bishop  Whipple  of  Minnesota  and  Bishop  Chadwick  of 
Derry,  representing  the  American  and  Irish  Churches ;  Canon 
Venn  of  Walmer,  son  of  the  former  Hon.  Secretary;  and  the 
President,  Sir  John  Kennaway. 

For   the   gathering   which    was    par   excellence   the   Centenary 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY.  7 

Commemoration  two  simultaneous  meetings  were  arranged.    Up  to     PARTE. 
that  time  no  Society  had  met  in  the  Albert  Hall.     It  was  regarded    Ch^i1- 
as  too  large  for  regular  speeches,  though  suitable  for  demonstra-  ^^en' 
tions  at  which  it  might  not  matter  whether  they  were  properly  Meeting, 
heard  or  not.     We  have  learned  since  then  that  a  reasonably  good 
speaker  can  be  heard  even  in  that  Hall,  but  this  was  not  realized 
at  the  time.     Moreover,  Exeter  Hall  had  for  nearly  seventy  years 
been  the  home  of  Christian  enterprises,  and  no  one  would  have 
liked  to  hold  a  great  official  assembly  anywhere  else.     But  it  was 
clear  that  the  chief  Centenary  Meeting  would  fill  it  twice  over  ;  so 
it  was  resolved  to  resort  to  the  old  original  practice  of  the  early 
days  of  the  century,  and  to  admit  men  only,  providing  a  simul 
taneous  meeting  elsewhere  for  their  womenkind.     Men,  in  fact, 
did  come  from  all  parts  of  the  country  for  this  one  occasion,  and 
at   least  2500  assembled   in  Exeter  Hall;  one   lady  only  being 
present,  the  wife  of  Bishop  Whipple ;  while  at  the  same  time  an 
equal  number  of  women,  with  a  very  few  men,  thronged  the  Queen's 
Hall. 

It  was  desired  that  the  Exeter  Hall  gathering  should  not  be  in 
any  sense  an  ordinary  missionary  meeting,  however  good,  but 
rather  an  occasion  for  testimonies  from  eminent  representatives  of 
different  phases  of  the  life  of  the  nation.  The  Archbishop  would 
represent  the  Church  at  home,  and  Bishop  Whipple  the  Church 
abroad  ;  and  the  Marquis  of  Salisbury  or  the  Earl  of  Halsbury,  it 
was  hoped,  the  State ;  Lord  Wolseley  or  Lord  Koberts  the  Army, 
and  Admiral  Sir  E.  Fremantle  the  Navy ;  the  Earl  of  Northbrook, 
India,  etc.  However,  although  the  Premier,  the  Lord  Chancellor, 
the  two  great  Generals,  and  the  Admiral,  all  replied  sympatheti 
cally,  all  were  from  various  causes  prevented  attending.  But  the 
two  prelates,  the  ex- Viceroy  of  India,  the  Premier's  son,  and  a 
leading  representative  of  commerce  and  industry,  did  respond  ;  and 
after  the  President  had  taken  the  chair,  Mr.  Fox  read  the  letters 
from  the  Premier  and  others,  as  well  as  telegrams  of  good  wishes 
from  many  parts  of  the  world.  He  also  presented  a  Motto  Text 
for  the  new  Century  : — 

"  There  hath  not  failed  one  word  of  all  His  good  promise.  .  .  .  The 
Lord  our  God  be  with  us,  as  He  was  with  our  fathers ;  let  Him  not 
leave  us,  nor  forsake  us.  ...  That  He  may  incline  our  hearts  unto 
Him  ...  to  keep  His  commandments.  .  .  .  That  all  the  peoples  of 
the  earth  may  know  that  the  Lord,  He  is  God  ;  there  is  none  else  " 
(1  Kings  viii.  56-60,  E.V.). 

After  the  President's  opening  address,  the  Archbishop  of  Canter-  The 
bury  moved  the  first  resolution.     "  With  very  deep  emotion,"  he  Speeche3> 
said  that  he  rose ;    and  his  speech  deeply  moved  the  meeting. 
Then  came  Lord  Northbrook.     No  one  would  call  him  a  gifted 
speaker ;  but  his  plain  words  were  exactly  what  the  hundreds  of 
plain  laymen  before  him  needed  and  would  appreciate.     He  said 
he  had  read  the  fourteen  chapters  on  India  in  the  two  volumes  of 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 

cim T  i'  ^ie  Society's  History  then  lately  published — (he  had  not  seen  the 
~  '  eight  in  Vol.  III.) — and  entirely  endorsed  them,  especially  with 
reference  to  Native  Church  policy.  Bishop  Whipple  followed, 
having  crossed  the  Atlantic  expressly  to  attend  the  Commemora 
tion.  "  With  a  full  heart,"  he  said,  "  I  bring  to  this  venerable 
Society  the  loving  greetings  of  a  sister  Church."  He  pleaded  with 
intense  earnestness  for  greater  oneness  of  spirit  among  Christians. 
"  I  have  tried,"  he  said, ."  for  forty  years  to  find  the  image  of  my 
Master  upon  the  faces  of  those  from  whom  I  differ,  and  God  has 
overpaid  me  a  thousand-fold."  Mr.  (now  Sir)  C.  E.  Tritton  next 
spoke  briefly  as  a  representative  both  of  the  House  of  Commons 
and  of  British  business  men;  and  he  was  followed  by  another 
M.P.  who  had  come  in  unexpectedly.  This  was  Lord  Cranborne, 
son  of  the  Premier  (and  now  Marquis  of  Salisbury).  Sir  E.  Webster, 
the  Attorney-General  (afterwards  Lord  Chief  Justice),  had  been 
coming  to  represent  the  Government,  but  at  the  last  moment  he 
was  prevented,  and  Lord  Cranborne  came  instead.  His  few  fervent 
words  will  never  be  forgotten  by  those  who  heard  them : — 

Lord  Cran-  «  Gentlemen,  we  are  proud  of  our  Empire.  .  .  .  Sometimes  we  almost 
Appeal.  tremble  at  the  weight  of  responsibility  which  is  upon  us,  and  sometimes 
we  view  with  a  certain  shrinking  the  necessary  bloodshed  which  the 
expansion  of  the  Empire  involves.  Can  it  be  justified  ?  Can  this  burden 
of  responsibility  be  defended  ?  Only  upon  one  consideration  :  only 
because  we  believe  that  by  the  genius  of  our  people,  and  by  the  purity 
of  our  religion,  we  are  able  to  confer  benefits  upon  those  subject  popula 
tions  greater  than  it  has  been  given  by  God  to  any  other  nation  to  be 
able  to  afford  ;  and  it  is  only  because  we  know  that  in  the  train  of  the 
British  Government  comes  the  preaching  of  the  Church  of  Christ  that 
we  are  able  to  defend  the  Empire  of  which  we  are  so  proud.  Therefore, 
gentlemen,  I  ask  you  to  pledge  this  meeting  to  the  Christianity  of  the 
British  Empire.  I  do  not  care  in  what  quarter  of  the  globe  it  may  be, 
I  do  not  care  what  may  be  the  political  exigencies  of  the  moment,  I  do 
not  care  what  colleges  of  secular  instruction  you  may  establish  ;  but 
unless,  sooner  or  later,  in  due  and  proper  time,  you  carry  with  those 
institutions  the  definite  teaching  of  Christianity,  you  have  done  nothing 
at  all." 

The  last  speech  was  by  the  Hon.  Secretary  himself,  Mr.  Fox ; 
after  which  Bishop  Jacob  of  Newcastle  offered  prayer,  and  Bishop 
Whipple  in  a  most  solemn  and  touching  form  pronounced  the 
Benediction. 

Queen's  Meanwhile,  the  simultaneous  meeting  at  the  Queen's  Hall  was 

Meeting.  going'  on.  It  had  been  hoped  that  the  Bishop  of  London 
(Dr.  Creighton)  would  preside  over"  it,  but  as  already  stated  he 
was  unable  to  come,  and  the  Society's  veteran  friend  Dr.  J.  C. 
Eyle,  Bishop  of  Liverpool,  the  oldest  Bishop  then  on  the  Bench, 
was  the  appropriate  occupant  of  the  chair.  It  was,  as  he  said, 
thirty-seven  years  since  he  had  preached  the  Annual  Sermon. 
Needless  to  say,  his  welcome  was  a  warm  one ;  and  he  naturally 
laid  stress  on  the  Society's  faithfulness  to  its  evangelical  and 


THE  C.MS.  CENTENARY.  g 

spiritual  principles.  The  other  speakers  were  Bishop  Chadwick 
of  Derry,  representing  the  Church  of  Ireland  all  the  more  suitably 
after  having  given  his  own  daughter  to  the  Uganda  Mission  ;  *  Sir 
T.  Fowell  Buxton,  G.C.M.G.,  who  had  been  the  Society's  Treasurer 
until  he  was  appointed  Governor  of  South  Australia  ;  the  Dean  of 
Norwich,  Dr.  Lefroy,  whose  speech  was  probably  the  most  eloquent 
of  that  day,  and  perhaps  of  the  whole  week;  and  Colonel  R. 
Williams,  M.P.,  the  Treasurer. 

The  Evening  Thanksgiving  Meeting  in  the  Albert  Hall,  which  Thanks- 
filled  the  vast  building  to  the  topmost  gallery,  was  of  an  unique  Meeting 
character.  The  speeches  were  secondary,  and  were  short.  It  Ha^lbert 
was  a  gathering  rather  for  praise  and  prayer.  The  programme 
was  divided  into  five  sections,  viz. :  (1)  Thanksgiving  for  the 
Foundation  of  the  Society,  (2)  for  Extension  at  Home  and  Abroad, 
(3)  for  Labourers  entered  into  Best,  and  their  Converts,  (4)  for  the 
Supply  of  Men  and  Means,  (5)  General  Thanksgiving.  The  first 
section  comprised  the  Old  Hundredth,  special  thanksgivings,  the 
Gantate  Domino,  and  a  brief  word  from  the  President.  The 
second  section  comprised  Mr.  Fox's  hymn,  "  0  King  of  Glory, 
God  of  Grace,"  the  reading  of  Deut.  viii.  11-18,  a  Missionary 
Litany,  and  a  short  speech  by  the  oldest  member  of  the  Com 
mittee,  Mr.  Sydney  Gedge,  M.P.  The  third  section  comprised  Arch 
bishop  Maclagan's  hymn,  "  The  saints  of  God,  their  conflict  past," 
the  reading  aloud  of  selected  fragments  of  Scripture  by  three 
Indian  clergymen,  the  Eevs.  Ihsaii  Ullah,  W.  Seetal,  and  W.  D. 
Clarke,  a  special  thanksgiving  offered  by  Mr.  Fox,  and  a  short 
address  by  Archdeacon  Eyre  of  Sheffield.  The  fourth  comprised 
Mr.  Sheppard's  hymn,  "  ^Ve  scan  the  years  swept  from  us,"  and 
a  speech  by  Mr.  Henry  Thornton,  President  of  the  Notts  Associa 
tion,  followed  byt  the  hymn,  "  God  is  working  His  purpose  out." 
And  the  fifth  consisted  of  the  Te  Deinn  (the  most  impressive 
feature  of  the  evening),  a  speech  by  Bishop  Taylor  Smith,  the 
General  Thanksgiving  repeated  by  the  whole  company,  and  "  All 
people  that  on  earth  do  dwell." 

The  ''overflow  meeting"  that  same  evening  quite  filled 
Exeter  Hall.  Colonel  Williams  presided,  and  the  speakers  were 
Bishop  Jacob  of  Newcastle,  Mr.  C.  R.  Walsh,  Hon.  Secretary  of 
the  New  South  Wales  Association  ;  the  Rev.  James  Johnson  of 
Lagos  (now  Bishop) ;  Dr.  Dina  Nath  Prithu  Datta,  Government 
Medical  Officer  in  the  Punjab  ;  and  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Stuart,  Vicar 
of  St.  Matthew's,  Bayswater,  now  Canon  of  Canterbury. 

Thursday  was  again  a  day  quite  unique.     The  Society  on  that  THURSDAY: 
day  "  looked  not  on  its  own  things,"  but  on  "  the  things  of  others."  Missions, 
It  was  the  Day  of  Review  of  Other  Missions  :  in  the  morning,  Anglican, 
other   Missions    of   the    Church   of    England;  in    the   afternoon, 
Scottish  and  Continental   Missions ;   in  the  evening,  Missions  of 
English  and  American  non-episcopal  Societies. 

At  the  morning  meeting,  the  Bishop  of  Exeter,  Dr.  Bickersteth, 
*  And  a  son  also,  afterwards. 


IO 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 


PART  I. 
Chap.  i. 


Other 
Missions, 
Non- 
Anglican. 


FRIDAY  : 
Looking 
Forward. 


Regions 
Beyond. 


presided.  The  Bishop  of  Newcastle,  Dr.  Jacob,  who  had  once 
been  chaplain  to  Bishop  Milman  of  Calcutta,  spoke  on  Missions 
in  Asia,  chiefly  those  of  the  S.P.G.,  and  particularly  those  in 
India.  For  Africa  Bishop  G.  H.  Wilkinson  of  St.  Andrews  had 
been  invited,  but,  as  he  could  not  come,  his  place  was  taken  by 
the  Bishop  of  Eochester,  Dr.  Talbot,  now  Bishop  of  Winchester, 
who,  after  a  brief  notice  of  the  S.P.G.  Missions  in  South  Africa, 
gave  more  fully  the  story  of  the  Universities'  Mission  to  Central 
Africa,  of  which  he  was  chairman.  Then,  Missions  in  the  Southern 
Seas,  in  Australia,  New  Zealand,  Melanesia,  and  New  Guinea, 
were  described  by  the  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells,  Dr.  Kennion, 
who  himself  had  been  Bishop  of  Adelaide.  And  lastly,  Bishop 
Whipple  once  more  came  forward,  with  an  account  of  the 
missionary  work  of  the  sister  Church  in  the  United  States. 

In  the  afternoon,  the  chairman  was  the  Bishop  of  Manchester, 
Dr.  Moorhouse.  For  the  Established  Scottish  Church,  Dr. 
Marshall  Lang,  an  ex-Moderator  of  the  General  Assembly,  and 
brother  of  the  C.M.S.  Lay  Secretary,  spoke  ;  and  for  the  Free,  Dr. 
George  Smith,  the  brilliant  author  of  the  biographies  of  great  Indian 
missionaries,  Carey,  Martyn,  Duff,  &c.,  and  formerly  editor  of  a 
leading  Calcutta  paper  and  Correspondent  of  the  Times,— father, 
it  may  well  be  added,  of  Dr.  George  Adam  Smith.  Then  M. 
Theodore  Monod,  the  French  pastor,  described  the  work  of  the 
Paris  Missionary  Society,  and  Herr  Wiirz  that  of  the  Basle 
Society,  of  which  he  was  Secretary.  German  Missions  were  to 
have  been  represented  by  Count  Andrew  Bernstorff,  but  he  was 
prevented  from  coming  as  he  had  intended;  and  instead  of  them, 
the  Bible  Society's  work  was  briefly  set  forth  by  its  Vice-Chair 
man,  Mr.  Henry  Morris,  a  leading  member  also  of  the  C.M.S. 
Committee. 

The  evening  chairman  was  Bishop  Straton  of  Sodor  and  Man. 
Wesleyan  Missions  were  eloquently  described  by  the  Eev.  F.  W. 
Macdonald,  Congregationalist  Missions  by  Dr.  Wardlaw  Thompson 
and  Dr.  Barrett  of  Norwich,  and  Baptist  Missions  by  the  Eev. 
F.  B.  Meyer ;  but  the  China  Inland  Mission  and  others  of  the 
same  type,  and  the  great  American  Presbyterian,  Congregational, 
and  Methodist  Missions  were  left  unrepresented. 

As  Tuesday  and  Thursday  had  been  days  of  information, 
Friday  was  to  be  a  day  of  inspiration.  "  Looking  forward  "  was 
the  theme.  The  morning  was  given  to  two  Bible  readings,  one 
by  the  Eev.  Hubert  Brooke  on  the  Evangelization  of  the  World, 
based  on  the  first  chapter  of  Haggai,  and  the  other  by  the  Eev. 
Evan  Hopkins  on  the  Second  Coming  of  Christ,  based  on  St.  Matt, 
xxiv.  14.  The  chairman  was  Dr.  Barlow,  Vicar  of  Islington, 
afterwards  Dean  of  Peterborough,  who  himself  also  gave  in  effect 
a  short  Bible  reading  on  St.  Peter's  speech  in  the  Council  of 
Acts  xv. 

The  afternoon  meeting  was  one  of  the  fullest  of  the  week,  the 
younger  clergy  gathering  in  great  force  to  hear  the  Principal  of 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY.  11 

Wycliffe  Hall,  Mr.  Chavasse  (now  Bishop  of  Liverpool).  The  PARTI. 
Bishop  of  Carlisle,  Dr.  J.  W.  Bardsley,  was  the  chairman.  The  chap' 1' 
subject  for  this  meeting  was  the  Regions  Beyond.  It  was  opened 
hy  the  Eev.  H.  B.  Macartney  of  Melbourne,  who  at  the  time  was 
Home  Superintendent  of  the  Bible  Society.  He  asked,  "  What  is 
a  Eegion  Beyond?"  "Where  are  the  Eegions  Beyond.?"  and 
"  Which  of  them  shall  the  C.M.S.  take  up?"  Then  Dr.  E.  A. 
Knox,  Bishop  Suffragan  of  Coventry  (now  Bishop  of  Man 
chester),  spoke  on  "  The  Eegions  Beyond :  What  are  their 
Needs?" — to  which  question  he  gave  a  four-fold  answer,  viz., 
(1)  The  discovery  of  the  Truth,  (2)  Deliverance  from  the  conse 
quences  of  the  Past,  (3)  Faith  in  a  Personal  God,  (4)  Access  to 
God.  Then  some  of  the  actual  Eegions  Beyond  were  described 
in  four  ten-minute  speeches,  by  Mr.  A.  B.  Lloyd  of  Uganda,  who 
had  lately  traversed  Stanley's  Pygmy  Forest,  and  three  Indian 
clergymen,  the  Eevs.  W.  D.  Clarke,  Ihsan  Ullah,  and  Nihal  Singh. 
The  hymn,  "A  cry  as  of  pain,"  was  then  solemnly  sung,  followed 
by  a  closing  address  by  Mr.  Chavasse  on,  "  How  shall  we  meet 
their  Needs  ?  " — which  question  he  answered  in  three  phrases, 
"A  Partnership  in  Christ's  Work,"  "  in  His  Methods,"  and  "in 
His  Life," — an  address  of  exceeding  impressiveness. 

A  dense  crowd  thronged  the  Hall  on  the  last  evening.  The  Solemn 
subject  was,  "The  Claims  of  Christ  on  His  People."  The  chair- $?&. 
man  was  Dr.  Carr  Glyn,  Bishop  of  Peterborough,  whose  opening 
address  showed  his  deep  sense  of  the  solemnity  of  the  occasion. 
The  speakers  were— the  Eev.  W.  G.  Peel,  C.M.S.  Secretary  at 
Bombay,  who  had  just  been  summoned  home  to  be  consecrated 
Bishop  of  Mombasa ;  the  Eev.  S.  A.  Selwyn,  Vicar  of  St.  John's, 
Boscombe;  and  Prebendary  Webb-Peploe.  It  will  be  noticed 
how  strongly  "  Keswick  "  was  represented  in  the  list  of  speakers 
on  this  concluding  day ;  Mr.  Hubert  Brooke,  Mr.  Evan  Hopkins, 
Mr.  Macartney,  Mr.  Selwyn,  and  Mr.  Webb-Peploe,  all  being 
prominent  front-platform  men  at  the  Convention,  and  Mr.  Peel 
manifestly  a  teacher  of  the  same  "school."  But  in  these  latter 
years  C.M.S.  has  owed  much  to  "  Keswick."  The  subjects  allotted 
to  the  three  speakers  this  evening  were  Spiritual  Shortcomings, 
Spiritual  Possibilities,  and  Spiritual  Determinations,  and  the 
fervour  and  power  of  the  £hree  addresses  could  scarcely  be 
exaggerated.  There  was  no  applause,  and  the  meeting  broke  up 
in  solemn  silence. 

This  ended   the  general   proceedings  of   the  Commemoration.  Children 
The  Children's  Day,  Saturday,  was  a  kind  of  supplement.     The  Hau!be 
Albert  Hall  was  thronged  with  young  folk,  and  the  order  was 
perfect,  every  place  for  every  child  having  been  carefully  planned. 
The  Bishop  of  Sierra  Leone,  Dr.  Taylor  Smith,  presided,  and  the 
other  appointed  speakers  were  the  Eev.  E.  A.  (now  Canon)  Stuart, 
the  Eev.  E.  N.  (now  Canon)  Thwaites,  the  Eev.  Canon  Obadiah 
Moore,  the  African  clergyman  from  West  Africa ;  but  Mr.  Moore 
was  prevented  by  indisposition  from  attending,  and  Mr.  Baylis, 


12 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 


The  Times 
on  the 
Centenary. 


PARTI,  the  Secretary  in  Salisbury  Square  for  the  Africa  Missions,  took 
Chap^i.  jjjg  pjace>  AH  t^  speeches  were  delightful;  the  children  mani 
fested  keen  interest  in  everything ;  and  the  natural  thought  in 
many  a  mind  was,  How  many  of  these  boys  and  girls  will  take 
the  missionary  cause  upon  their  hearts  from  this  day  ?  and  how 
many  will  live  to  see  the  Third  Jubilee  (if  the  Lord  should  tarry 
so  long)  ?  and  where  will  Missions  be  then  ? 

When  the  Day  of  Intercession  for  Missions  was  first  observed, 
in  1872,  the  Time*  article  on  it  was  an  extraordinary  exhibition  of 
ignorance  and  prejudice,*  which  elicited  a  private  letter  from 
Archbishop  Tait  to  Mr.  Delane,  the  famous  editor.  Very  different 
was  the  tone  of  the  Times  in  commenting  on  the  C.M.S.  Cen 
tenary.  It  is  worth  while  preserving  some  passages  from  its 
leading  article : — 

"  Men  may  ask,  and  even  after  this  week  will  in  all  probability  continue 
to  ask,  what  is  the  good  of  Missions,  and  by  so  doing  will  display  a 
strange  blindness  to  the  real  character  of  the  Christian  religion.  That 
faith  may  ultimately  either  succeed  or  fail,  but  in  the  meantime  it  is 
bound  to  be  at  once  exclusive  and  inclusive,  to  announce  alike  to  Jews, 
Turks,  infidels,  and  heretics  the  sic  volo,  sic  jubeo  of  the  only  way  of 
salvation.  Christianity,  it  has  been  reproachfully  said,  differentiates 
itself  from  all  other  religions,  and  then  argues  from  the  differences.  Of 
course  it  does,  and  of  course  it  must.  It  follows,  on  the  theory  of  the 
thing,  that  every  Christian  Church,  from  the  very  nature  of  its  belief, 
must  take  its  part  in  the  delivery  to  the  world  of  this  message. 

"  After  all,  though  all  due  account  be  taken  of  the  revival  in  Church 
activity  which  the  Tractarian  movement  has  produced  at  home,  it  was 
Charles  Simeon  and  the  Venns  and  their  successors  who  taught  English 
Christianity  that  it  has  duties  abroad,  and  that  they  cannot  be  carried 
through  without  the  best  men  and  the  requisite  money.  .  .  . 

"  But  the  ordinary  Englishman  who  looks  upon  Foreign  Missions  as  an 
amiable  craze,  serving  to  absorb  the  activities  of  the  good  old  ladies  of 
his  acquaintance,  will  still  put  the  practical  question,  "  What  is  the  out 
come  of  it  all  V  "  And  we  are  free  to  confess  that  the  Church  Missionary 
Society  has  much  to  say  for  itself.  In  the  first  place,  its  history  and  its 
expansion  establish  the  old  truth  that  two  cannot  walk  together  except 
they  be  agreed,  but  that,  being  agreed,  they  can  go  almost  anywhere 
and  do  almost  anything.  The  gigantic  celebration  of  this  week  is  a 
triumph  for  clear  and  definite  convictions  maintained  through  thick 
and  thin. 

"  Again,  the  ordinary  Englishman  appreciates  success  when  it  comes  to 
him  in  the  shape  of  numbers.  .  .  .  When  the  Church  Missionary 
Society,  which  at  the  end  of  ten  years  could  find  only  a  joiner  and  shoe 
maker  to  send  out,  tells  us  that  it  has  nearly  eleven  hundred  European 
missionaries  to-day  employed  at  its  various  stations,  of  whom  sixty-six 
elect  to  receive  no  stipend  at  all,  it  has  a  fair  answer  of  one  sort  to 
make.  .  .  .  When  to  this  is  added  the  fact  the  Society  has  a  large  number 
of  properly  qualified  medical  missionaries,  men  and  women,  on  its  staff,  it 
can  certainly  come  to  the  ordinary  Englishman  with  a  bold  face ;  it  can 


See  Hist.  C.M.S.,  Vol.  II.  p.  410 ;  and  Life  of  Abp.  Tait,  Vol.  II.  p.  360. 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY.  13 

tell  him  that,  whatever  he  may  think  of  its  convictions  and  its  total  of     PART  i. 
converts  and  its  vast  voluntary  contributions,  he  has  to  reckon  with  it     Uhap.  1. 
as  a  civilizing  and  informing  power,  which  would  be  still  more  powerful 
if  the  life  of  most  Englishmen  abroad  conformed  more  closely  to  the 
conventions  of  the  Englishman  at  home." 

Centenary  Meetings  and  Services  followed  in  all  parts  of  the  Provincia 
United  Kingdom  during  the  next  two  months.  The  Cmtmary 
Volume  actually  gives  particulars  (of  course  only  a  line,  or  two  lines, 
in  many  places)  of  the  observance  in  no  less  than  1624  towns  and 
villages ;  and  as  many  of  the  towns  include  distinct  parishes  and 
suburbs  which  had  their  own  separate  meetings  or  services  or 
both,  and  not  a  few  had  series  of  meetings  through  a  whole  week 
as  in  London,  the  number  of  gatherings  of  all  kinds  is  beyond 
calculation.  Liverpool,  for  instance,  counts  for  o/w  of  the  above 
1624,  just  as  (say)  Llangattoch-Vibon-Avel  counts  for  one.  It  is 
interesting  to  notice  that  the  Diocese  of  Norwich  had  by  far  the 
largest  number  of  places  observing  the  Commemoration,  no  less 
than  194  ;  Winchester  being  second,  with  96,  and  then  Canterbury, 
St.  Albans,  Ely,  and  Salisbury,  with  over  70  each.  But  it  is 
highly  probable  that  a  great  many  gatherings  were  never  reported. 
It  is  not  likely,  for  instance,  that  they  were  held  in  only  thirteen 
places  in  Ireland.  Many  of  the  Bishops  who  bad  taken  part  in 
the  London  Commemoration  preached  and  spoke  also  at  other 
gatherings,  both  in  their  own  dioceses  and  elsewhere,  Archbishop 
Temple  himself  preaching  and  speaking  at  Manchester  and  at 
Wimborne ;  and  in  addition  to  them  the  following  Bishops  are 
named  in  the  reports  as  taking  important  parts  locally  :  Bristol 
(Browne),  Chester  (Jayne),  Chichester  (Wilberforce),  Durham 
(Wostcott),  Gloucester  (Ellicott),  Hereford  (Percival),  Lichfield 
(Legge),  Lincoln  (King),  Llandaff  (Lewis),  Norwich  (Sheepshanks), 
Oxford  (Stubbs),  Eipon  (Carpenter),  St.  Asaph  (Edwards),  St. 
David's  (Owen),  Salisbury  (Wordsworth),  Southwell  (Bidding),  and 
Worcester  (Perowne) ;  the  Suffragan  Bishops  of  Barrow  (Ware), 
Beverley  (Crosthwaite),  Dover  (Walsh),  Derby  (Were),  Guildford 
(Sumner),  Hull  (Blunt),  Beading  (Kandall),  Shrewsbury  (Sir  L. 
Stamer),  Southampton  (Lyttelton),  Thetford  (Lloyd),  Swansea 
(J.  Lloyd) ;  and  Bishops  Cramer-Boberts,  Macrorie,  and  Mylne.* 
Many  of  these  had  never  been  at  all  identitied  with  the  Society ; 
and  the  same  remark  applies  to  a  host  of  other  leading  men  who 
took  part,  Canon  Gore  for  instance,  who  preached  at  Westminster 
Abbey.  In  many  places,  the  leading  friends  and  workers  of  the 
S.P.G.  took  a  cordial  part  in  the  proceedings ;  and  here  and  there 
a  function  was  arranged  on  the  broad  basis  of  the  Missionary  Call 
to  the  whole  Church  of  Christ,  Churchmen  of  all  schools,  and 
Nonconformists,  joining  in  the  heartiest  way.  Cambridge  and 
Nottingham  were  conspicuous  in  this  respect. 

*  It  should  be  remembered  that  there  was  then  no  diocese  of  Birmingham, 
nor  of  Southwark;  and  of  course  not  of  Chelmsford  or  Sheffield  or  St. 
Edniuudsbury. 


14  THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY. 

PARTI.  There  were  also  interesting  Centenary  gatherings  abroad. 
Chapel.  ACCOunts  of  them  were  sent  from  several  of  the  dioceses  in 
The  Cen-  Canada,  Australia,  and  New  Zealand,  many  of  the  Bishops 
Abroad.  preaching  and  speaking  ;  among  them  Bishop  Montgomery,  then 
of  Tasmania.  Also  from  Sierra  Leone,  Lagos,  Abeokuta,  Ibadan, 
Bonny,  Lokoja,  and  other  places  in  West  Africa  :  from  East  Africa 
and  Uganda ;  from  Cairo,  Alexandria,  Jerusalem,  Baghdad,  Julfa- 
Ispahan ;  from  Calcutta,  Allahabad,  Lucknow,  Agra,  Jabalpur, 
Amritsar,  Bombay,  Madras,  Masulipatam,  Tinnevelly,  Travancore, 
and  a  host  of  other  districts,  towns,  and  villages  in  India  ;  from 
Colombo  and  other  places  in  Ceylon ;  from  Hong  Kong,  Canton, 
Foochow,  Shanghai,  and  other  cities  in  China ;  from  Metlakatla 
and  elsewhere  on  the  far-off  Pacific  coast.  The  most  striking  of 
all  the  commemorations  seems  to  have  been  in  Tinnevelly,  lasting 
for  three  days,  morning,  noon,  and  night.  The  S.P.G.  missionaries 
and  Tamil  clergy  joined,  and  sent  contributions  to  the  local  Thanks 
giving  Fund,  by  means  of  which  a  Centenary  Hall  was  built  at 
Palamcotta.  Similar  tokens  of  fellowship  marked  the  celebrations 
in  many  other  places. 

The  ceu-  There  was  of  course  a  Centenary  Fund  at  home.  It  was  in 
kwo  parts.  The  three  years  preceding  the  Commemoration  were 
devoted  to  what  was  called  the  Three  Years'  Enterprise,  or  "  T.  Y.E." 
During  that  period  many  special  offerings  were  made,  definitely  for 
sending  out  more  missionaries,  and  the  then  new  method  of  the 
"O.O.M.'s"  ("Our  Own  Missionary")  received  a  great  impulse. 
But  apart  from  this,  many  persons  put  by,  or  collected,  a  weekly 
or  monthly  sum  to  make  up  a  gift  for  general  purposes.  To  give 
but  one  example :  a  National-schoolmistress  in  a  mining  district 
in  the  north  of  England  asked  the  pitmen  and  their  families  to 
give  her  each  one  penny  for  Missions  every  month  for  three  years. 
She  obtained  over  300  promises,  and  every  month  she  went  round 
to  all  the  houses  to  receive  the  pennies ;  and  at  the  end  of  the 
three  years  she  sent  up  £50.  These  "  T.Y.E."  funds  amounted 
to  £65,616.  Then  the  direct  Centenary  gifts  came  to  £146,681 ; 
making  a  total  of  £212,297.  No  definite  sum  had  been  asked  for 
in  the  Committee's  statements  ;  but  it  was  noticed  that  the  Jubilee 
Fund  of  1848-9  had  realized  a  sum  equal  to  two-thirds  of  the 
average  annual  income  at  the  time,  and  it  was  hoped  that  a  similar 
sum  might  be  received  at  the  Centenary.  As  the  annual  income 
was  now  about  £300,000,  two-thirds  were  actually  contributed,  and 
a  little  more.  The  details  of  the  Centenary  Contribution  List  are 
interesting,  as  all  such  details  are ;  but  they  cannot  be  enlarged  on 
here.  It  should,  however,  be  mentioned  that  a  great  many  parishes 
not  usually  supporting  the  C.M.S.  gave  at  least  an  offertory ;  also 
that  there  were  offertories  in  twenty-four  cathedrals,  which  amounted 
to  £577 ;  also  that  the  contributions  from  "  foreign  parts,"  inde 
pendently  of  the  large  sums  raised  in  the  Missions  for  local  objects 
(as  in  Tinnevelly,  before  mentioned),  amounted  to  £3095. 

The   allocation  of   the  T.Y.E.   and    Centenary  Funds  was   in 


THE  C.M.S.  CENTENARY.  15 

accordance  with  previous  announcement.     £30,000  was  invested     PARTI. 
to  increase  the  Capital  Fund  to  £100,000.     £4500  was  used  to    Ch^_l 
discharge  an  old  mortgage  on  the  C.M.  House.    £8000  was  devoted 
to  a  new  Nursery  Home  attached  to  the  Missionaries'  Children's 
Home  at  Limpsfield ;  £36,000  was  appropriated  by  the  donors  to 
"  O.O.M.'s  "  or  other  specific  objects ;  and  all  the  rest,  less  the 
special  expenditure  incurred,  went  to  assist  the  General  Fund  in 
the  extension  going  on  through  the  four  years,  1898-1902,  chiefly 
in  the  form  of  an  increasing  number  of  missionaries. 

Not  the  least  interesting  fruit  of  the  Commemoration  was  the  The  cen- 
Centenary  Volume-,  and  as  that  volume  is  little  known  to  the 
C.M.S.  circle,  a  brief  account  of  it  must  be  given.  It  begins  with 
a  short  introductory  sketch  of  the  Society's  history,  occupying 
thirty  pages.  There  are  then  five  Parts.  Part  I.  is  entitled 
"  Before  the  Commemoration,"  and  comprises  an  account  of  the 
Three  Years'  Enterprise,  including  the  special  committees  of 
inquiry  which  sat  through  the  three  years  examining  all  sections 
of  the  work  and  administration ;  also  a  report  of  the  "  Second 
Jubilee  "  before  referred  to,  with  the  speeches  in  full,  in  all  thirty 
pages.  Part  II.  consists  of  a  full  account  of  the  Commemoration 
itself,  in  London,  with  the  brief  reports  above  noticed  of  the 
functions  in  the  Provinces  and  abroad.  All  the  speeches  at  the 
great  meetings  in  the  Centenary  Week  are  given  in  full,  and  remain 
a  valuable  record,  from  which  any  speaker  of  to-day  would  gather 
"  things  new  and  old."  This  Part,  the  largest,  occupies  470  pages. 
Part  III.  contains  notes  on  the  Centenary  Funds,  in  fourteen  pages. 
Part  IV.,  which  occupies  160  pages,  is  especially  valuable  for 
permanent  reference.  It  contains  all  sorts  of  lists  and  tables  :  all 
the  Office-bearers  of  the  Society  from  the  first ;  the  Preachers  of  the 
Annual  Sermon,  with  their  texts  ;  the  story  of  the  Periodicals  ;  the 
story  of  the  various  Unions  at  home,  and  of  the  Associations  in 
the  Colonies ;  an  account  of  the  Society's  colleges  and  other  insti 
tutions  ;  a  note  of  the  dioceses  worked  in,  with  lists  of  their 
bishops ;  a  complete  list  of  all  the  C.M.S.  missionaries  and  native 
clergymen;  an  account  of  the  educational  antecedents  of  the 
missionaries,  the  Public  Schools,  Universities,  and  Colleges,  whence 
they  have  been  drawn ;  separate  lists  of  the  Colonial  missionaries, 
medical  missionaries,  missionaries  raised  to  the  Episcopate,  etc. ; 
a  bibliography  of  the  translations  and  other  literary  works  pro 
duced  by  the  missionaries ;  a  list  of  the  languages  used ;  and 
tables  and  charts,  statistical  and  financial.  Lastly,  Part  V.  is  a 
supplement,  separately  paged,  and  occupying  233  pages,  containing 
the  full  Contribution  Lists  of  the  Centenary  Funds.  The  whole  is 
a  massive  volume  of  970  pages,  a  treasury  of  useful  and  inspiring 
information,  which  does  the  highest  credit  to  the  Editorial 
Department. 


CHAPTEfe  II. 


PART J. 
Chap.  2. 

Survey  of 
Past  and 
Present  in 
1899. 


O.M.S. 
Develop 
ments. 


THE  OUTLOOK  AFTER  THE  CENTENARY, 

Retrospect:  C.M.S.  Home  Developments;  the  Church  Waking  up— Th<§ 
Outlook  Abroad :  Africa,  India,  China,  &c—  The  Committee's  Bird's- 
eye  View  of  the  Period  and  Work  Problem  of  Native  Church 
Organization. 

HE  Society  resumed  its  ordinary  work  after  the  Cente 
nary  celebration  with  every  token  of  encouragement. 
Not  only  had  the  Commemoration  itself  been  successful 
beyond  expectation,  but  the  retrospect  of  the  previous 
few  years  presented  abundant  cause  for  thanksgiving, 
and  the  outlook  at  home  and  abroad  gave  every  reason  for  con 
fidence   and   hope.     In  the  twelve   years    1887-99,  the  Society's 
missionaries  had  increased  in  number  from  309  to  811,  with  the 
natural  result  that  the  Missions  were  extending  in  all  directions. 
This    was   partly  due   to   the   large    additions    of   women  to   the 
missionary  staff,  their  number  having  risen  in  the  same  period 
from  20  to  281 ;  but  the  ordained  men  had  increased  from  247 
to  406,  and  the  laymen  from  40  to  124.    The  Income  had  advanced 
from  £203,000  to  £303,000  (taking  at  each  end  an  average  of  three 
years) ;  and  the  Centenary  Funds  had  wiped  off  past  deficits.    The 
"  Three  Years'  Enterprise  "  which  had  been  undertaken  in  1896  as 
a  preparation  for  the  Centenary  had  animated  old  friends  and  set 
many  new  ones  to  work.     The  Unions, — Clerical,  Lay,  Ladies', 
Gleaners',-- were    all   growing   in    numbers   and   influence.     The 
Women's  Department,  now  four  years  old,  was  everywhere  enlist 
ing  new  workers  and  equipping  them    by  means  of   conferences 
and  gatherings  of  all  kinds.     The  Medical  Mission  Auxiliary  was 
a   distinct  success,  and   was  now   not  only  supporting   the   fifty 
medical  missionaries  and  a  band  of  nurses,  but  was  undertaking 
to   bear   in    future   all  the    cost   of    building   new   hospitals   and 
dispensaries.     Plans  for  the  promotion  of  Educational,  Industrial, 
and  Literary  work  in  the  Missions  had  been  formed.    The  Colonial 
Associations  in  Australia,  New  Zealand,  and  Canada,— seven,  six, 
and  five  years  old  respectively,— were  sending  to  the  C.M.S.  fields 
zealous    men   and   women,    and    supporting    them.     Lastly,    the 
History  of  the  C.M.S.  had  been  prepared,  and  published  in  three 
large  volumes,  and  had  met  at  once  with  a  large  sale.* 

*  All  these  developments  arc  more  fully  described  in  later  chapters  of  this 
book. 


THE  OUTLOOK  AFTER  THE  CENTENARY.  17 

The  Three  Years'  Enterprise  had  not  been  confined  to  organizing     PART  i. 
work  in  the  country  and  the  raising  of  funds  for  extension.     It    chap' 2- 
had  included  a  close  review  of  the  whole  range  of  the  Society's 
activities,  carried  out  by  several  special  committees,  with  a  view 
to  discovering  weak  points  and  strengthening  all  the   work.     It 
seemed  likely  that  the  most  fruitful   result   of   this   examination 
would  be  twofold,  (a)  further  decentralization  in  the  administration 
of  the  Missions,  (1>)  the  development  of  Native  Church  organization  ; 
and  in  fact  both  expectations  were  eventually  fulfilled. 

The  animating  prospect  as  the  nineteenth  century  was  nearing  The  church 
its  close  was  not  confined  to  that  branch  of  the  great  missionary  wakin&  UP- 
enterprise  which  was  represented  by  the  C.M.S.  The  Church  of 
England  did  appear  to  be  waking  up  gradually.  The  Lambeth 
Conference  of  1897  had  declared  that  the  work  of  Foreign  Missions 
"  at  the  present  time  stands  in  the  first  rank  of  all  the  tasks  we  have 
to  fulfil."  Archbishop  Temple's  own  keen  sense  of  the  Church's 
obligation  to  evangelize  the  world  had  deeply  impressed  the 
assembled  bishops ;  and  he  was  still  employing  no  small  part  of 
his  remaining  energies  in  old  age  in  the  task  of  infusing  the  whole 
Church  with  the  same  consciousness  of  responsibility  to  give  itself 
whole-heartedly  to  the  fulfilment  of  its  Divine  Lord's  command. 
The  Boards  of  Missions  were  slowly,  and  as  yet  not  very  ener 
getically,  extending  their  influence.  The  S.P.C.K.  had  kept— in 
very  modest  fashion— its  bicentenary  shortly  before  the  C.M.S. 
commemoration;  and  the  other  elder  sister,  the  S.P.G.,  was 
already  preparing  for  its  own  bicentenary  in  1900-01.  Two  of 
the  great  Nonconformist  Societies,  the  Baptist  and  the  London, 
had  already  celebrated  their  centenaries;  the  Eeligious  Tract 
Society  had  just  done  the  same;  and  English  Christendom 
generally  was  conscious  that  a  period  of  no  ordinary  interest  had 
arrived. 

The  outlook  abroad  was  not  less  encouraging,  and  advance  was  Outlook 
called  for  in  all  the  mission  fields.  In  Africa,  Great  Britain  was 
taking  over  from  the  Eoyal  Niger  Company  the  vast  territories 
which  were  to  become  the  Protectorate  of  Nigeria,  as  it  had,  only 
five  years  before,  taken  over  from  the  British  East  Africa  Company 
the  equally  important  regions  which  that  Company  had  been 
developing— the  boundary  line  between  the  British  and  German 
spheres  of  influence  having  been  settled  in  1890.  The  Uganda 
Kail  way  was  in  course  of  construction,  and  traders  were  already 
beginning  to  pour  into  the  healthy  districts  which  it  was  opening 
up.  Lord  Kitchener  had  been  slowly  but  steadily  advancing  up 
the  Nile;  and  the  signal  victory  of  Omdurman  had  just  avenged 
Gordon  by  destroying  the  tyranny  of  the  Khalifa,  restoring  peace 
to  the  devastated  Sudan,  and  making  Khartum  a  great  centre  of 
British  influence. 

In  some  of  these  vast  African  fields,  missionary  extension  was 
already  the  order  of  the  day;  and,  before  twelve  months  had 
elapsed,  there  was  advance  in,  or  into,  them  all.  Particularly  in 


1  8  THE  OUTLOOK  AFTER  THE  CENTENARY. 

PART  T.    the  Yoruba  Country  (now  a  part  of  Nigeria),  the  remarkable  move- 
haL'. 


ment  in  the  Jebu  aistricts  had  begun,  which  was  in  the  coming 
years  to  bring  thousands  into  the  Christian  Church;  while  in 
German  East  Africa,  tribe  after  tribe  was  being  reached,  and  in 
Uganda,  Pilkington's  suggestion  of  a  "three  years'  enterprise" 
to  extend  the  work  within  a  radius  of  200  miles  from  the 
capital  was  being  rapidly  acted  on  by  teachers  supplied  by  the 
native  Church.  So  arduous  had  the  episcopal  work  become  in 
such  a  diocese  as  "  Eastern  Equatorial  Africa"  (as  it  was  then 
called)  that  Bishop  Tucker  had  arranged  for  its  division;  and 
while  he  took  the  area,  and  the  title,  of  Uganda,  Mr.  Peel,  the 
highly-esteemed  Secretary  of  the  C.M.S.  Missions  in  the  dioceses 
of  Madras  and  Bombay  successively,  had  just  been  appointed  to 
the  area  of  British  East  Africa  with  the  title  of  Bishop  of  Mombasa, 
-having  jurisdiction  also  over  the  Society's  Missions  in  German 
territory.  The  number  of  C.M.S.  missionaries  in  West  and  East 
and  Central  Africa  had  risen  from  43  to  149. 

Moslem  The  Moslem  East  was  also  being  reinforced.     Taking   Egypt, 

Eaat.  Palestine,  Turkish  Arabia,  and  Persia  together,  the  staff  had 
increased  from  20  to  80  in  eleven  years.  For  Egypt  and  Palestine 
in  particular  important  plans  were  being  formed  ;  while  in  Persia, 
entrance  to  the  ancient  city  of  Ispahan  had  just  been  effected,  and 
in  Turkish  Arabia  it  was  planned  to  occupy  Mosul. 

India.  In  India,  the  Missions  were  progressing  without  startling  events, 

but  with  the  baptisms  of  adult  converts  averaging  2000  a  year. 
The  evangelistic,  educational,  medical,  and  zenana  work  was 
all  going  on  with  increasing  diligence  ;  but  as  the  Native  Christian 
community  increased  year  by  year,  both  its  spiritual  life  and  its 
ecclesiastical  organization  called  for  more  and  more  attention. 
Special  "  Missions,"  similar  to  Parochial  Missions  at  home,  had 
been,  and  were  being,  held  with  marked  tokens  of  blessing. 
Church  organization,  as  yet  only  in  the  form  of  local  Councils,  was 
fostering  gradual  independence  of  the  Society,  but  giving,  con 
fessedly,  little  prospect  of  the  rise  of  a  real  Indian  Church.  The 
peculiar  circumstances  of  India  precluded  rapid  progress  in  this 
respect.  Meanwhile,  no  less  than  four  new  bishops  had  just 
succeeded  to  vacant  dioceses:  Dr.  Welldon  to  Calcutta,  Dr. 
Whitehead  to  Madras,  Dr.  Macarthur  to  Bombay,  and  Dr.  Lefroy 
to  Lahore. 

China.  In  China,  political  events  were  perplexing.  Germany  had 

brandished  her  "  mailed  fist  "  to  obtain  "  a  place  in  the  sun,"  and 
had  annexed  a  large  territory;  Eussia  had  seized  Port  Arthur; 
and  Great  Britain  had  just  occupied  Wei-hai-wei.  The  young 
Emperor's  attempts  at  reform  in  the  administration  of  the  country 
had  been  defeated  by  the  energy  of  the  old  Empress.  The 
growing  enlightenment  of  the  Chinese  gentry  was  illustrated  by 
the  wide  and  unexpected  success  of  a  new  Anti-Foot-binding 
Society  ;  but  in  so  ancient  and  conservative  a  nation  changes  were 
not  easy.  Difficulties  were  being  caused  by  the  policy  of  the 


THE  OUTLOOK  AFTER  THE  CENTENARY.  19 

French  Roman  bishops  in  seeking  secular  rank  and  a  share  in  the  PART  i. 
conduct  of  secular  affairs.  Local  riots  were  sometimes  alarming.  chap'  2> 
An  S.P.G.  missionary  had  been  cruelly  murdered  in  the  North ; 
and  in  Fukien,  C.M.S.  and  C.E.Z.  missionaries  narrowly  escaped 
the  fate  that  had  overtaken  their  brethren  and  sisters  at  Kucheng 
four  years  before.  But  no  one  anticipated  the  terrible  events 
that  were  to  ensue  on  the  Boxer  rising  in  the  following  year. 
Meanwhile,  the  G.M.S.  Missions  were  going  on  with  distinct 
success  in  the  provinces  occupied  by  the  Society.  The  youngest 
of  them,  in  the  great  Western  province  of  Szechwan,  was 
already  ,  bearing  fruit.  Plans  were  in  course  of  formation  for 
advancing  from  the  South  into  Hunan.  The  appointment  of  the 
Rev.  J.  C.  Hoare  to  the  vacant  bishopric  of  Victoria,  Hong  Kong, 
was  viewed  with  thankfulness  and  hope. 

Progress  in  Japan  had  been  slow  in  recent  years.  There  had  Japan, 
been  a  kind  of  half-patriotic  reaction  against  Western  influence, 
and  Christianity  was  looked  on  as  a  disloyal  religion.  Yet  a 
Christian  had  been  elected  President  of  the  Diet.  The  Nippon 
Sei-kokwai  (Japan  Church)  was  quietly  growing  in  influence. 
An  experienced  S.P.G.  missionary,  the  Rev.  H.  J.  Foss,  had  just 
become  Bishop  of  Osaka,  Bishop  Awdry  having  been  transferred 
to  Tokyo. 

New  Zealand  was  still  a  C.M.S.  mission  field,  though  the  date  Colonies, 
was  approaching  for  the  final  transfer  of  the  work  to  the  Colonial 
Church.  There  had  been  a  striking  revival  among  the  younger 
Maoris.  (To-day,  when  we  see  the  splendid  share  in  the  War 
which  New  Zealand,  both  colonist  and  Maori,  is  taking,  we  may 
well  thank  God  for  the  Mission,  to  which  the  Colony  owed  its 
existence.) 

The  Missions  to  the  Red  Indians  and  Eskimo  in  the  North  and 
West  of  Canada  were  still  occupying  over  sixty  missionaries,  and 
costing  £20,000  a  year,  although  the  popular  notion,  in  Canada  as 
well  as  in  England,  was  that  the  C.M.S.  "  had  withdrawn,"  or 
"was  withdrawing."  At  Mr.  Peck's  Mission  in  Cumberland 
Sound  no  Eskimo  had  yet  been  baptized,  but  there  were  promising 
catechumens.  Much  farther  north,  within  the  Arctic  Circle,  Mr. 
Stringer  (afterwards  Bishop  of  Yukon)  had  lately  occupied 
Herschel  Island.  Bishop  Ridley  was  still  faithfully  labouring  in 
his  far-western  diocese  of  Caledonia. 

In  the  Committee's  first  Annual  Report  after  the  Centenary  was  Bird'3-eye 
over—the  Report  for  1899-1900— they  referred  to  the  hundreds  of  S  flew 
annual  letters  received  from  the  missionaries  in  all  parts  of  the 
world,  to  which  no  Report,  however  full,  could  do  justice.     The 
paragraph  may  well   be  inserted  here,  as  an  attempt   to   give   a 
bird's-eye  view  of  the  field  and  the  work  in  a  picturesque  form. 
These    letters,  said    the   Committee,  "  are    sent    by    the   veteran 
of  forty  and  fifty  years'  standing,  and  by  the  recruit  reporting  on 
his  first  years.     They  describe  in  simple  language  a  vast  amount  of 


20  THE  OUTLOOK  AFTER  THE  CENTENARY. 

PART  i.  quiet,  unobtrusive  work.  They  picture  to  us  the  Missionary 
'mp^u.  Bjgkop  ^th  hig  staff  of  native  clergy;  the  district  missionary 
with  his  bands  of  evangelists  ;  the  educational  missionary  with 
his  eager  students,  Christian  and  non-Christian ;  the  pioneer 
missionary  pressing  into  hitherto  unreached  districts  of  Africa  or 
China  ;  the  medical  missionary  on  the  Afghan  frontier  or  in  the 
Persian  city  never  before  occupied  for  Christ ;  the  linguistic 
missionary  reducing  some  barbarous  tongue  to  writing,  or  revising 
some  important  version  of  the  Bible ;  the  woman  missionary 
among  her  zenana  ladies,  or  in  her  girls'  school,  or  instructing 
her  Bible-women,  or  ministering  to  the  sick  in  the  Mission 
hospital,  or  visiting  the  poor  and  needy.  They  carry  the  reader 
from  the  Ganges  to  the  Yukon  ;  from  the  Yangtse  to  the  Nile ; 
from  the  Niger  to  the  Tigris ;  from  the  Skeena  to  the  Min  ;  from 
the  Himalayas  to  Euwenzori :  from  Fujiyama  to  the  Ghauts ; 
from  Great  Bear  Lake  to  the  Victoria  Nyanza ;  from  Black- 
lead  Island  to  Loo-choo ;  from  the  innumerable  villages  of  Bengal 
to  the  scattered  wigwams  of  the  Eed  Indians  ;  from  the  myriads 
of  China  to  the  few  hundred  Eskimo  of  the  Arctic  Circle ;  from 
ancient  cities  like  Baghdad  and  Ispahan  to  the  mushroom  settle 
ments  of  Klondyke  ;  from  the  timid  simplicity  of  the  Bhils  and 
Gonds  to  the  polish  of  Japanese  civilization ;  from  the  cold 
Buddhism  of  Kandy  to  the  feverish  idolatry  of  Benares  ;  from 
the  humble  coolie  of  Mauritius  to  the  proud  mullah  of  El  Azhar 
University  at  Cairo ;  from  old  names  dear  to  our  fathers,  like 
Abeokuta  and  Palamcotta  and  Waimate,  to  names  unknown  in  the 
Eeport  ten  years  ago,  like  Toro  and  Chongpa  and  Dengdoi ;  from 
a  long-established  colony  like  Sierra  Leone  to  the  latest  spheres  of 
British  influence,  Uganda  and  Hausaland  and  Khartoum." 
one  of  the  One  subject  considered  by  the  special  "review  committees" 
aheacfms  °f  the  Three  Years'  Enterprise  had  been,  as  above  indicated,  the 
Organization  of  Native  Churches.  Provision  had  already  been 
made  for  the  Maori  and  the  Eed  Indian  Christians  in  what  had 
become  white  men's  countries.  They  would  naturally  take  their 
places  as  small  contingents  in  the  great  Colonial  Churches.  But 
the  real  Native  Church  problem  lay  in  Asia  and  Africa,  where  the 
future  Churches  would  be  predominantly  native,  and  must  eventu 
ally  become  self-governing  and  independent,  without  (it  would  be 
hoped)  ceasing  to  be  in  full  communion  with  the  Mother  Church. 
To  deal  with  this  great  problem  was  felt  to  be  one  of  the  most 
responsible  tasks  of  the  new  century.  "  Valuable,"  said  the 
Committee  in  the  Eeport  already  cited,  "  as  have  been  the  Native 
Church  Councils  planned  by  the  foresight  and  wisdom  of  Henry 
Venn,  something  more  is  now  needed.  The  native  episcopate  must 
be  promoted — not  only  in  West  Africa ;  and  real  Church  Synods 
with  lay  members  must  be  established — not  only  in  Japan."  The 
C.M.S.  and  the  Central  Board  of  Missions,  nearly  simultaneously, 
took  up  the  question,  with  results  to  be  stated  by  and  by. 


CHAPTEE  III. 

BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS. 

The  Boer  War :  Unity  of  the  Empire  ;  a  Pattern  for  the  Church- 
Colonial  Co-operation— A  Record  Year  for  Recruits — Death  of  Queen 
Victoria— King  Edward  and  King  George— Other  Centenaries — Arch 
bishop  Temple— C.M.S.  Missionaries  raised  to  the  Episcopate — Pan- 
Anglican  Congress  and  Lambeth  Conference— Edinburgh  Conference- 
Student  Movement— Doubts  in  S.P.G.  and  C.M.S.  Circles— Personal 
Changes— Home  Developments— The  Funds— Swanwick — The  War. 

i HE  sixteen  years  had  only  begun  a  few  months  when 
England  found  herself   unexpectedly   engaged   in   a 
great  war.     It  was  in  the  autumn  of  1899  that  the  ^ 
President  of  the  Boer  Eepublic  sent  us  his  memorable  Empire"" 
ultimatum.     The  completion  of  the  sixteen  years  has,  u 
in  the  mysterious  providence  of  God,  found  us  involved  in  a  far 
greater  war,  indeed  the  greatest  in  the  history  of  the  world.     The 
C.M.S.  Committee  headed  their  Keport  for  1899-1900  with  these 
three  texts : — 

"  The  hand  of  the  Lord  was  to  give  them  one  heart."     2  Chr.  xxx.  12  ; 
"  All  the  people  answered  with  one  voice."    Exod.  xxiv.  3  ; 
"  All  the  people  arose  as  one  man."     Judg.  xx.  8  ; — 

—observing  that  the  year  had  "  witnessed  an  example  of  oneness 
of  heart,  oneness  of  voice,  and  oneness  of  action  "  "  unique  in 
the  history  of  the  world."  How  much  more  truly  and  emphatically 
could  this  be  said  now  !  In  the  case  of  the  Boer  War  there  was  a 
minority,  and  not  a  weak  or  a  voiceless  one,  that  disapproved  of  it ; 
but  now,  is  there  a  perceptible  minority  at  all  ?  Still  more  signifi 
cant  now,  therefore,  is  the  application  drawn  by  the  Committee  in 
]900  : — "  Just  such  a  spirit  is  what  the  Church  of  Christ  needs  to  An  Ex- 
achieve  the  object  of  her  present  existence.  .  .  .  When  His  servants  thePChurch. 
flock  in  His  Name  to  Heathendom  in  the  same  ardent  spirit  in 
which  the  Queen's  soldiers  flocked  to  South  Africa — and  not  the 
soldiers  only,  but  chaplains  and  doctors  and  nurses  and  members 
of  the  Army  Service  Corps, — volunteering  eagerly  and  sailing  at  a 
few  hours'  notice,  whatever  their  home  ties  and  difficulties, — then 
the  Church  will  have  risen  to  her  high  calling,  and  will  be  able  to 
claim  a  far  larger  blessing  upon  all  her  manifold  work  at  home  and 
abroad." 

A  conspicuous  feature  of  the  oneness  of  the  British  nation  and 


PART  I. 
Chap.  3. 

Colonial 
Help. 


A  record 
year  for 
Missionary 
Recruits. 


Death  of 

Queen 

Victoria. 


King 
Edward : 
a  Retro 
spect. 


22          BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS. 

empire  in  1900  was  the  co-operation  of  the  great  self-governing 
Dominions  in  the  war.  Their  contingents  were  among  the  most 
effective  branches  of  the  Army,  just  as  we  find  them  to  be  to-day. 
And,  said  the  C.M.S.  Committee,  "  while  Australians  and  Cana 
dians  have  fought  side  by  side  with  British  troops  in  South  Africa, 
Australians  and  Canadians  have  done  admirable  service  in  the 
mission  field."  In  East  Africa  and  Uganda,  in  Palestine  and 
Persia,  in  India  and  Ceylon,  in  China  and  Japan,  in  New  Zealand 
and  on  the  Arctic  Circle,  fifty  Australian  and  Canadian  missionaries 
were  already  working  side  by  side  with  their  English  and  Irish 
brethren  arid  sisters. 

It  is  an  interesting  coincidence,  too,— if  no  more  than  a  co 
incidence,— that  that  first  year  of  the  Society's  second  century 
witnessed  an  accession  of  new  missionaries  which  constituted  a 
record.  For  the  first  and  only  time— for  no  subsequent  year  has 
equalled  it— the  recruits  exceeded  one  hundred  in  number :  fifty- 
two  men  and  fifty-one  women,  not  counting  twenty-three  more 
women  taken  over  from  the  then  just  defunct  Female  Education 
Society.  The  year  1900  was  notable  in  another  respect  in  the 
same  connexion.  Ten  years  before,  in  August,  1890,  a  memorable 
Letter,  sent  to  the  Committee  by  a  band  of  leading  clerical 
members  who  found  themselves  together  at  Keswick,  had  called 
for  an  addition  to  the  staff  of  one  thousand  missionaries.  In 
August,  1900,  the  Society  had  sent  out,  in  the  ten  years  since  that 
Letter  was  written,  one  thousand  and  two. 

The  Boer  War  was  still  dragging  its  slow  length  along  when  the 
longest  and  most  brilliant  reign  in  English  history  came  to  its 
conclusion.  The  beloved  and  revered  Queen  Victoria  died  on 
January  22nd,  1901.  "In  the  world-wide  mourning  for  the 
venerated  Queen,"  said  the  Committee  in  their  next  Eeport,  "  the 
Christians  gathered  out  of  many  races  by  God's  blessing  on 
missionary  labours  have  taken  their  full  share.  Indian  Christians 
wept  for  their  Empress,  for  the  '  World's  Mother,'  as  one  old 
Punjabi  woman  called  her.  Chinese  Christians,  guiltless  of  geo 
graphy,  asked  if  Osborne  were  more  than  two  days'  journey  off, 
and  how  they  could  get  there.  Throughout  Uganda  memorial 
services  were  held  in  the  native  churches.  In  Persia  the  Moham 
medans  joined  the  Christians  to  hear  Bishop  Stuart's  funeral 
sermon.  Even  on  the  Yukon,  in  the  furthest  corner  of  North- 
West  Canada,  the  news  was  known  within  five  days,  and  the  Eed 
Indians  gathered  to  praise  God  for  Queen  Victoria,  and  to  pray  for 
King  Edward." 

Edward  VII.  ascended  the  throne,  and  the  Committee  took  the 
opportunity  to  recall  the  fact  that  the  year  of  the  new  king's  birth, 
1841,  had  been  a  notable  epoch  in  the  history  of  Missions.  That 
year  saw  the  first  landing  in  Africa  of  David  Livingstone,  the  first 
Niger  Expedition,  the  sailing  of  Bishop  Selwyn  to  New  Zealand, 
the  war  with  China  which  opened  that  empire  to  British  mis 
sionary  enterprise,  the  founding  of  the  Telugu  Mission  by  Noble  and 


BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS.          23 

Fox  (two  of  the  earliest  missionaries  from  Cambridge  and  Oxford     PART  i. 
respectively),  the  formation  of  the  Colonial  Bishoprics  Fund,  the    chap>  3t 
establishment   of   an  Anglican   bishopric  at   Jerusalem,   and  the 
appointment  of  Henry  Venn  as  Secretary  of  the  C.M.S.     These 
retrospects  are  always  encouraging, — which  is  one  reason  why  the 
present  volume  is  written  at  all. 

Such  retrospects  have  been  fostered  during  the  sixteen  years  by  other  Cen- 
the  numerous  centenaries  of  important  events  that  have  occurred.  te 
In  1901,  the  venerable  sister  Society,  the  S.P.G.,  kept  its 
Bicentenary;  and  the  call  to  Bishop  Montgomery  to  leave  his 
Tasmanian  diocese  to  take  the  Secretaryship  proved  in  its  issues 
to  be  in  itself  an  event  sufficient  to  mark  the  epoch.  The  C.M.S. 
signalized  the  occasion  by  publishing  a  sketch  of  S.P.G.  history,  of 
which  the  elder  sister  made  large  and  grateful  use.  In  1904,  the 
Bible  Society,  the  valued  fellow- worker  of  all  the  Missions,  cele 
brated  its  hundredth  year ;  and  the  C.M.S.  headed  its  Annual 
Eeportwith  St.  Peter's  inspired  utterance,  "  The  Word  of  the  Lord 
abideth  for  ever."  Three  years  later  was  recalled  the  triumph  of 
Wilberforce  in  1807,  when  Great  Britain  abolished  the  slave  trade. 
In  1913  came  the  hundredth  anniversary  of  his  second  great 
victory  in  passing  through  Parliament  the  resolutions  that  definitely 
opened  India  to  the  messengers  of  the  Gospel  and  established  the 
bishopric  of  Calcutta  ;  and  in  the  same  year  was  celebrated  the 
centenary  of  the  birth  of  Livingstone.  Not  inappropriately  did 
the  Committee  head  one  of  their  Reports  with  the  words  of  the 
77th  Psalm,  "  We  will  remember  the  years  of  the  right  hand  of 
the  Most  High." 

Eeverting  to  King  Edward's  accession,  the  C.M.S.  Report,  which 
commemorated  Queen  Victoria  and  welcomed  the  new  Sovereign, 
was  headed  with  the  words,  "Of  His  Kingdom  there  shall  be  no 
end."  So  the  Angel  Gabriel  assured  the  Mother  of  King  Jesus, 
and  we  know  the  word  is  true.  The  greatness  of  the  contrast 
with  earthly  kingdoms  was  significantly  emphasized  by  the  short 
ness  of  King  Edward's  reign.  On  May  6th,  1910,  he  was  succeeded 
by  King  George  V.  Twice,  therefore,  in  the  sixteen  years,  was  TWO  coro- 
the  splendour  of  a  royal  coronation  witnessed  in  Westminster nations- 
Abbey.  On  the  former  occasion  the  Committee  headed  their 
Report  with  the  words  of  Heb.  ii., — referring  to  the  statement  in 
the  Eighth  Psalm  that  God  had  put  all  things  under  man's  feet,— 
11  We  see  not  yet  all  things  put  under  him.  But  we  see  Jesus 
.  .  .  crowned  with  glory  and  honour  " ;  and  they  asked,  "  Why 
not  yet  ?  "  "  Is  it  because  the  Church  is  neglecting  her  primary 
and  paramount  duty  ?  ...  Is  it  because  Missionary  Societies  are 
told  to  ask  for  no  more  money  ?  " — and  they  thereupon  quoted 
from  Bishop  Chadwick's  poem, — 

Cut  down  the  expenses,  some  folks  say, 
The  Church  of  Christ  has  too  much  to  pay. 

The  Bishop's  scathing  lines  were  still  more  applicable  at  the  time 


KRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS. 


Arch 
bishop 
Lang's 
Sermon. 


Arch 
bishops 
Temple 
and 
Davidson. 


Other  now 
Bishops. 


PART  j.  when  the  second  Coronation  occurred ;  but  Archbishop  Lang's 
sermon  in  the  Abbey  struck  a  higher  note.  His  text  was,  "  I  am 
among  you  as  he  that  serveth."  So  said  the  King  of  kings  at  the 
supper  table  in  the  upper  room,  just  when  He  was  taking  the 
lowest  place  and  washing  the  Apostles'  feet.  So,  the  Archbishop 
suggested,  would  King  George  give  himself  wholly  to  the  service 
of  his  people.  And  so  must  it  be  with  every  Christian  if  there  is 
to  be  an  end  of  the  "  not  yet,"  and  "man,"  in  the  person  of  the 
Man  Christ  Jesus,  is  to  be  crowned  King  by  the  whole  world. 

The  Church  as  well  as  the  State  has  seen  important  changes  in 
the  sixteen  years.  Archbishop  Temple,  full  of  years  and  honours, 
died  on  Dec.  23,  1902,  having  preached  his  last  sermon  on  St. 
Andrew's  Day,  in  behalf  of  Missions,  in  Canterbury  Cathedral. 
His  successor,  Eandall  Davidson,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  brought 
to  the  primatial  chair  a  quite  unique  experience  in  Church  affairs, 
and  a  devotion  to  the  cause  of  world-wide  evangelization  not  less 
real  than  that  of  his  revered  predecessor.  He  has  only  fulfilled 
the  Society's  confident  expectation  by  the  warmly  sympathetic 
interest  he  has  constantly  shown  in  its  work.  Only  a  short  time 
earlier,  Dr.  Winnington  Ingram  had  signalized  his  accession  to  the 
bishopric  of  London  by  appointing  to  the  first  prebend  of  St.  Paul's 
at  his  disposal  the  Society's  Honorary  Secretary,  the  Eev.  H.  E. 
Fox.  Among  other  elevations  to  the  Episcopate  there  have  been 
two  of  special  interest  and  gratification  to  the  Society,  that  of 
Dr.  Handley  Moule  to  Durham  and  that  of  Dr.  Drury  to  Sodor 
and  Man  and  Eipon  in  succession  ;  and  if  the  Church  Missionary 
College  was  honoured  by  the  conferring  of  episcopal  office  on  one 
of  its  old  Principals,  scarcely  less  was  it  honoured  by  the  appoint 
ment  of  another  former  Principal,  Dr.  Barlow,  to  the  Deanery  of 
Peterborough.  The  selection  of  the  Bishop  of  Sierra  Leone  for 
the  important  office  of  Chaplain-General  of  H.M,  Forces,  while 
removing  a  valued  fellow-worker  from  the  mission  field,  gave 
Dr.  Taylor  Smith  fresh  opportunities  of  exercising  his  unique 
influence. 

C.M.S.  No  less  tnan  twenty-three  C.M.S.  missionaries  have  been  raised 

Sd  todes  to  the  EPisc°Pate  within  our  period.  Bishops  Peel,  Elwin  (the 
the  Episco-  late),  Hamlyn  (S.P.G.,  Accra),  Gwynne,  Willis,  in  Africa;  Bishop 
Maclnnes  for  Jerusalem,  Bishop  Stileman  in  Persia ;  Bishops 
Gill,  Durrant,  and  Waller  in  India;  Bishops  Price,  Molony, 
Banister,'  White,  in  China ;  Bishops  Andrews,  Lea,  Hamilton,  in 
Japan  ;  Bishops  Lofthouse,  Holmes  (the  late),  Stringer,  Anderson, 
Eobins,  Lucas,  in  Canada, — had  all  been  on  the  C.M.S.  roll  of  mis 
sionaries.  To  these  should  be  added  Bishop  James  Johnson,  the 
African  Assistant  Bishop  in  West  Africa ;  while  Bishop  Azariah, 
the  first  native  Indian  bishop,  had  several  close  links  with  the 
Society.  Bishop  Waller  is  the  57th  C.M.S.  missionary  raised  to 
the  Episcopate,  not  including  the  Africans  or  the  Indian. 

One  of  the  principal  ecclesiastical  events  of  the  period  was  the 
Pan-Anglican  Congress  of  1908,  suggested  and  planned  by  Bishop 


Pan- 
Anglican 
Congress. 


BRIEF  SURVEY  OP  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS.          25 

Montgomery.  Many  prominent  members  of  the  Society,  and  not  PAUT  i. 
a  few  of  its  missionaries,  took  an  active  part  in  the  deliberations.  ch^:3- 
The  influence  of  this  unique  gathering  upon  the  mind  of  the 
Church  was  unmistakable,  particularly  in  presenting  an  object 
lesson  on  the  world-wide  extension  and  work  of  the  Anglican 
Communion.  "Not,"  said  the  C.M.S.  Committee,  "that  the 
Anglican  Communion  is  identical  with  the  Holy  Catholic  Church  of 
our  Creeds,  but  it  is  an  important  part  of  that  Church  as  a  visible 
organization,  and  it  is  contributing  an  important  contingent 
to  that  true  mystical  body  of  Christ  which  is  the  blessed  com 
pany  of  all  faithful  people."  The  Pan-Anglican  Thankoffering, 
which  amounted  to  some  £350,000,  has  proved  a  valuable  help  to 
Church  enterprise  overseas,  and  not  least  to  the  C.M.S.  Missions. 
Its  grants,  direct  or  indirect,  to  those  Missions,  which  have  in  the 
aggregate  exceeded  £50,000,  have  greatly  facilitated  development 
and  extension,  and  this  at  the  very  time  when- the  Society's  own 
resources  were  proving  inadequate  to  meet  the  insistent  calls  from 
all  sides. 

The  Congress  was  immediately  followed  by  the  fifth  Lambeth  imu 
Conference,  attended  by  243  bishops.     Their  Encyclical  Letter  to  cofXcr-11' 
the  whole  Anglican  Communion  was  a  most  stirring  appeal  forence- 
a  spirit  of  self-sacrifice   and  consecrated  service;    and  this  was 
followed  up  by  a  Letter  from  the  Archbishops  of  Canterbury  and 
York,  referring  to  the  Pan-Anglican  Congress,  and  declaring  that 
the  Church  at  home  could  not  "  dare  to  be  disobedient  to  the 
vision  which  it  had  seen."     "  Its  life  could  not  continue  as  if  the 
great  appeals  of  1908  had  not  been  heard."     "  A  door  of  special 
opportunity  "  had  been  opened.     "  We  are  jealous  for  the  honour 
of  the  Church  of  England  that  it  may  be  among  the  first  messengers 
of  Christ  to  enter  in." 

But  even  events  like  these  were  destined  to  bo  surpassed  in  Edinburgh 
importance  by  the  memorable  World  Missionary  Conference  at  S?"efcr" 
Edinburgh  in  1910.  Not  indeed  for  the  first  time  did  the  divided 
sections  of  Protestant  Christendom  meet  on  common  ground  to 
discuss  the  problems  of  their  common  work  in  the  evangelization 
of  the  world.  Not  to  speak  of  earlier  gatherings  in  England 
and  abroad  before  the  period  we  are  reviewing,  the  largest  in 
numbers  had  been  held  in  New  York  in  1900,  the  year  following 
the  C.M.S.  Centenary,  at  which  the  Society  was  officially  repre 
sented.  But  the  Edinburgh  Conference  differed  from  all  its 
predecessors  in  the  carefully  balanced  representation  of  different 
bodies,  in  its  influential  character,  and  in  the  permanent  value 
both  of  its  preliminary  inquiries  by  select  commissions  and  by  its 
own  reported  discussions.  On  its  first  day  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  thrilled  all  his  hearers  by  declaring  that  if  only  "  the 
place  of  Missions  in  the  life  of  the  Church  "  was  "  the  central 
place  and  no  other,"  it  might  well  be  that  there  were  some  stand 
ing  in  that  hall  that  night  "  who  should  not  taste  of  death  till  they 
saw  the  Kingdom  of  God  come  with  power"  ;  and  the  practical 


26 


BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEAR*. 


I 'ART  1. 
Chap. 3. 


Student, 
Movement 


outcome  of  the  Conference  has  done  not  a  little  towards  the  fulfil 
ment  of  those  inspiring  words.  Under  the  strong  leadership  of 
Dr.  Mott  (who  had  been  chairman  of  the  debates),  the  Continua 
tion  Committee,  formed  to  carry  on  the  work  and  influence  of  the 
Conference,  has  given  a  fresh  impetus  to  the  whole  missionary 
enterprise  ;  the  remarkable  Conferences  held  in  India  and  the  Far 
East,  also  with  him  as  leader,  have  done  much  to  draw  together 
the  scattered  and  separated  regiments  of  the  mission  army ;  and 
the  new  International  Review  of  Missions,  edited  by  the  Edin 
burgh  Secretary,  Mr.  Oldham,  is  putting  the  study  of  missionary 
problems  on  a  fresh  scientific  basis. 

It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  the  way  had  been  prepared  for 
this  great  Conference  and  its  effects  by  the  meetings  and  in 
fluence  of  the  Student  Movement.  That  Movement  had  taught 
many  of  the  ablest  of  our  younger  men  and  women,  and,  through 
them,  not  a  few  of  the  older  leaders,  that  for  purposes  of  united 
prayer  and  mutual  help  it  is  not  necessary  that  all  should  think 
alike  even  on  great  and  solemn  theological  questions,  provided 
that  all  are  loyal  to  Christ  as  the  Son  of  God  and  the  Saviour  of 
the  world.  Those  who  were  thus  loyal  found  that  without  com 
promising  anything  specially  dear  to  them  in  doctrine  or  mode  of 
worship,  they  could  meet  on  common  ground  those  who  differed 
from  them;  and  the  result  has  been  notable  both  within  the 
Church  of  England  and  in  the  wider  fellowship  of  British 
Christendom.  And  meanwhile,  the  Student  Movement  has  con 
tinued  to  exercise  its  good  influence  in  enlisting  its  members  in 
the  actual  service  of  Christ  at  home  and  abroad. 

Some  of  the  older  members  of  the  Missionary  Societies  within 
both  S.P.G.  the  Church  of  England  have  not  been  able  to  view  this  tendency 
Srcies.  'SL  favourably.  The  S.P.G.  was  gravely  taken  to  task  for  joining  in 
the  Edinburgh  Conference  at  all,  many  of  its  members  objecting 
to  the  Anglican  Church  conferring  on  equal  terms  with  represen 
tatives  of  Christian  communions  not  regarded  by  them  as  Catholic, 
and  thus  fostering  a  "  Pan-Protestantism  "  which  (they  thought) 
would  be  a  hindrance  to  any  possible  union  with  the  Roman  and 
Eastern  Churches.  On  the  other  hand,  the  C.M.S.  has  been 
criticized  by  a  section  of  its  own  supporters  for  compromising  (as 
they  thought)  its  traditional  Evangelical  position  by  joining  in  any 
way  with  Churchmen  of  other  schools,  and  with  the  S.P.G.  in 
particular.  But  the  stream  of  tendency  has  been  against  the 
objectors  on  both  sides.  On  the  one  hand,  S.P.G.  men  have 
shown  increasing  friendliness  with  both  non-episcopal  societies  at 
home  and  with  their  missionaries  abroad,  and  on  the  other  hand, 
the  influence  of  the  Central  Board  of  Missions  and  the  Diocesan 
Boards  of  Missions — the  latter  the  creation  of  the  last  sixteen 
years — has  brought  together  at  combined  services  and  meetings 
Churchmen  of  all  schools  for  united  prayer  and  conference; 
gatherings  which  have  distinctly  fostered  a  wider  missionary 
interest,  and  in  particular  have  brought  the  work  of  the  C.M.S. 


Doubts  in 


BRIEF  SURVEY  OP  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS.          27 

before  large  circles  otherwise  unreached.    The  respective  positions     PARTJ. 
and  principles  of  the  different  Societies  are  better  appreciated  and    chap- 3 
more  frankly  respected;   while  the  true  fellowship  of  men  and 
women  who,  while  differing  on  various  matters  by  no  means  un 
important,  serve  the  same  Lord  and  equally  seek  the  extension 
of  His  Kingdom,  has  been  increasingly  manifested. 

In  the  Eeport  of  1903  the  C.M.S.  Committee  expressed  them-  C.M.S. 
selves  on  these  matters  in  the  following  words.  After  referring  to  Sn^to 
the  loud  calls  for  advance  in  the  missionary  enterprise,  they  i^^he 
said : — "  Let  the  motive  for  going  forward  be  considered.  Is  it  Church. 
the  glory  and  honour  of  a  Society,  or  of  a  religious  party,  or  even  of 
a  Church  ?  God  forbid !  It  is  for  the  glory  and  honour  of  Him 
Whom  we  already  '  see  crowned,'  but  Who  waits  for  the  establish 
ment  of  His  Kingdom.  The  one  grand  object  of  Missions  is  that 
He  may  be  exalted,  and  the  Church  Missionary  Society  wishes 
God-speed  to  every  Mission,  every  Society,  every  Church  that 
works  for  that  object.  Differences  in  this  imperfect  state  there 
will  be,  and  must  be — differences  of  gift,  of  administration,  of 
operation ;  differences  of  theological  expression,  of  ecclesiastical 
policy,  of  evangelistic  method.  The  Church  Missionary  Society 
has  its  own  distinctive  principles — the  principles  of  the  Apostolic 
Age,  of  the  English  Eeformation,  of  the  Evangelical  Eevival ;  and 
on  those  principles  it  stands,  and  intends  by  the  grace  of  God  to 
stand.  It  maintains,  and  will  maintain,  its  just  independence — 
not  independence  of  the  Church  or  of  its  constituted  authorities, 
but  the  reasonable  independence  of  a  body  of  loyal  Churchmen 
banded  together  for  the  preaching  of  Christ  in  the  world.  At  the 
same  time,  it  declines  to  be  turned  aside,  by  groundless  and  un 
worthy  suspicions,  from  its  ancient  practice  of  friendly  intercourse 
with  other  Societies,  whether  within  the  Church  of  England  or 
within  the  wider  range  of  Protestant  Christendom ;  and  it  rejoices 
to  see,  what  its  founders  would  have  rejoiced  to  see — '  but  died 
without  the  sight' — the  Church  of  England  as  a  body,  and  its 
Episcopate  in  particular,  fostering  the  missionary  enterprise.  Let 
the  words  of  the  great  Bishop  of  Minnesota,  at  the  C.M.S. 
Centenary  Meeting,  be  recalled.  '  I  have  tried,'  he  said,  '  to  find 
the  image  of  my  Master  upon  the  faces  of  those  from  whom  I 
differ,  and  God  has  overpaid  me  a  thousand-fold.'  " 

The  sixteen  years,  of  course,  saw  many  changes  in  the  Society's  Personal 
home  staff.  It  has  been  a  matter  of  true  thankfulness  that  the  c 
President  and  Treasurer  of  1899,  Sir  John  Kennaway  and  Colonel 
(now  Sir  Eobert)  Williams,  are  the  President  and  Treasurer  of 
1916;  but  in  the  Secretariat  there  have  been  many  changes. 
These  will  be  fully  detailed  hereafter ;  but  it  should  be  mentioned 
here  (1)  that  the  Home  Department,  after  the  successive  retire 
ments  of  Mr.  Burroughs  and  Mr.  Flynn,  had  the  great  advantage 
for  some  years  of  the  joint  administration  of  Bishop  Ingham  and 
Dr.  Lankester;  (2)  that  Dr.  Lankester  eventually  became  Lay 
Secretary;  (3)  that  when  the  state  of  Prebendary  Fox's  health 


28          BRIEF  SURVEY  01*  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS. 

PART  i.    compelled  his  retirement  from  the  post  of  Hon.  Clerical  Secretary 
charts.    after  fifteen  years'  highly  valued  service,  he  was  succeeded  by  the 

Rev.  C.  C.  B.  Bardsley. 

Home  Base  In  the  general  work  of  what  has  come  to  be  called  the  Home 
ments°P"  Base,  there  has  been  striking  progress  in  many  departments. 
The  Medical  Mission  Auxiliary  has  largely  extended  its  influence, 
and  now  supports  the  whole  of  the  Society's  Medical  Missions. 
An  Educational  and  an  Industrial  Committee  were  formed  soon 
after  the  Centenary,  and  the  former,  during  the  last  few  years, 
has  done  remarkable  work  in  interesting  leading  educationists  and 
University  men  in  the  colleges  and  schools  maintained  in  many 
of  the  Missions.  Women  workers  in  the  cause  have  been  multiplied, 
and  for  their  benefit  a  great  many  highly  profitable  conferences 
and  other  gatherings  have  been  arranged  by  the  ^  zealous  and 
efficient  Women's  Department.  Under  the  same  inspiration  a 
Girls'  Movement  has  attracted  the  enthusiastic  co-operation  of 
many  circles  of  the  younger  ladies.  A  Young  People's  Depart 
ment  has  been  gradually  developed,  and  has  had  much  success  in 
banding  together  the  children  of  our  Christian  families.  The 
great  Public  Schools  have  been  visited,  with  the  cordial  leave  of 
the  Headmasters.  The  Home  Preparation  Union  has  done  im 
portant  service  in  preparing  possible  future  candidates.  The 
other  Unions,  for  Clergy,  Laymen,  Gleaners,  &c.,  have  all  made 
progress.  Among  quite  new  and  important  developments,  the 
Summer  Schools  and  the  Study  Circles,  both  of  them  imitations 
of  American  agencies,  have  been  exceptionally  successful ;  while 
the  older  Missionary  Exhibitions  have  been  supplemented  by 
kinematograph  pictures  of  the  various  mission  fields. 

In  all  these  and  many  other  ways,  missionary  information  has 
been  widely  diffused,  and  missionary  interest  quickened;  one 
result  of  which — indeed  both  a  cause  and  a  result — is  the  greatly 
enlarged  demand  for  missionary  books,  for  which  there  is  now  a 
market  not  dreamed  of  twenty-five  years  ago.  The  C.M.S.  publi 
cations  have  multiplied,  and  have  met  with  a  large  sale;  and^the 
standard  of  missionary  literature,  from  whatever  source,  has,  in  a 
literary  sense,  been  distinctly  raised. 

The  Funds.  The  effect  of  all  this  movement  should  be  seen  in  more 
numerous  offers  of  service  and  in  increased  funds  ;  and  there  is 
more  reason  for  thankfulness  in  these  respects  than  is  commonly 
supposed.  Taken  as  a  whole,  the  years  1899-1914  were  a  period 
of  financial  difficulty  ;  but  this  is  not  due  to  any  real  falling  off 
in  contributions.  The  average  annual  receipts  on  all  accounts 
(except  the  Centenary  Fund)  for  the  first  five  years  amounted  to 
£353,614 ;  for  the  second  five  years,  to  £388,177 ;  for  the  third 
five  years  (omitting  the  Swanwick  Fund),  to  £403,397.  That 
shows  a  difference  between  the  first  and  the  third  periods,  roughly 
ten  years,  of  £50,000 ;  and  in  fact  between  the  first  year  and  the 
fifteenth  year  (again  omitting  Centenary  Fund  at  one  end  and 
Swanwick  Fund  at  the  other)  there  is  a  difference  of  £82,633. 


BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS.         29 

Why,  then,  the  continually  reported  deficits  ?  Simply  because  PART  i. 
of  the  extended  work  resulting  from  the  large  increase  of  Chap" 3" 
missionaries  in  the  years  preceding  the  Centenary,  and  in  the  ^.he  M is- 
earlier  years  following.  The  Society  was  at  length  obliged  to  staff ry 
direct  retrenchments  which  caused  much  trial  and  difficulty  in  the 
mission  field,  and  also  to  limit  the  number  of  new  recruits.  And 
the  result  has  been  that  whereas  in  1899-1906  the  number  added 
yearly  to  the  roll  averaged  80,  it  fell  in  1911-12  to  41  ;  while  the 
total  number  of  missionaries,  which  rose  from  811  in  1899  to 
1018  in  1906,  fell  to  942  in  1913,  though  it  rose  again  to  975  in 
1915.'"  The  knowledge  that  the  number  of  recruits  was  being 
limited  led  to  a  diminution  of  offers  of  service,  especially  from 
men  to  be  trained  at  the  Church  Missionary  College.  The  general 
result  is  that  the  total  number  of  missionaries  on  the  roll  in  1915 
is  164  more  than  at  the  date  of  the  Centenary.  But  this  increase 
is  almost  entirely  due  to  the  women  ;  and  while  we  rejoice  in  the 
truly  blessed  work  of  our  sisters — without  whom,  we  must  re 
member,  one  half  of  the  population  in  any  mission  field  can 
scarcely  be  reached  at  all — the  lack  of  advance  in  the  number  of 
men,  and  particularly  of  ordained  men,  is  causing  real  difficulty  in 
many  of  the  Missions. 

It  was  in  view  of  these  circumstances,  and  especially  in  view  of  The 
the  large  accumulated  deficit,  that  the  Committee,  in  1913,  re-  co 
solved  to  ask  the  frank  counsel  of  representative  friends.  Much 
had  been  done,  from  1906  onward,  in  more  systematic  organiza 
tion  of  the  members  of  the  Society  in  Diocesan  and  Archidiaconal 
Associations  ;  and  this  enabled  a  real  representation  of  the  country 
to  be  secured.  The  three  hundred  friends  who  met  at  Swanwick 
in  May,  1913,  were  for  the  most  part  (i.e.  barring  those  who  came 
from  Salisbury  Square)  actually  elected  by  these  Associations, 
so  that  an  independent  judgment  could  be  confidently  looked  for. 
The  Committee  were  quite  prepared  to  order  still  more  drastic 
retrenchments  if  the  country  demanded  it,  and  some  experienced 
members  fully  expected  this  to  be  the  sad  but  inevitable  result. 
But  after  hearing  the  reports  on  the  actual  state  of  the  Missions 
in  such  a  day  of  opportunity,  the  Conference  with  practical 
unanimity  called  for  a  fearless  policy  of  advance  ;  and  the  money 
required  to  clear  off  all  past  deficits  and  make  it  possible  to  go 
forward  was,  without  any  lead  from  the  official  members,  spon 
taneously  appealed  for  by  the  independent  members ;  with  a 
result  which  not  only  aroused  an  enthusiastic  burst  of  sympathy 
from  the  whole  country,  but  gave  real  encouragement  to  the 
sister  Societies,  as  showing  what  God,  in  answer  to  prayer,  could 
enable  His  servants  to  do. 

Relieved  in  this  unexpected  way,  through  His  gracious  providence, 

*  These  figures  do  not  include  missionaries'  wives,  for  reasons  to  be  ex 
plained  by  and  by.  The  figure  for  1915,  also,  does  not  include  25  accepted  but 
not  yet  sailed  when  the  figures  were  made  up — a  new  inclusion  in  the  last 
Report  which  would  otherwise  vitiate  the  comparison. 


30          BRIEF  SURVEY  OF  THE  SIXTEEN  YEARS. 

PARTI,  from  financial  anxiety,  the  Society  felt  able  to  look  forward  with 
:hap.^3.  f^k  C0urag6j  an(j  to  form  definite  Plans  for  Advance.  All  the 
mission  fields  called  for  advance ;  all  the  Missions  needed  develop 
ment  ;  given  a  due  supply  of  men  and  means,  there  seemed  no 
limit  to  the  possibilities  of  extension.  The  Committee,  indeed, 
were  determined  to  move  with  due  caution,  watching  for  those 
providential  tokens  by  which  the  will  of  God  is  often  made  known, 
and  not  allowing  human  enthusiasm  to  push  the  Society  beyond 
the  line  of  that  Divine  Will.  They  desired  that  it  might  be  true 
of  them,  as  of  Israel  of  old,  that  "  at  the  commandment  of  the 
Lord  they  encamped,  and  at  the  commandment  of  the  Lord  they 
journeyed,"  content  to  stand  still  when  the  "  cloud  "  rested,  and 
eager  to  follow  when  it  moved  forward. 

The  War.  Suddenly,  just  when  all  looked  bright  and  hopeful,  another 
cloud,  the  great  War  Cloud,  darkened  the  heavens.  Of  the 
tremendous  events  that  ensued  this  is  not  the  place  to  speak ;  but 
we  may  rightly  in  passing  take  encouragement  from  the  issue  of 
the  other  war  which  had  darkened  the  opening  of  our  period. 
That  war  lasted  longer,  and  cost  more,  than  we  expected ;  but  the 
peace  that  at  length  put  an  end  to  it  has  resulted  in  the  united 
loyalty  of  a  new  Dominion.  Similarly,  we  shall  hope  and  pray 
that  the  great  War  now  waging  may  be  followed  by  a  peace 
which  shall  unite  a  new  Europe  in  a  firmer  fellowship  than  ever 
before. 


Hart  IE. 

THE  FOREIGN   FIELD. 


CHAPTEE  IV. 

AFRICA:    THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 


AnoFr          n     ^vents-A^Io-German  Agreements  for  Africa- 
Anglo-French  Questions-Conquest  of  the  Eastern  Sudan-Develop- 
«  Protectorates  and  Spheres  of  Influence-Boer  and 


o  e-oer  an 

other    Wars-Evil    Influences:     Congo    Atrocities,    Liquor    Traffic 
Slavery,  Ac-Warn  in  Africa  -Nigeria  Protectorate-Uganda     tte 


East  Africa-The 


HEN   the   Church   Missionary   Society   celebrated   its   PART  n 
Centenary,  the  outlook  in  Africa  was  one  that  inspired    ohap-  4-' 
both  thankfulness  and  hope.    The  Dark  Continent  was 
dark   no   longer— in    the   sense   of   being   unknown 
Dark  it  still  was  spiritually,  for  lack  of  the  Gospel  in 
immense  portions  of  its  vast  area  ;  but  it  was  at  least  accessible 
from   north  to   south,  from   east  to  west.      The   « Scramble  for 
Africa      seemed  practically  over.     Almost  all  its  territories  had 
been  divided  among  the  European  Powers. 

KETROSPECT  OF  PUBLIC  EVENTS. 

In   the   early  'eighties    Germany  had  suddenly  developed   an  German 
ambition  to  possess  a  colonial  empire,  and  thus  to  secure  a  more  ^°\on^ 
conspicuous  -place  in  the  sun."     There  was  nothing  unnatural 
or  improper  in  such  an  ambition  ;    and  certainly  Great  Britain 
considering  her  own  immense  development,  had  no  right  to  think 
w    I      *  a6  u1nexPected  German  occupation  of  various  tracts  in 
West  and  Sou  h- West  Africa,  and  the  claim  to  a  protectorate  over 
parts  of  East  Africa  regarded  as  belonging  in  a  sense  to  the  Sultan 

f  fcSfr?!  T*  i  alarmed  other  Bowers,  and  the  Berlin  Congress 
T!     n  u  ^6n   convened  to  set^  the  questions  at  issue, 

lhat  Congress  had  virtually  divided  Africa  into  provisional  -spheres  spheres  of 
01  influence,    each  Power  undertaking  not  to  overpass  the  limits Influence- 
laid  down,  while  free  to  develop  its  own  «  sphere  "  at  its  own  time 
and  in  its  own  way. 

But  this  agreement  did  not  put  an  end  to  the  difficulties.    France 

i  West  Africa,  and  Germany  in  both  West  and  East  Africa   had 

no  light  task  in  influencing,  and  eventually  governing,  the  tribes 

thus   committed   to   them    respectively;    and   the   unrest   which 

ed,  and  even  serious  risings,  were  not  always  dealt  with  wisely 


PART  TI 

chap4. 


Anglo- 
German 
Agreement 


Anglo- 
French 

Questions. 


Fashoda. 


34        AFRICA  .-   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

Moreover,  perplexing  boundary  questions  arose  between  the  Powers 
The  "  spheres  of  influence  "  had  only  been  roughly  indicated  ;  and 
England  had  troublesome  disputes  with  both  France  and  Germany 
when  it  became  necessary  to  draw  exact  lines.  For  instance,  a 
straight  diagonal  line  had  been  drawn  from  the  East  Coast  to  the 
Victoria  Nyanza,  marking  off  the  "  spheres  "  of  Great  Britain  and 
Germany;  but  this  line,  ruled  arbitrarily  across  the  map,  ran  right 
over  the  great  mountain  Kilimanjaro,  and  the  Kaiser  asked  that 
it  might  be  deflected  a  little  so  that  the  whole  mountain  might 
come  within  the  German  territory.  To  this  the  British  Foreign 
Office  agreed,  unconscious  that  they  were  giving  away  the  Switzer- 
'  land  of  East  Africa.*  But  the  line  only  went  up  to  the  Lake,  and, 
two  or  three  years  later,  in  1890,  the  further  question  arose,  which 
way  should  the  line  cross  the  Lake  and  be  prolonged  on  the 
farther  shore  ?  If  prolonged  in  exactly  the  same  north- west  ^  direc 
tion,  it  would  cut  Uganda  in  half.  This  time,  Lord  Salisbury 
consulted  the  C.M.S.  before  settling  the  point,  and  at  the  Society's 
suggestion  the  line  was  ruled  across  the  Lake  due  west,  thus  leaving 
all  Uganda  in  the  British  "  sphere."  It  was  only  just  in  time,  as 
Dr.  Karl  Peters,  the  German  traveller,  was  actually  seeking  at 
the  same  moment  to  induce  the  king  of  Uganda  to  refuse  the 
advances  of  the  British  East  Africa  Company  and  put  himself 
under  the  Kaiser's  protection.!  The  Anglo-German  Agreement 
also  gave  England  the  protectorate  of  Zanzibar,  in  exchange  for 
Heligoland,  which  Germany,  not  unreasonably,  felt  should  belong 
to  her.  Another  agreement,  in  1899,  settled  the  hinterlands,  in 
West  Africa,  of  the  British  Gold  Coast  Colony  and  the  German 
Togoland. 

England's  difficulties  with  France  about  boundaries  were  in 
West  Africa.  Sierra  Leone  and  the  Gambia  had  been  settled  in 
1895.  The  Sierra  Leone  Colony  received  a  hinterland  about  the 
size  of  Scotland ;  and  although  outbreaks,  with  murders  of  mission 
aries,  had  arisen  there,  owing  to  the  suppression  of  slave-trading 
and  human  sacrifices,  the  country  in  1899  was  settled  and  pros 
perous  under  the  wise  administration  of  Sir  F.  Cardew.  But  the 
whole  enormous  territory  of  the  Western  Sudan,  lying  behind,  was 
recognized  as  belonging  to  France.  On  the  Upper  Niger,  and  in 
the  Central  Sudan,  the  questions  were  more  complicated,  but  they 
were  at  last  settled,  for  the  time,  in  1898,  a  few  months  before  the 
C.M.S.  Centenary  ;  each  country  conceding  territory  to  the  other 
at  different  points.  (Further  agreements  were  made  in  1904.) 
A  much  graver  controversy  with  France  arose,  also  in  1898,  in 

*  A  Foreign  Office  official,  after  this  had  been  done,  came  _to  the  C.M. 
House  for  information  about  the  district  thus  dealt  with.  He  said  the  Kaiser 
wished  for  Kilimanjaro  because  a  German  had  discovered  it.  This  was  true, 
but  that  German  was  John  Kebmann,  a  C.M.S.  missionary  in  Anglican  orders. 

t  The  Company's  difficulties  in  Uganda  were  a  year  later,  in  1891 ;  and  it 
was  not  till  1892-4  that  it  fell  to  Lord  Rosebery,  first  as  Foreign  Secretary  in 
Gladstone's  Government,  and  then  as  Prime  Minister  himself,  to  take  the 
country  definitely  under  British  protection. 


AFRICA-.    THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        35 

another  part  of  Africa.     A  French  officer,  Major  Marchand,  with    PART  n. 
a  small  force  of  Senegalese  natives,  had  marched  across  the  Sudan    Ch^i4- 
from  West   to   East,  and   having   emerged   on  the  Upper  Nile 
occupied  Fashoda.      This  was  in  the  territory  formerly  adminis 
tered  for  the  Khedive  of  Egypt  by  Gordon,  and  Great  Britain 
demanded  the  furling  of  the  French  flag.     The  situation  for  a  few 
weeks  was  extremely  critical,  but  happily  the  Government  of  the 
Republic  gave  way. 

The  _importance  of  this  last  question  arose  from  the  victorious  Conquest 
campaign  of  Sir  Herbert  (now  Lord)  Kitchener  against  the  Khalifa,  Extern 
which  had  only  just  been  brought  to  its  successful  conclusion!  Sudan" 
Thirteen  years  had  elapsed  since  the  death  of  Gordon  had  brought 
the  whole  Eastern  Sudan  under  the  tyrannical  and  barbarous  rule 
of  the  Mahdi.  At  last,  quietly  but  resistlessly,  Kitchener  had 
advanced  up  the  Nile ;  on  Sept.  2nd,  1898,  he  totally  defeated  the 
Dervish  army  at  the  battle  of  Omdurman;  and  on  Sunday,  Sept.  4th, 
a  solemn  service  was  held  at  Khartum  in  memory  of  Gordon,  in 
the  palace  he  had  once  occupied.  The  great  Christian  hero  was 
avenged  in  the  way  he  would  most  truly  have  wished,  by  the 
freeing  of  the  country  for  which  he  gave  his  life  from  a  cruel 
despotism.  The  misery  and  devastation  wrought  by  Mahdism  in  the 
once  prosperous  Sudan  was  thus  brought  to  an  end.  The  slave 
trade  was  at  once  abolished  ;  good  government  was  restored  ;  and 
the  foundations  were  laid  for  a  flourishing  future.  After  such  a 
victory,  achieved  by  such  long  patience  and  skilful  preparation  it 
was  impossible  for  England,  with  all  her  desire  to  be  at  peace 
with  France,  to  yield  the  Upper  Nile  to  Major  Marchand's  expedi 
tion.  And  within  a  year,  in  November,  1899,  the  new  Sirdar, 
Sir  F.  R.  Wingate,  completed  the  deliverance  of  the  Sudan  by  the 
overthrow  of  the  fugitive  Khalifa  and  the  remnant  of  his  army. 

Both  in  East  and  in  West  Africa,  the  influence  of  Great  Britain  Deveiop- 
had  been  exercised  at  first,  not  by  the  Government,  but  by  com-  ment  iu 
mercial  companies.  The  British  East  Africa  Company  and  the  R 
Royal  Niger  Company  had  both  done  excellent  work.  The  former 
had  not  only  effected  much  for  the  promotion  of  legitimate  trade, 
the  improvement  of  communications,  and  the  enforcement  of  law 
and  order,  but  had  set  free  4000  slaves,  compensating  the  owners ; 
and  in  the  far  interior  they  had  secured  a  footing  in  Uganda,' 
Captain  (now  Sir  Frederick)  Lugard  being  their  agent  there.*  But 
it  had  been  all  expenditure  and  no  profit ;  and  the  shareholders, 
as  the  chairman,  Sir  W.  Mackinnon,  said,  had  "  taken  out  their 
dividends  in  philanthropy."  Before  our  period  begins,  however, 
in  1895,  they  had  handed  over  their  territories  and  influence  and 
plant  to  the  British  Government,  and  forthwith  the  Uganda  Rail 
way  had  been  begun.  When  the  C.M.S.  Centenary  was  celebrated, 
it  had  covered  half  the  distance  to  the  Nyanza ;  white  settlers 

*  It  is  interesting  to  remember  that  Sir  F.  Lugard's  father,  a  clergyman 
b  Worcester,  was  an  Hon.  District  Secretary  of  the  C.M.S,  there  for  many 


years. 


ii 

.  4.' 


36       AFRICA-.    THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

were  already  prospecting  in  the  highlands  thus  reached,  attracted 
by  the  healthy  climate;  and  the  future  material  prosperity  of 
British  East  Africa  appeared  to  be  secured.  Moreover  the 
telegraph  had  already  been  carried  the  whole  way  to  Uganda,  so 
that  news  which  had  formerly  taken  some  months  to  reach 
England  could  now  come  in  twenty-four  hours.  In  Uganda 
itself  the  troubles  that  had  ensued  on  the  insurrection  fostered  by 
the  ei-king  Mwanga,  and  the  mutiny  of  the  Sudanese  troops,  came 
to  an  end  when  both  Mwanga  himself,  and  Kabarega,  the  trouble 
some  king  of  Bunyoro,  were  captured— which  occurred  within  a 
few  weeks  of  the  Centenary. 

and  in  west      The  transfer  of  the  Niger  territories  by  the  Company  there  to 
Africa'        the  British  Government  was  in  course  of  arrangement  when  the 
Centenary  was  celebrated,  and  Nigeria,  North  and  South,  became 
Protectorates  on  Jan.  1st,  1900.      This  Company  also  had  done  ex 
cellent  work  under  the  brilliant  leadership  of  Sir  George  Goldie.    It 
had  given  the  Empire  half  a  million  square  miles  of  the  most  fertile 
and  thickly-populated  portion  of  West  Africa  ;  it  had  put  down 
slave-raiding  over  a  great  area,  and  abolished  slavery  within  its 
own  jurisdiction  ;  and  it  had  taken  strong  measures  to  check  the 
evil  trade  in  spirits.    In  this  last  respect  it  would  have  done  more, 
had  not  the  traders  circumvented  it  by  sending  their  liquor  through 
the  neighbouring  French  and  German  territories.     It  was  hoped 
that  the  Brussels  Conference,  which  met  in  the  very  month  of  the 
C.M.S.   Centenary,  would   result  in  international  agreements  to 
minimize  the  evil  by  so  raising  the  duties  on  liquor  as  to  render 
the  trade  unprofitable  ;  but  the  effort  to  obtain  these  was  successful 
only  in  a  very  limited  measure.     Meanwhile,  in  the  older  British 
Colony  of  Lagos,  with  its  Yoruba  hinterland,  railway   and  tele 
graphic  communication  was  advancing,  and  law  and  order  being 
consolidated.  m 

other  parts  go  jn  the  three  great  portions  of  Africa  in  which  the  C.M.b. 
of  Africa.  ^^  specially  interested,  West  Africa  and  Nigeria,  East  Africa  and 
Uganda,  Egypt  and  the  Eastern  Sudan,  there  was  in  1899  a 
hopeful  outlook.  British  Central  Africa,  also,  had  been  prospering 
under  the  able  administration  of  Sir  H.  H.  Johnston ;  and  the  Cape 
to  Cairo  railway,  planned  and  inspired  by  the  genius  of  Cecil 
Ehodes,  was  already  being  pushed  forward,  the  Kaiser  agreeing  to 
the  scheme  as  it  affected  German  territory.  The  death  of  Ehodes 
in  1902  removed  the  greatest  of  Anglo-Africans.  In  the  Congo 
Free  State,  also,  the  railway  had  reached  Leopoldville ;  *  but,  on 
the  other  hand,  the  native  population  was  suffering  severely 
through  the  oppression  and  cruelty  of  King  Leopold's  agents, 
though  the  horrors  of  the  rubber  traffic  had  not  yet  been  fully 

*  The  communication  by  rail  or  by  river  or  lake  steamer  across  Africa 
from  west  to  east  was  completed  in  March,  1915.  In  that  month  the  final 
link  was  forged  by  the  railway  from  the  Lualaba  River  being  carried  to  a 
point  on  Lake  Tanganyika  opposite  to  the  terminus  of  the  German  railway 
from  the  East  Coast. 


AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        37 

revealed.     Portuguese  territories,  East  and  West,  were  afflicted   TART  n. 
more  or  less  in  similar  ways.     Italy  had  its  troubles  in  Eritrea    chap'  4* 
and  Somaliland.*     And  in  South  Africa  the  difficulties  between 
Boer  and  Briton  were  rapidly  developing,  although  no  one  antici 
pated  what  a  serious  war  would  be  waging  before  the  year  came 
to  an  end. 

On  that  war  it  is  not  the  business  of  this  book  to  enlarge.  Boer  War. 
Suffice  it  to  say  that  in  October,  1899,  President  Kruger  sent  his 
ultimatum ;  that  the  disasters  of  November  and  December  led 
to  the  sending  out  of  Lord  Eoberts  and  Lord  Kitchener;  that 
Kimberley  and  Ladysmith  were  relieved  in  February,  1900,  and 
the  principal  Boer  army  surrendered  in  the  same  month ;  that  the 
British  flag  was  hoisted  at  Pretoria  in  June ;  that  the  Transvaal 
was  formally  annexed  in  September ;  that  the  military  genius  of 
Generals  Botha  and  De  Wet  prolonged  the  subsequent  guerilla 
warfare  for  nearly  two  years ;  and  that  they  finally  surrendered 
on  May  31st,  1902.  In  due  course  the  new  "  Union  of  South 
Africa  "  was  formed ;  the  people  of  the  conquered  Boer  States  were 
admitted  to  the  full  rights  of  citizenship ;  the  day  came  when 
General  Botha  himself  became  Prime  Minister ;  and  he  has  now 
won  the  admiration  of  the  whole  Empire  in  the  present  war-time 
by  his  suppression  of  De  Wet's  rebellion  and  his  conquest  of 
German  South- West  Africa. 

Fighting  on  a  smaller  scale  has  not  been  absent  during  the  other  little 
sixteen  years.  In  1900  occurred  the  third  Ashanti  War.  The  ^ 
first  had  been  in  1873-4,  when  Sir  Garnet  Wolseley's  expedition 
rescued  the  Basel  Society's  missionaries  from  a  cruel  captivity. 
The  second  was  in  1896,  and  was  memorable  for  the  death  of 
Prince  Henry  of  Battenberg.f  This  time,  Colonel  (now  Sir  James) 
Willcocks  and  a  force  of  Indian  and  African  troops  fought  their 
way  to  Kumasi,  the  capital,  again  set  free  a  Basel  missionary 
party,  and  annexed  the  whole  country  to  the  British  Empire 
as  part  of  the  Gold  Coast  Colony.  The  C.M.S.  Committee,  in 
February,  1901,  received  one  of  the  Basel  men,  Mr.  Eamseyer, 
who  had  been  twice  a  captive,  and  had  been  rescued  both  in  1874 
and  in  1900.  In  1900  there  were  several  risings  against  the 
British  rule  in  Nigeria,  and  the  important  Moslem  town  of  Bida 
— a  familiar  name  in  Bishop  Crowther's  time — was  assaulted  and 
burnt  by  the  British  force.  Other  insurrections  have  from  time  to 
time  since  then  given  trouble  there  and  in  the  Central  Sudan ; 
Kano  itself  had  to  be  bombarded  and  taken  in  1903,  a  victory 

*  In  German  East  Africa  there  were  serious  insurrections,  particularly  (to 
come  down  a  little  later)  in  1905,  when  a  U.M.C.A.  station  was  destroyed  and 
the  lives  of  its  missionaries  were  endangered,  while  a  Komaii  Catholic  bishop 
and  four  priests  were  killed. 

t  It  will  be  remembered  that  Canon  Taylor  Smith  (now  Bishop  and 
Chaplain-General),  who  was  then  Diocesan  Missioner  :at  Sierra  Leone,  and  on 
the  C.M.S.  staff,  accompanied  this  expedition;  that  to  him  Prince  Henry 
committed  his  last  messages  and  personal  effects ;  and  that  he  was  summoned 
home  by  cable  from  Queen  Victoria  to  report  thereon. 


38        AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

PA*,  ii.    which  delivered  the  Hausa  people  from  the  Fulani  yoke  ;    and 

Cha£l4'    Yola,  500  miles  up  the  Binue  river,  was  taken  in  1902,  to  stop 

slave-raiding   and   outrages  on   traders.     Meanwhile    again    and 

affdn  has  Somaliland,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  continent,  been 

the  scene  of  some  of  Britain's  "  little  wars. 

A  passing  allusion  may  be  made  to  two  public  events  of  import- 

**»•  ance  in  North  Africa.  Morocco,  one  of  the  small  portions  of 
the  continent  still  nominally  independent,  has  *nf*&™* 
source  of  trouble  to  the  European  Powers  and  to  Englanc 
particular  ;  and  the  visit  of  the  Kaiser,  and  his  subsequent  attempt 
to  get  a  footing  for  German  aggression  at  Agadir  on  the  north 
west  coast,  led  to  dangerous  controversy.  It  is  now  recognized 
that  the  country,  adjoining  as  it  does  the  French  dominions  in 
\lgeria  is  a  -sphere"  for  the  dominant  influence  of  trance 
Tripoli  has  since  been  annexed  by  Italy,  though  not  without  much 
difficulty  from  the  Arab  tribes  ;  and  Turkish  rule  was  thus  practi 
cally  put  an  end  to  in  Africa.  Even  her  shadowy  suzerainty  over 
Egypt  is  now  a  thing  of  the  past. 

EVIL  INFLUENCES  AT  WORK. 

Many  evils  have  afflicted  the  peoples  of  Africa  for  centuries 
past-    but   it   cannot   be   denied  that  the  contact  with  them  of 
European  "  civilization,"  while  it  has  delivered  them  from  some  of 
those  evils,  has  brought  others  in  its  train.     British  public  opinion 
is  not  always  sensitive  enough  to  the  sufferings  caused  to  the  black 
man  by  his  intercourse  with  the  white  man ;  but  it  was  thoroughly 
Congo         aroused  by  the  dreadful  atrocities  connected  with  the  rubber  traffic 
Atrocities.    in  the  Q       Q  Statej  firgt   revealed   by  the  Baptist  missionaries 
and   then   confirmed   by   other   witnesses.      Individual    cases   o 
oppression  and  cruelty  have  occurred  in  other  parts  of  Africa,  but 
the  guilty  parties,  when  discovered,  have  been  punished.     In  the 
Congo  regions  the  brutality  was  systematic  and  official.     Lord 
Lansdowne  made  representations  to  the  other  Powers  concerned 
in  1903,  and  Sir  Edward  Grey  again  and  again  protested;  but  no 
real  change  came  until  the  death  of  King  Leopold,  whose  agents 
it  was  that  were  responsible  for  the  atrocities.     But   since  the 
terrible  sufferings  of  Belgium  through  the  German  invasion,  and 
the  noble  conduct  of  King  Albert,  all  Christian  Englishmen  desire 
to  forget   the  past.      Moreover,  the  Congo  State  was  not  alone 
in  its   shocking   conduct  to  the  natives.     In   1906   the    German 
Reichstag  had  to  listen  to  a  succession  of  horrible  charges  against 
German  officers  in  Togoland,  Cameroons,  and  East  Africa,  brought, 
not  by  English  missionaries,  but  by  their  own  countrymen, 
acts  of  which  they  were  accused  were  as  bad  as  anything  on  the 
Congo,  though  not  on  so  large  a  scale.     Portuguese  slavery,  too, 
or  what  was  equivalent  to  slavery,  was  responsible  for  much  ill- 
treatment  of  the  natives.     But  the  Congo  horrors  were  insisted 


AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        39 

on  with  persistent  courage  and  energy  by  a  man  who  had  the  ear    PART  n. 
of  the  British  public  and  of  the  authorities,  Mr.  E.  D.  Morel;  and 
whatever  else  may  be  forgotten,  we  cannot  forget  his  great  services 
in  this  matter. 

It  is  much  to  be  wished  that  Mr.  Morel  had  been  equally  zealous 
for  the  right  in  regard  to  another  grievous  evil  from  which  Africa  Traffic, 
has  suffered.  While  Englishmen  were  being  roused  to  indignation 
by  the  Congo  atrocities,  they  were  almost  entirely  ignorant  of  the 
frightful  injuries  being  done  to  the  Negro  populations  of  British 
West  African  possessions  by  the  liquor  traffic ;  and  in  the  strenuous 
battle  which  Bishop  Tugwell  has  so  bravely  waged  against  it,  he 
has  had  against  him  all  the  influence  of  Mr.  Morel  and  his  news 
paper,  the  African  Times.  Nothing  in  recent  years  has  been  more 
sad  than  the  attempt  in  so  many  quarters  to  deny  or  minimize 
the  evil.  One  governor,  at  a  public  meeting  at  Lagos,  referred  to 
what  he  called  "the  liquor  phantom";  which  led  to  a  striking- 
protest  on  the  spot  by  Bishop  Oluwole,  who  said,  "  A  phantom  is 
an  airy  nothing  :  you  cannot  see  it,  you  cannot  handle  it.  But  we 
do  see  thousands  of  cases  of  gin  and  demi-johns  of  rum,"  &c. 
Most  of  these  came  from  Germany,  and,  in  one  month  in  1901, 
175,000  gallons  of  rum  were  landed  from  a  special  line  of  steamers 
from  Hamburg.  The  increased  duties  arranged  by  the  Brussels 
Conference  of  1899  quite  failed  to  check  the  traffic  ;  almost  equally 
unsuccessful  was  the  similar  Conference  of  1906 ;  and  in  1912,  the 
Powers  could  not  agree  on  any  further  steps,  although  the  imports 
had  in  six  years  risen  from  4,700,000  to  6,830,000  gallons— that  is, 
for  all  the  West  African  Colonies.  Meanwhile,  in  1909,  a  Govern 
ment  Commission  had  been  appointed  to  report  on  the  whole 
subject ;  but  it  consisted  of  two  officials  and  two  traders,  and 
missionaries  were  only  allowed  to  give  evidence ;  the  result, 
naturally,  being  unsatisfactory  and  misleading.  Chiefs  of  interior 
towns  who,  knowing  the  real  facts,  wished  to  prohibit  the  sale  in 
their  own  districts,  were  afraid  to  risk  the  displeasure  of  the  British 
authorities  by  doing  so  ;  and  Bishops  Tugwell  and  Johnson  had  to 
undergo  much  unmerited  reproach  for  the  stand  they  bravely  made. 
However,  in  1912,  new  regulations  were  made,  authorizing  the 
prohibition  in  certain  areas  of  the  sale  of  liquor  to  natives ;  and  it 
is  hoped  that  gradually  the  evil  may  thus  be  dealt  with.*  But 
the  quantity  of  spirits  imported  has  gone  on  increasing.  A  Gold 
Coast  missionary  applied  to  the  Customs  for  a  case  of  Bibles  which 
had  come  for  him,  and  was  told  that  16,000  cases  of  rum  and  gin 
would  have  to  be  removed  before  his  one  case  could  be  reached !  | 
Every  one  who  is  interested  in  this  subject  should  read  Sir  Harry 

*  In  the  CM.  Review  of  Dec.,  1909,  and  Jan.  and  March,  1910,  the  Report  of 
the  Commission,  and  the  evidence  given  before  it,  was  most  ably  examined 
and  discussed  by  Mr.  Furnoss  Smith  ;  and  in  the  number  for  Dec.,  1910,  there 
is  an  account  of  Mr.  Morel's  violent  attack  on  Bishop  Tugwell,  the  C. M.S., -an 
the  Native  Races  and  Liquor  Traffic  United  Committee. 

t  See  C.M.  Re-view,  July,  1915,  p.  443. 


1'ART  II. 

Chap. 4. 


African 
Slavery. 


A  Danger  to 
Uganda. 


40        AFRICA  :   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

Johnston's  article  on  "  Alcohol  and  the  Empire "  in  the  Con 
temporary  Review  of  May,  1915.  It  is  distressing  to  hear  that  since 
the  War  began,  British  traders  are  taking  over  the  traffic  in  spirits 
hitherto  chiefly  in  German  hands. 

Another  cause  of  suffering  in  Africa,  perhaps  the  greatest  of  all, 
has  been  slavery  and  the  slave  trade.  The  sea-going  traffic  is  now, 
thank  God,  a  thing  of  the  past ;  but  there  is  still  a  good  deal  of 
servitude  not  very  distinguishable  from  the  old  practice.  Bishop 
Tucker  waged  a  persistent  war  with  what  seemed  to  be  the 
remnants  of  slavery  in  Zanzibar  and  the  island  of  Pemba,  British 
possessions  since  1890  ;  and  for  some  years  with  little  effect.  But 
at  length,  in  October,  1907,  the  legal  status  of  slavery  was  finally 
abolished  throughout  the  British  East  Africa  Protectorate;  and 
further  steps  followed  to  secure  the  freedom  of  existing  slaves,  the 
Government  paying  £40,000  as  compensation  to  their  owners. 
Livingstone's  "open  sore"  was  at  last  put  an  end  to,  so  far  at 
least  as  Great  Britain  was  concerned.  In  Uganda  there  had  been 
no  need  for  the  strong  arm  of  England  to  suppress  the  evil.  The 
Christian  chiefs  there  had  done  it  of  their  own  free  will  fourteen 
years  earlier,  in  1893,  before  even  the  first  hoisting  of  the  Union 
Jack,  and  simply  on  the  ground  that  the  divine  law  is,  "  Thou 
shalt  love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself."  *  In  Nigeria,  the  excellent 
plan,  in  itself,  of  governing  through  native  administration  and  "  on 
native  lines,"  has  involved  the  recognition  of  a  certain  kind  of 
domestic  slavery  which  cannot  be  wholly  or  speedily  suppressed  ; 
but  it  has  lately  been  much  modified  by  Sir  F.  Lugard's  repeal 
of  a  certain  "  Native  House  Eule  Ordinance,"  and  the 
abuse  of  the  system  would  no  doubt  be  sternly  dealt  with. 
Other  European  Powers,  it  is  to  be  feared,  are  less  pledged  than 
Great  Britain  to  abolition,  and  grave  cases  have  from  time  to  time 
been  reported  from  the  French  Congo  and  from  Portuguese  territory. 
Stanley  the  traveller  was  entertained  at  Zanzibar  by  the  officers  of 
H.M.S.  London,  at  their  mess.  In  his  address  to  them  he  said,  "  You 
will  never  stop  slavery  in  Africa  until  you  mark  the  country  with 
the  sign  of  the  Cross.  Wherever  the  missionary  goes  slavery  is 
doomed."  This  was  reported  by  the  naval  chaplain  who  was 
present.f 

There  was  for  a  short  time  a  risk  of  the  Baganda  people  being 
induced  to  furnish  a  contingent  to  a  service  which  might  easily 
have  developed  into  a  kind  of  slavery.  When  the  lucrative  mining 
operations  on  the  Band  were  revived  after  the  subjugation  of  the 
Transvaal,  and  much  more  labour  was  called  for  than  South  Africa 
couldiconveniently  supply,  the  suggestion  was  made  that  the  natives 
of  Equatorial  Africa  should  be  hired  for  the  purpose,  and  the 
Baganda  were  specially  recommended.  Sir  Henry  Stanley 
vehemently  protested.  "  Let  not  the  Baganda,"  he  said,  "  be 

*  See  the  thrilling  account  by  Bishop  lucker,  Eighteen  Years  in  Uganda, 
Vol.  I.,  p.  261. 

t  C.M.  Intell.,  June,  1904,  p.  470. 


AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        41 

taken  from  their  homes  to  perish  in  the  mines,  but  be  left  to  PART  u. 
spread  the  truth  which  they  have  learned,  and  to  become  to  chap' 4> 
Africa  what  England  has  been  to  the  world."  The  C.M.S.,  the 
L.M.S.,  and  the  Scottish  Societies  approached  Lord  Lansdowne, 
and  he  promised  that  a  beginning  should  be  made  only  in  the 
countries  south  of  the  Zambesi ;  in  which  limitation  Mr.  Joseph 
Chamberlain,  then  Colonial  Secretary,  concurred.  Nevertheless 
a  deputation  from  the  Eand  went  to  Uganda  to  enlist  labourers  ; 
but  happily  not  a  single  man  could  be  induced  to  go.  Eventually 
Chinese  labour  was  sought  for ;  and  it  will  be  remembered  that  the 
cry  of  "  Chinese  slavery  "  had,  whether  justly  or  not,  no  little 
influence  in  deciding  the  General  Election  in  England  in  1906. 

Although  the  British  Government,  of  course,  does  not  interfere  African 
with  the  religion  of  the  African  people,  it  does  take  measures  to  Pasauism- 
put  down  barbarous  customs.  But  this  is  not  easy  in  such 
populous  countries;  and  infanticide,  human  sacrifices,  and  even 
cannibalism  have  been  heard  of  from  time  to  time,  both  in  Nigeria 
and  in  the  hinterland  of  Sierra  Leone.  In  the  latter  country  there 
are  what  are  called  "Human  Leopard  Societies"  and  "Alligator 
Societies,"  the  superstitious  rites  of  which  involve  the  shedding 
of  blood  and  participation  in  the  sacrifices  by  eating  some  small 
portion  of  the  victim.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  practices  have 
some  connexion  with  the  appeasing  of  spirits,  which  is  supposed 
to  be  more  surely  effected  where  the  sacrifice  is  a  valuable  one, 
such  as  human  life.  But  this  is  not  the  place  for  an  account  of 
African  Paganism.* 

Concerning  Mohammedan  influence  in  Africa  a  few  words  must  Islam  in 
be  said.  Its  methods  are  well  explained  in  two  articles  by  the 
Eev.  G.  T.  Manley  in  the  C.M.  Revinu  of  Oct.,  1913,  and  Jan., 
1916.  He  expounds  the  stages  of  Moslem  advance.  First,  a  few 
traders  from  a  Moslem  state  in  the  north  settled  in  a  Pagan 
district,  and  opened  up  a  trade  route  thither.  Then  the  Moslem 
king  raided  the  district  and  carried  off  slaves,  and  presently 
introduced  Moslem  law  and  customs  and  dress.  Then  the 
prestige  thus  acquired  influenced  the  younger  men  of  the  con 
quered  tribe,  and  Islam  became  fashionable.  And  then  it  was  a 
short  step  to  adopt  circumcision,  repeat  the  short  creed,  recite 
short  prayers  five  times  a  day,  and  otherwise  live  as  before, 
without  dropping  any  of  the  superstitions  and  unmentionable 

*  There  are  many  books  on  this  subject.  Among  the  best  known  accounts 
are  the  late  Miss  Mary  Kingsley's  writings,  but  her  prejudice  against  Missions 
affects  her  evidence.  Among  recent  works  may  be  mentioned  Mr.  Roscoe's 
Baganda  (Macmillan),  Mrs.  Fisher's  On  the  Borders  of  Pygmy  Land 
(Marshall  Bros.),  Mr.  Kitching's  On  the  Back  Waters  of  the  Nile  (Fisher 
Unwin),  and  Mr.  J.  H.  Weeks's  Among  Congo  Cannibals  (Seeley).  Three 
singularly  illuminating  articles  by  Bishop  Willis  of  Uganda  appeared  in  the 
C.M.  Review  of  Sept.,  1911,  and  Jan.  and  Feb.,  1912,  entitled,  "The  Mind 
of  the  African,"  "The  Appeal,"  and  "The  Response  of  the  African."  For 
the  interior  of  East  Africa  see  Dr.  Crawford's  account,  C.M.S.  Report,  1906, 
p.  63,  and  Mr.  McGregor's,  C.M.  Review,  Jan.,  1909. 


42        AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

PAKT  u.  immoralities  already  prevailing.  Sometimes  the  Pagan  tribe 
.^  '  would  fight  the  intruder  and  expel  him  ;  otherwise,  in  a  generation 
or  two,  the  whole  population  would  be  Mohammedan.  Trade, 
marriage,  conquest,  prestige, — these  were  the  four  causes  of 
success.  But  there  have  been  more  rapid  and  more  barbarous 
methods.  Dr.  Walter  Miller,  the  C.M.S.  missionary  in  Northern 
Nigeria,  whose  knowledge  has  been  repeatedly  spoken  of  highly  by 
Sir  F.  Lugard,  wrote  in  1904,  "  Islam  has  spread  very  little  in 
modern  times  by  conversion,  but  rather  (a)  by  wiping  out,  whole 
sale,  huge  populations,  and  then  repopulating  the  wrecked  districts 
with  Mohammedan  communities  ;  (b)  by  so  harrying  the  heathen 
people  by  capturing  their  women  and  children  while  in  the  farms 
outside  the  fortified  towns,  that  to  avoid  this  the  tribes  accept 
Mohammedan  rule  and  pay  tribute,  but  retain  their  heathen 
customs  ;  (<:)  through  the  desire  of  some  of  the  chiefs  to  acquire 
prestige."  Of  course  British  rule  prevents  the  old  slave-raiding, 
and  peaceful  methods  now  prevail.  The  Moslem,  writes  another 
missionary,  the  Eev.  A.  W.  Smith,  enters  the  door"  as  merchant, 
tailor,  leather-worker,  charm-maker."  He  "  observes  ostentatiously 
all  the  details  of  Mohammedan  ritual,"  and  "  the  average  African 
is  nothing  if  not  imitative."  No  moral  change  is  demanded,  and 
none  follows.  Mohammed  ''  made  it  easy."  "  A  Mohammedan 
once  illustrated  the  difference  between  the  demands  made  by 
Islam,  and  Christianity  respectively  by  pointing  to  his  own  loose, 
roomy  garments,  and  contrasting  them  with  the  tight  and 
hampering  garments  of  the  Christian  missionary." 

^ne  very  a^^e  anc^  interesting  Eeport  of  Commission  IV.  of  the 
Edinburgh  Conference,  drafted  by  Professor  Cairns,  suggests 
another  cause  for  the  spread  of  Islam  among  animistic  peoples, 
based  on  Dr.  J.  Warneck's  account  of  its  influence  in  the  East 
Indian  archipelago.  "  To  the  animist  the  world  is  peopled  by 
many  unseen  beings,  who  are  envious  of  the  living,  and  who, 
unless  propitiated,  strike  them  with  disease  or  calamity.  Hence 
the  message  of  one  Almighty  God  comes  as  good  tidings  of  great 
joy.  Because  God  is  One  .  .  .  and  because  He  is  Almighty,  He 
can  protect  the  worshippers.  .  .  .  Have  we  not  here  a  clue  to  the 
rapid  spread  of  Islam  among  the  animistic  peoples  ?  " 

gress?0"  Of  tne  advance  of  Islam  in  both  West  and  East  Africa  there  is 

no  doubt.  The  constant  increase  of  mosques  in  the  towns  and 
villages  tells  its  own  story.  At  Lagos  itself  a  new  mosque  was 
built  in  1913  at  a  cost  of  £12,000;  but  that,  naturally,  is  ex 
ceptional.  At  its  inauguration  the  headmaster  of  the  Government 
school  for  Moslems  spoke  of  British  rule  as  "  the  star  in  the 
heavens  which  guided  Islam  to  the  shore  of  liberty."  The  notion 
undoubtedly  prevails  that  the  Government  favours  Islam,  and  this, 
with  the  Moslem  support  of  polygamy,  sufficiently  accounts  for 
the  welcome  it  meets  with.  Much  the  same  condition  of  things 
prevails  in  both  British  and  German  East  Africa.  But  the  best 
European  rulers  know  well  that  Islam  does  not  tend  to  the  peace 


AFRICA  -.    THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        43 

and  order  and  loyalty  of  the  people  they  have  to   govern.     In    PART  11. 
German  East  Africa  the  authorities  begged  the  missionaries  to       ^—-  ' 
give  the  children  a  Christian  education  on  that  account ;  and  one 
of  the  Governors  of  British  East  Africa,  Sir  Percy  Girouard,  in  a 
speech  on  board  a  liner  in  1910,  said  that  the  Government  and 
the  missionary  must  combine  to  combat  the  advance  of  Moham 
medanism. 

It  is  fashionable  to  praise  Islam  and  sneer  at  Christian  Missions,  its  Results. 
Mr.  Morel  does  not  sneer,  and  he  would  give  Missions  a  free 
hand  among  Pagan  tribes  ;  but  he  urges  the  British  authorities  to 
prohibit  them  in  Moslem  districts,  and  argues  that  Islam  is  more 
suited  to  the  African  than  Christianity,  (1)  because  it  is  less  of  an 
alien  faith — -which  means  that  it  can  tolerate  barbarous  customs ; 
and  (2)  because  it  allows  polygamy  and  thus  tends  to  the  increase 
of  population — which  is  by  no  means  clear,  and  rather  seems  to  be 
the  contrary  of  the  fact.*  Very  different  has  been  the  opinion  of 
the  best  observers.  Livingstone  said,  "  Heathen  Africans  arc 
much  superior  to  the  Mohammedans,  who  are  the  most  worthless 
one  can  have."  M.  Mage,  the  French  traveller  in  Senegambia, 
said,  "  Islam  is  at  the  bottom  of  the  weight  of  ills  under  which 
Africa  is  suffering."  Schweinfurth,  one  of  the  greatest  of  African 
explorers,  pronounced  the  mattams,  the  Moslem  wandering  teachers 
who  had  been  called  "  single-minded  missionaries  "  by  a  lecturer 
at  the  Eoyal  Institution,  to  be  "incarnations  of  human  depravity." 
Capt.  Orr,  E.A.,  in  his  important  work,  The  Making  of  Northern 
Nigeria^  takes  a  middle  line.  "Even  if  it  be  true,"  he  says, 
"  that  Islam  lays  a  dead  hand  on  a  people  who  have  reached  a 
certain  standard  of  civilization,  it  is  impossible  to  deny  its  quicken 
ing  influence  011  African  races  in  a  backward  state  of  evolution." 
"Not,"  he  adds,  "  that  the  spread  of  Islam  amongst  Pagan  tribes 
is  wholly  beneficial.  Its  appeal  to  his  sensual  nature  is  not  without 
its  effect.  The  very  civilization  which  Islam  brings  teaches  its 
vices  as  well  as  its  virtues."  I  If  it  be  remarked  that  Christian 
civilization  does  the  same,  which  in  a  sense  is  true,  the  answer  is 
that  the  vices  of  Islam  are  an  inherent  part  of  it,  whereas  the  vices 
of  Christians  are  the  antithesis  of  real  Christianity. 

MORE  ABOUT  THE  C.M.S.  FIELDS. 

Concerning  three  parts  of  Africa  which  are  not  only  under 
British  rule  or  influence  but  are  C.M.S.  fields  of  work,  viz.,  Nigeria, 
British  East  Africa  and  Uganda,  and  Egypt  and  the  Eastern 
Sudan,  something  more  must  be  said. 

*  In  his  book  on  Nigeria,  1911.  This  work  is  well  reviewed,  and  answered, 
in  the  International  Reviciv  of  Missions,  April,  1912.  See  also  Contcmp.  Rev. , 
Oct.,  1906. 

t  Macmillan,  1911. 

j  It  is  the  testimony  of  missionaries  who  know  the  languages,  and  there 
fore  the  customs,  of  the  peoples  better  than  most  officials  or  traders,  that 
Mohammedans  introduce  grosser  immoralities  than  pagan  tribes  had  tolerated, 
and  for  which  the  pagan  penalty  would  have  been  death. 


44        A  f  RICA:   Tim  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

PART  II.        It   is  a    fact    worth    noting   that  within    a  few  months  of   the 

chain  4.    Qentenary?  an(j  before  the  twentieth  century  opened,  these  three 

Three  new    great  territories  all  received  new  chief  administrators  of  special 

"   experience  and  high    character.     A    few  days  before  Christmas, 

1899,   Sir  H.  H.   Johnston,  who    had    governed   British   Central 

Africa  very  successfully,   arrived   in  Uganda   as  "  Special   Com 

missioner,   Commander-in-chief,    and    Consul-General."     On    the 

following  New  Year's  Day,  1900,  Colonel  (now  General  Sir  F.) 

Lugard  assumed    the    office    of    High    Commissioner  of    Upper 

Nigeria.     And   even  a  little  before  this,  Sir  F.  E.  Wingate  had 

become  Sirdar  of  the  Eastern  Sudan  on  Lord  Kitchener's  recall 

and  commission  as  Chief  of  the  Staff  in  South  Africa. 

Lugard's  appointment  was  particularly  interesting.     It  was  he 


in  W]1O  had  restored  peace  and  order  in  Uganda,  when  he  was  only 
there  as  agent  of  the  British  East  Africa  Company  ;  and  now  he 
was  to  take  his  energy  and  good  judgment  to  West  Africa.  And 
the  sequel  is  still  more  interesting.  At  that  time  Upper  or  Northern 
Nigeria  was  a  protectorate  by  itself.  Southern  Nigeria  and  Lagos 
were  both  separate  governments.  The  three  territories  are  now, 
from  January  1st,  1914,  provinces  under  one  administration  ;  and 
the  first  Governor-General  of  the  whole  vast  region  is  Sir  Frederick 
Lugard. 

Nigeria:  its  Nigeria,  as  the  whole  Colony  and  Protectorate  are  now  called,  is 
importance.  bofo  m  sjze  an(j  population,  next  to  India,  the  largest  and  most 
important  of  British  tropical  dependencies.  It  is  in  area  five 
times  the  size  of  the  British  Isles,  and  equal  to  Germany,  Italy, 
and  Holland  together.  Its  population,  estimated  at  from  15  to 
17  millions,  is  double  that  of  British  East  Africa,  Uganda,  and 
Nyasaland  together,  and  three  times  that  of  the  Union  of  South 
Africa  ;  and  in  density,  while  South  Africa  has  12*6  to  the  square 
mile,  and  Uganda  about  the  same,  Nigeria  has  45  '4  ;  or,  taking 
Southern  Nigeria  alone,  98'4.*  No  wonder  King  George  V.  tele 
graphed  on  the  day  of  the  proclamation  uniting  the  whole  country 
under  the  one  Governor-General,  "  I  wish  to  convey  to  the  Emirs, 
Chiefs,  and  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  New  Protectorate  and  the 
Colony  my  best  wishes  for  their  future  happiness.  Pray  assure 
them  of  the  great  interest  I  take  in  all  that  concerns  their  welfare, 
and  express  my  earnest  hope  that  great  prosperity  may  be  in  store 
for  them."  f 

Material  So,  after  good  service  elsewhere,  particularly  at  Hong  Kong,  Sir 
5rogress.  -^  Lugard  has  come  back  to  rule  a  country  of  which  he  himself 
reduced  a  large  portion  to  order  sixteen  years  ago.  He  has  seen 
the  immense  development  that  has  marked  the  interval.  In 
particular,  the  railway  now  extends  from  Lagos  to  Kano,  a 
distance  of  670  miles.  In  its  earlier  stages  it  was  of  course  a 
great  wonder  ;  and  it  proved  a  help  to  the  Missions  as  well  as  to 

*  For  further  comparisons  sec  C.M.S.  Gazette,  July,  1913,  p.  205. 
t  See  Bishop  Tugwell's  Address  to  the  Synod  of  Western  Equatorial  Africa, 
C.M.  Review,  Oct.,  1914. 


AFRICA  :   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        45 

trade.  In  January,  1900,  when  a  new  church  was  to  be  dedicated  PART  n. 
at  Abeokuta,  only  sixty  miles  from  the  coast,  the  Governor  of  Lagos,  Chap-  4- 
Sir  W.  Macgregor,  arranged  for  a  train  to  go  up  in  one  day  and 
return  two  days  later.  In  the  following  October,  the  British 
authorities  invited  the  Alake  (chief  "  king  ")  of  Abeokuta,  and  four 
other  "  kings,"  to  visit  Lagos.  For  a  "  king  "  to  leave  his  own 
territory  was  an  innovation  indeed,  but  they  came  down  by 
the  special  train  provided,  and  stayed  five  days ;  and  at  the 
request  of  the  Lieutenant- Governor,  Sir  G.  C.  Denton,  a  special 
service  for  them  was  arranged  at  Christ  Church,  Avhen  Bishop 
Oluwole  preached  on  Ps.  Ixxii.  11,  "  Yea,  all  kings  shall  fall  down 
before  Him,  all  nations  shall  serve  Him."  But  all  this  is  ancient 
history  now.  It  would  be  more  up-to-date  if  a  similar  visit  from 
the  far  greater  Mohammedan  potentates  in  the  Central  Sudan,  and 
their  use  of  the  railway  which  has  now  pierced  their  territories, 
had  to  be  recorded.  Meanwhile,  another  railway,  roughly  parallel 
to  this  one,  but  farther  east,  is  to  start  from  a  terminus  near 
Bonny,  which  is  to  be  called  Port  Harcourt  after  the  late 
Secretary  of  State  for  the  Colonies,  and  run  northwards  till  it 
strikes  the  Binue  River,  and  thence  on  towards  Kano,  thus 
providing  an  alternative  route  to  the  interior.  Other  railways 
are  in  progress.  Moreover,  Lagos,  the  Liverpool  of  West  Africa, 
as  it  has  been  called,  is  now  an  accessible  port.  Until  lately,  the 
liners  and  other  large  vessels  had  to  lie  out  at  sea  while  small 
steamboats  crossed  the  bar  between  them  and  the  harbour  with 
exports,  imports,  and  passengers.  Now,  ships  of  8000  tons  can 
enter  and  lie  alongside  the  quays.  The  population  of  Lagos  at 
the  last  census  in  1911  was  73,766.  Of  these,  21,155  were  Chris 
tians,  36,018  Mohammedans,  and  16,953  Pagans. 

The  importance  of  these  facilities  for  communication  and  trade  Commercial 
is  shown  by  the  remarkable  success  of  the  indigenous  industries  ment!°P" 
in  West  Africa.  The  exports  of  palm  oil  and  kernel  have  grown 
immensely  in  recent  years.  "  No  one,"  says  Mr.  Morel,  "  can 
study  the  ramifications  of  this  great  trade,  built  up  by  the  volun 
tary  labour  of  black  men,  women,  and  children,  without  reflecting 
that  the  industry  of  these  misunderstood  and  sneered-at  Africans, 
whom  a  cheap  ignorance  describes  as  lazy,  is  feeding  crushing- 
mills  at  Liverpool,  Hamburg,  Magdeburg,  Bremen,  and  on  the 
Rhine,  providing  freight  for  steamers  all  over  the  world ;  enriching 
European  and  American  undertakings  .  .  .  paying  the  wages  of 
tens  of  thousands  of  white  workers."  Cocoa,  which  is  produced 
in  other  parts  by  means  of  foreign  capital  and  imported  labour, 
is  produced  in  the  Gold  Coast  Colony  and  Ashanti  by  the  natives 
without  capital  or  machinery,  and  beats  competitors  in  the  race. 
Economic  servitude,  therefore,  as  Mr.  Morel  argues,  "  reposes 
upon  nothing  but  selfish  greed.  Morally  it  is  outrageous.  Eco 
nomically  it  is  proven  unsound."  * 

*  See  Mr.  Morel's  article  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  of  March,  1914. 


PART  II. 
Chap. 4. 

SirH.  H. 
Johnston 
in  Uganda. 


The 

Uganda 

Hallway. 


Material 
progress  in 
Ut 


46  AFRICA:     THE   POWERS  AND    THE   PEOPLES. 

Reverting  to  the  commencement  of  the  year  under  review,  let 
us  now  cross  the  continent  to  British  East  Africa  and  Uganda. 
Simultaneously,  as  we  have  seen,  with  Colonel  Lugard's  accession 
to  the  administration  of  Northern  Nigeria,  Sir  Harry  Johnston 
began  his  work  in  Uganda  as  Special  Commissioner.  Let  it  at 
once  be  here  noted  that  Uganda  proper,  the  old  kingdom  of  Mtesa 
and  Mwanga,  is  now  called  by  its  native  name  "  Buganda,"  while 
the  name  "  Uganda "  means  the  whole  Uganda  Protectorate, 
including  Buganda,  Busoga,  Bunyoro,  Toro,  Kavirondo,  and  many 
other  states  and  districts  all  round ;  and  although  this  official 
distinction  only  dates  from  1910,  it  is  observed  throughout 
these  pages. 

On  Sir  H.  Johnston's  way  to  Buganda  he  passed  through 
Busoga,  where  Bishop  Hannington  was  murdered ;  and  he  said  to 
the  Basoga  chiefs,  "  Long  ago  we  English  were  like  the  Kavirondo 
people  and  wore  no  clothes,  and  smeared  our  bodies  with  paint, 
but  when  we  learned  Christianity  from  the  Romans,  we  changed, 
and  became  great";  and  he  advised  them  to  do  the  same.  And 
one  of  his  first  acts  on  arrival  in  Buganda  was  to  attend  the 
Christmas  Day  service  in  the  great  church  on  Namirembe  Hill, 
conducted,  not  by  Bishop  Tucker  or  Archdeacon  Walker,  but  by 
two  Baganda  clergymen. 

The  Uganda  Eailway  reached  the  Victoria  Nyanza  on  Dec.  20th, 
1901,  at  a  spot  to  which  was  given  the  name  of  Port  Florence 
(but  only  for  a  time ;  the  local  name,  Kisumu,  is  now  used).  It 
had  taken  five  years  and  a  half  to  complete  the  583  miles.  The 
difficulties  had  been  enormous.  The  latter  half  of  the  route  was 
mountainous,  "  rising  to  7700  ft.  near  mile  350,  falling  to  6000  ft. 
near  mile  425,  again  rising  to  8300  ft.  at  mile  490,  and  finally 
falling  3700  ft.  at  the  terminus  on  the  Lake."  An  army  of  20,000 
labourers  had  been  brought  from  India,  fed,  housed,  clothed, 
equipped ;  and  all  materials  and  stores  had  come  from  India  or 
England.  Man-eating  lions  had  attacked  the  labourers  repeatedly, 
and  carried  off  some ;  and  in  the  unhealthy  districts  near  the 
coast  there  had  been  much  sickness.  The  cost  had  been 
£5,550,000.  But  the  rails,  though  laid,  were  not  ready  for  traffic 
for  another  year.  Meanwhile  steamers  were  built  and  launched 
on  the  Lake,  to  ply  between  the  railway  terminus  at  Port 
Florence  and  the  port  of  Buganda,  Entebbe.  For  it  must  be 
remembered  that  the  Victoria  Nyanza  is  as  large  as  Ireland. 
Not  a  mile,  therefore,  of  the  Uganda  Railway  is  in  Uganda.  Our 
newspapers  generally  write  of  incidents  occurring  in  the  countries 
through  which  it  passes  as  "  in  Uganda."  But  the  Uganda 
Railway  is  a  Railway  to  Uganda,  just  as  the  Brighton  Railway  is  a 
railway  to  Brighton,  and  not  in  Brighton. 

From  that  time  the  various  outward  signs  of  civilized  life  in 
Uganda  multiplied  greatly.  Brick  houses  were  built  for  the 
chiefs,  and  in  1902  it  was  noted  that  they  sat  at  table  for  meals 
and  used  plates  and  knives  and  forks,  and  that  one  chief  had  even 


AFRICA-.    THE  POWERS  AXD  THE  PEOPLES.        47 

dared  to  allow  his  wife  to  dine  with  him.     Shops  of  all  kinds    PART  n. 
were  opened,  many  of  them  kept  by  Indians  of  the  Bania  caste —    Chap"  4' 
the   traders.     Bicycles   soon   arrived ;  and   subsequently  motors. 
Planters  from  Europe  and  India  took  up  estates,  and  employed 
many  hundreds  of  labourers;  and  the  cotton  and  rubber  indus 
tries  have  been  growing  ever  since.     In  1913,  among  the  features 
of  "  civilization  "  reported  were  three  hotels,  restaurants,  and  a 
kinematograph   theatre  ! — (of   course   for   Kampala,   the    British 
headquarters).* 

It  was  during  Sir  H.  Johnston's  Commissionership  that  arrange-  The  young 
ments  were  settled  for  the  future  government  of  the  country.  Kabaka- 
Mwanga's  younger  son,  Chwa,  who  had  been  baptized  by  the 
name  of  Daudi  (David),  was  appointed  his  successor,  with  the 
title  "  His  Highness  the  Kabaka  of  Uganda."  There  was  to  be 
a  Council  of  twenty  chiefs,  three  of  whom  would  be  Eegents 
during  the  Kabaka's  minority ;  and  of  this  Council  the  Katikiro, 
Apolo  Kagwa,  was  to  be  President.  The  administration  of  the 
country  would  thus  be  largely  in  native  hands,  the  Commissioner 
representing  the  British  Crown  and  having  the  ultimate  authority. 
The  Kabaka  was  then  four  years  old,  and  his  birthday,  Aug.  8th, 
was  celebrated  on  Aug.  14th,  1900,  by  a  service  in  the  "  cathedral." 
In  1910  he  was  confirmed  by  Bishop  Tucker,  and  in  the  same 
week  was  publicly  installed  as  Kabaka,  being  then  fourteen  years 
of  age.  The  greatest  care  was  taken  about  his  education,  and  not 
the  least  important  part  of  it  was  his  visit  to  England  in  1913, 
under  the  charge  of  his  official  tutor,  Mr.  Sturrock.  In  1914  he 
attained  his  majority,  and  formally  took  his  position  as  Kabaka 
on  Aug.  8th,  taking  also  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  King  George  V. 
On  Sept.  19th  he  was  married  to  a  daughter  of  one  of  the  Baganda 
clergy,  the  Rev.  Yonasani  Kaidzi.  Her  name  is  Airini  Dulosira 
(Irene  Drusilla).  She  was  in  the  Gayaza  Boarding  School  for 
nine  years,  and  head  girl  for  over  a  year ;  and  she  was  the  best 
English  scholar  of  her  day.  She  is  described  by  a  lady  missionary 
who  had  some  part  in  her  education  as  "  a  most  charming  lady." 

The  Kabaka's  "  investiture,"  an  ancient  national  ceremony 
called  "  Confirming  the  King  in  his  Kingdom,"  and  answering 
to  our  coronation,  took  place  on  Nov.  7th,  on  a  hill  at  Budo,  nine 
miles  from  the  capital.  For  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  Uganda 
it  was  a  Christian  ceremony,  solemnized  by  a  Christian  bishop.| 

Uganda  owes  much  to  the  Katikiro,  whose  real  ability  is  as  The  Kati- 
marked  as  his  genuine  Christian  character.     He  was  one  of  the  kiro< 
earliest  converts  in  Mtesa's  day,  and  was  a  sufferer  at  Mwanga's 
hands  in  the  persecution  of  1886.     He  visited  England  in  1902, 
being  an  invited  guest  to  King  Edward's  coronation.     He  was 

*  Some  interesting  figures  showing  the  material  prosperity  of  Uganda, 
taken  by  Bishop  Willis  from  the  Government  reports,  will  be  found  in  the 
C.M.8.  Gazette  of  Nov.,  1915,  p.  336. 

t  See  the  extremely  interesting  account  by  Dr.  J.  H,  Cook,  in  the  C.M. 
Review  of  February,  1915. 


48        A  FA  ic A:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

PART  n.  accompanied  by  his  secretary,  Ham  Mukasa,  who  wrote  an 
chap^  4.  excee(jjngiy  interesting  book  on  their  experiences  en  route  and  in 
this  country,  which  was  translated  into  English  by  the  Eev.  E. 
Millar,  and  published  by  Hutchinson.*  Ham  Mukasa  and  his  book 
were  referred  to  appreciatively  by  Colonel  Sadler  at  a  meeting  of 
the  Colonial  Institute  in  December,  1904.  It  was  a  graceful  act 
of  King  Edward  to  include  the  Katikiro  in  the  birthday  honours 
of  1905,  when  he  was  appointed  a  K.C.M.G.,  and  became  Sir 
Apolo  Kagwa.  He  was  an  able  administrator  during  the  Kabaka's 
minority ;  and  his  care  for  the  Christian  instruction  of  the  people 
is  evidenced,  inter  alia,  by  the  Bible  class  for  chiefs  held  weekly  in 
his  house,  with  an  average  attendance  of  sixty.  \ 

British  British   East  Africa  is  the  country  between  the  Uganda  Pro- 

p?oteetfo-°a  tectorate  and  the  East  Coast.     Its  port,   Mombasa,  on   a   small 
rate.  island  in  an  inlet,  whence  the  Uganda  Eailway  starts,  was  for 

some  years  the  capital ;  but  the  headquarters  of  the  Government 
are  now  at  Nairobi,  on  the  much  higher  and  healthier  ground 
halfway  between  the  coast  and  the  Victoria  Nyanza.  Mombasa 
harbour  is  a  fine  one,  but  British  steamship  companies  were  slow 
to  avail  themselves  of  its  advantages,  and  for  several  years  German 
liners  carried  the  trade  of  the  country.  To  C.M.S.  friends 
Mombasa  is  historically  interesting,  as  the  place  where  the  first 
missionary  on  the  coast,  J.  L.  Krapf,  landed  in  1844,  and  was  the 
first  to  hear  from  Arab  traders  of  the  great  mountains  and  lakes 
of  the  interior;  and  in  its  neighbourhood  lived  his  comrade 
Eebmann,  thirty  years  without  coming  home.  Together  with 
the  mixed  Swahili  (coast)  people,  partly  Arab  in  origin  and 
Mohammedan  in  religion,  and  the  descendants  of  the  former 
slaves  from  the  interior  tribes,  there  is  an  increasing  contingent 
of  Indian  traders,  who  are  more  and  more  settling  on  the  coast. 
In  the  interior  there  are  numerous  nations  and  tribes,  some,  as 
the  Wa-kikuyu,  of  the  Bantu  race,  and  others,  as  the  Masai,  of 
Hamitic  origin.  The  Government  estimates  the  population  by 
the  number  of  huts  (ascertained  for  the  hut-tax),  reckoning  an 
average  of  four  people  to  the  hut. 

The  whole  of  the  Protectorate  is  now  organized  under  British 
administrators ;  and  white  emigrants  from  Europe  are  making 
their  homes  in  the  highlands  accessible  by  the  railway.  Mr. 
Joseph  Chamberlain,  who  as  Colonial  Secretary  visited  East 
Africa  in  1902,  was  greatly  struck  with  the  prospects  of  the 
AMc?nSt  countrv-  Colonel  Kenyon,  E.E.  (a  member  of  the  C.M.S.  Corn- 
pictures,  mittee),  after  a  visit  to  the  country  in  1913,  wrote,  "  From  what 
ever  point  of  view  the  traveller  looks  at  East  Africa  and  Uganda, 
he  finds  them  teeming  with  interest.  To  the  sportsman  or 
naturalist  the  herds  of  hartebeest  and  wildebeeste,  of  Thomson  s 
gazelle  and  of  zebra,  the  flocks  of  ostriches,  the  groups  of  giraffes, 
seen  from  the  train  as  he  journeys  from  Mombasa  to  Nairobi  and 

*  See  extracts  in  the  CM.  IntelL,  Jan.,  1905. 

t  Two  of  the  Katikiro's  sons  are  now  at  Mr.  Fraser's  College  in  Ceylon. 


AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        49 

the  Nyanza,  appeal  strongly.  The  entomologist  and  botanist  find  PART  11. 
abundant  scope  for  their  studies  in  the  butterflies  and  beetles,  the  Chap- 4- 
flowers  and  trees  everywhere.  The  numerous  types  of  mankind, 
varying  from  the  naked  savage  of  Kavirondo  to  the  polished  chief 
or  clergyman  of  Uganda,  attract  the  attention  of  the  anthropologist; . 
The  student  of  medicine  and  sanitation  finds  abundant  occupation 
in  his  ^  investigations  of  plague  and  sleeping  sickness ;  while  the 
politician  and  historian  have  fascinating  subjects  in  the  past 
history  and  future  prospects  of  these  wonderful  Protectorates."  * 
A  railway  journey  through  East  Africa  was  humorously  described 
by  Sir  Charles  Eliot,  the  Commissioner  in  the  earlier  years  of  the 
present  century,  as  reminding  the  traveller  of  Punch's  "  Pre 
historic  Peeps  "  :—-"  Near  the  stations  the  ostrich  and  the  barn 
door  fowl  almost  intermingle.  The  obstinate  rhinoceros,  which 
assimilates  new  ideas  more  slowly  than  other  beasts,  disputes  the 
passage  of  the  train  in  a  narrow  cutting  and  derails  it,  though  he 
perishes  in  the  attempt.  A  troop  of  more  intelligent  elephants 
occasionally  occupy  a  station,  and  in  their  curiosity  ravage  the 
booking-office  and  take  tickets,  which  cannot  be  accounted  for 
afterwards." 

With  a  view  to  promoting  industries  in  East  Africa  and  Uganda,  African 
two  companies  were  established  in  1903-06,  chiefly  through  the  Illdustries- 
energy  of  Mr.  (now  Sir)  T.  F.  V.  Buxton,  whose  friends  rallied  round 
him  to  find  the  necessary  capital ;  viz.,  the  East  African  Industries, 
Ltd.,  and  the  Uganda  Company,  Ltd.  This  is  not  the  place  for 
details  of  the  work  done,  but  it  is  clear  to  all  readers  of  the 
occasional  notices  in  the  C.M.S.  publications  that  real  good 
has  been  effected.f  Three  laymen  who  had  been  upon  the 
Society's  staff  were  allowed  to  take  service  under  one  or  other  of 
these  companies.  One,  Mr.  Kristen  E.  Borup,  was  a  Danish 
Canadian,  and  it  was  under  his  superintendence  that  the  cathe 
dral  in  Uganda  was  built  which  was  afterwards  burnt  down. 
Another  was  Mr.  Hugh  Savile,  a  son  of  the  venerable  Colonel 
Sayile  of  Bristol ;  and  the  third  was  Mr.  J.  A.  Bailey,  whose  wife 
(Miss  Harvey)  was  the  first  woman  missionary  sent  by  the  Society 
to  East  Africa.  By  means  of  this  industrial  work  the  dignity  of 
labour  was  being  slowly  but  surely  learned.  In  1908  an  Industrial 
Exhibition  was  held  in  Uganda,  at  which  there  were  4000  exhibits. 

Eeverting  once  more  to  the  beginning  of  the  century,  and  turning  The 
our  attention  to  the  Anglo- Egyptian  Sudan,  we  find  the  Sirdar, 
Sir  F.  E.  Wingate,  and  the  representative  of  Great  Britain  in 
Egypt,  Lord  Cromer,  grappling  with  admirable  skill  and  uninter 
rupted  success  with  the  grave  problems  before  them.  In  due 
course  Lord  Cromer  was  succeeded  by  Sir  Eldon  Gorst,  and  he  by 
Lord  Kitchener  ;  but  Sir  F.  Wingate  has  continued  at  his  important 
post  throughout  the  period  under  review.  In  Egypt,  the  Anglo- 

*  C.M.  Review,  Jan.,  1914.     Of  Mombasa  an  excellent  account  was  given 
in  the  Review  of  May,  1911,  by  the  Kev.  G.  W.  Wright. 
t  See  especially  Mr.  Buxton's  article  in  the  C.M.  Revictu,  Jan.,  1909. 


PAKT  II. 
Chap.  4. 


Material 
Progress. 


50        AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES. 

French  Agreement  of  1904  delivered  the  British  Government  from 
many  difficulties,  and  set  England  free  to  develop  her  own  policy 
which  was,  in  one  sentence,  to  see  that  the  country  was  governed 
in  no  other  interest  than  that  of  the  people  to  be  governed. 
Materially  the  progress  in  prosperity,  both  in  Egypt  and  in  the 
Sudan,  was  marked  year  by  year.  The  construction  of  the  great 
dam  at  Assuan,  completed  in  1902,  added  largely  to  the  national 
resources,  and  emphasized  afresh  the  dependence  of  Egypt  upon 
its  historic  river.*  The  railway  to  Khartum,  and  the  regular 
steamers  from  Khartum  plying  over  a  thousand  miles  to  the 
borders  of  the  Uganda  Protectorate,  made  communication  easy 
from  the  Mediterranean  to  the  very  heart  of  Africa  ;  and  the 
opening  of  the  branch  line  to  the  Bed  Sea  at  the  new  town  called 
Port  Sudan  brought  the  whole  country  into  closer  touch  with 
the  outside  world.  But  still  more  important  was  the  promotion 
of  justice  in  the  Egyptian  courts  and  of  education  f  for  the  people  ; 
while  in  the  Sudan  the  deliverance  of  the  unhappy  peasants  from 
the  shocking  barbarities  of  the  Khalifa's  rule,  and  the  establish 
ment  of  law  and  order  generally,  gave  the  whole  world  an  object 
lesson  of  the  beneficial  influence  of  British  protection.  Mr.  (now 
Bishop)  G  wynne  wrote  in  1903  :— 

"  The  people  who  five  years  ago  were  of  all  men  the  most  wretched, 
and  were  under  the  rule  of  perhaps  the  most  bloodthirsty  tyrant  the 
world  has  seen  since  Nero,  are  now  contented  and  happy  and  doing  well. 
Where  ruined  houses  banked  up  by  mud  and  sand  showed  all  that  re 
mained  of  the  city  of  Gordon,  now  stand  magnificent  buildings,  finely- 
built  houses  and  shops,  well-planned  streets.  Instead  of  the  arbitrary 
and  cruel  injustice  and  oppression  when  every  official  had  his  price  to  be 
bribed,  now  are  established  justice,  liberty,  and  righteousness,  never  even 
dreamed  of  in  all  the  history  of  the  people.  .  .  .  The  chiefs  of  depart 
ments  are  earnest  God-fearing  men,  and  set  a  high  tone  to  the  rest  of  our 
countrymen." 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Gordon  College  at  Khartum,  with  its 
endowment  of  £100,000,  and  its  first-rate  education  for  Moham 
medans,  could  only  be  regarded  with  partial  approval  by  Christian 
people,  who  felt  that  the  encouragement  of  Islam  and  the  ex 
clusion  of  the  Bible  involved  a  policy  singularly  inappropriate  as 
a  memorial  to  a  great  Christian  hero.J  But  the  fact  is  that,  as  a 
chaplain  at  Assuan,  Canon  Oldfield,  said  three  or  four  years  ago, 
Islam  re-  British  domination  has,  in  a  sense,  "  re-established  Islam."  While 
the  Mohammedans  are  protected  by  a  Christian  Government  against 
Christian  "  proselytism,"  Mohammedan  officials  are  sent  freely 
into  Pagan  districts  where  all  their  influence  is  exerted  to  induce 

*  See  a  full  account  of  this  great  undertaking  in  the  CM.  Intell.  of 
April,  1906. 

f  A  good  account  of  the  problems  of  education  in  Egypt  was  given  by  JDr. 
Sailer  of  the  American  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  International  Review  of 
Missions,  July,  1912. 

J  See  further,  Chap.  IX.,  p.  105,  where  the  action  of  the  C.M.S.  is 
described. 


The  Gordon 
college. 


AFRICA:   THE  POWERS  AND  THE  PEOPLES.        51 

the  people  to  embrace  Islam.     When  King  Leopold  of  Belgium   PAKT  u. 
died,  a  large  Pagan  territory  known  as  the  Lado  Enclave,  between    Chap- 4- 
the  Upper  Nile  and  the  Congo  State,  which  had  been  leased  to 
him  by  Great  Britain,  reverted  to  British  rule ;  and  Mohammedan 
soldiers  and  school-teachers  were  at  once  sent  in,  to  keep  order 
and  to  open  schools.* 

Thus  we  have  taken  a  rapid  and  cursory  survey  of  public  events 
in  Africa  both  before  and  since  the  C.M.S.  Centenary,  of  some  of 
the  evils  that  have  afflicted  or  are  afflicting  the  African  peoples, 
and  of  the  political  and  material  progress  of  certain  parts  of  Africa \ 
Nigeria,  East  Africa  and  Uganda,  and  the  Eastern  Sudan,  in 
which  the  C.M.S.  is  especially  interested.  The  Missions  carried 
on  in  those  and  other  parts  will  occupy  our  attention  in  the 
following  chapters. 

Only  three  years  ago  we  were  celebrating  the  centenary  of  the  Centenary 
birth  of  Livingstone,  which  almost  coincided  with  the  fortieth  stone!ing~ 
anniversary  of  his  death  (May,  1873),  that  death  which  was  the 
starting-point  and  the  inspiration  of  so  much  good  that  has  since 
been  done  in  Africa.  Florence  Nightingale  used  to  call  him  the 
John  Baptist  of  the  nineteenth  century.  John  the  Baptist  did  not 
live  to  see  the  Church  baptized  with  the  Holy  Ghost  in  accordance 
with  his  inspired  announcement ;  and  Livingstone  died  alone, 
with  no  apparent  prospect  of  an  answer  fo  his  prayers.  What 
would  John  have  said  if  he  had  seen  the  Council  of  Jerusalem 
listening  to  St.  Paul  and  St.  Barnabas  as  they  told  of  the  spread 
of  the  Gospel  among  the  Gentiles  ?  And  what  would  Livingstone 
say  if  he  could  join  to-day  in  the  worship  of  an  African  congre 
gation  in  the  great  Presbyterian  church  at  Blantyre  or  in  the 
cathedral  of  Uganda  ?  f 

*  Reference  may  here  be  made  to  an  interesting  article  by  Mr.  Buxton  in 
the  C.M.  Review  of  July,  1907,  in  which  the  benefits  of  British  influence  are 
set  forth,  gathered  partly  from  the  last  Report  sent  to  the  Government  by 
Lord  Cromer  before  his  retirement ;  and  in  which  the  patronage  of  Moham 
medanism  and  the  position  of  the  Coptic  Church  are  commented  on.  Also  to 
a  review  by  Mr.  Baylis  of  Lord  Cromer's  Modern  Egypt,  in  the  C  M. 
Review  of  July,  1908. 

^t  See  article  on  Livingstone  in  the  C.M.  Review,  March,  1913,  the  time  of 
his  centenary. 


CHAPTER   V. 


PART  11. 
Chap.  5. 


Missions  in 
the  North. 


West 
African 


AFRICA:  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

Missions  in  North  Africa-In  West  and  South-West  Africa- In  East  and 
South  Central  Africa-In  South  Africa— Roman  Missions. 

IEEOBE  entering  on  the  history  of  the  C.M.S.  Missions 
in  Africa  in  the  sixteen  years,  we  must  just  glance  at 
the  general  position  of  missionary  enterprise  in  the 
Dark  Continent.  There  has  been  considerable  exten 
sion  and  development  in  the  period,  but  we  cannot 
attempt  to  examine  the  details.  A  few  figures,  however,  gathered 
chiefly  for  convenience  from  the  admirable  Statistical  Atlas  com 
piled  for  the  Edinburgh  Conference  of  1910  will  suffice  for  our 
purpose.  That  Atlas  divides  the  Continent  into  seven  parts, 
North-Bast  North- West,  West,  South-West,  South,  South  Central, 
and  East.  We  will  briefly  look  at  these  separately,  and  notice  in 
passing  some  of  the  prominent  Missions. 

"  I.  North-East  Africa  (Egypt,  Eastern  Sudan,  Abyssinia,  &c.). 
The  principal  work  in  this  great  area  is  that  of  the  American 
Presbyterians,  chiefly  in  Egypt.  They  had,  when  the  figures  were 
made  up  124  missionaries,  and  nearly  600  native  workers,  Ihe 
C.M.S.,  the  Egypt  General  Mission,  and  a  Swedish  Society  in 
Abyssinia,  are  at  work,  and  a  dozen  other  smaller  organizations. 
The  whole  number  of  missionaries  is  given  as  296.  No  figures  are 
riven  of  converts,  because  the  large  majority  of  the  Christians 
connected  with  the  American  Mission  are  from  the  Coptic  Church, 
and  therefore  not  within  the  "Edinburgh"  purview;  but  the 
influence  of  this  Mission  has  been  great.  Mention  should  also  be 
made  of  the  Nile  Mission  Press,  a  most  useful  independent  agency. 

II.  North-West  Africa  (Tripoli  to  Morocco).     Ten  societies  are 
named    but   the   only  one  of    any  size   is  the  undenominational 
North  Africa  Mission,  with  just  half  the  whole  number  of  workers, 
74   out   of    151.      Only   one   returns   its    converts,   the    Central 
Morocco  Mission,  with  50  baptized  persons. 

III.  West  Africa  (Senegal  to  Nigeria).     Twenty-nine  Societies 
were  at  work,  with  a  total  of  518  missionaries,  the  largest  being 
the  Basel  Mission  and  the  O.M.S.,  with  79  and  75  missionaries 
respectively.     The  North  German  Society  (Gold  Coast  and  Togo) 
had   50;    the  English  Wesleyans  (all  along  the  coast)  45;   the 
Sudan  United  Mission,  19  (much  enlarged  since  then) ;  the  8.P.G. 
(Accra),  10.      Sixteen  American  Societies  are  named,  several  ot 
them  working  in  the  American  Negro  Colony  of  Liberia,  where  the 


AFRICA:  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  53 

Methodists  and  Baptists  are  the  strongest,  but  where  the  Negro    PART  n. 

Bishop  Ferguson  has  a  considerable  Church,  the  clergy  numbering    chap  5- 

26.    The  native  workers  numbered  2538,  the  Wesleyans  having  725, 

and  the  C.M.S.  513.    The  baptized  Christians  are  given  as  122,580, 

and  the  whole  number  of  adherents  as  248,702.    Of  the  former,  the 

C.M.S.  is  credited  with  43,700  and  the  Wesleyans  with  31,000 ;  but 

the  latter's  total  of  adherents  is  given  as  the  largest,  being  120,000. 

The  C.M.S.  did  not  return  its  outer  circle.    Among  these  Missions, 

that  of  the  Basel  Society  on  the  Gold  Coast  and  in  Ashanti  holds  a  Gold  Coast. 

high  place.    Its  missionaries,  of  whom  Eamseyer  should  be  specially 

named,  were   twice   rescued   by  British  expeditions,  as  already 

mentioned.      The  S.P.G.   Mission  in   the   Gold  Coast  Colony  is 

interesting  as  a  revival,  in  1904,  after  nearly  a  century's  interval, 

of  what  was  the  first  Mission  in  West  Africa,  begun  as'  long  ago  as 

1751.     The  Colony  is  now  ecclesiastically  the  diocese  of  Accra. 

IV.  South-  West  Africa  (Cameroons  to  German  S.-  W.  A. ).    This  area  The  Congo, 
includes  the  important  Congo  Missions.     The  Societies  numbered  &c' 

18,  the  missionaries  645,  the  native  workers  2217,  the  baptized 
Christians  45,000,  the  total  of  adherents  103,000.  The  Continental 
Societies  have  been  strong  in  the  German  possessions,  the  Basel 
and  the  Ehenish  being  the  largest,  with  84  and  75  missionaries 
respectively.  The  English  Baptist  Society  had  64,  the  "  Brethren  " 
51  (including  Arnot's  Garanganze  Mission  and  Mr.  D.  Crawford's), 
the  Regions  Beyond  Mission  38.  The  S.P.G. ,  which  has  stations 
at  Walfisch  Bay  and  other  places  on  the  coast,  is  credited  with  6. 
Of  the  adherents  the  American  Presbyterians  (South)  are  credited 
with  the  largest  number,  26,500,  though  they  had  only  18  mis 
sionaries  ;  the  English  Baptists  with  12,500  ;  the  Ehenish  Mission 
with  13,000;  the  American  Baptists  with  11,000.  The  old  Baptist 
Mission  in  Cameroon  was  an  interesting  one,  and  had  one  name 
much  honoured,  that  of  Alfred  Saker ;  but  when  Germany  annexed 
the  country,  the  English  missionaries  were  rather  ruthlessly  turned 
out.  The  story  of  the  Baptist  Missions  on  the  Congo  is  a  very 
pathetic  one.  Heroic  pioneers  like  Comber,  McCall,  and  Craven 
died  on  the  river  in  the  earliest  days,  and  Grenf ell  and  Bentley  did 
notable  service.  F.  S.  Arnot,  the  leading  missionary  of  the 
"  Brethren,"  became  widely  known  as  a  missionary  traveller  of 
the  first  class.  The  recent  death  of  Dr.  H.  G.  Guinness,  head  of 
the  Regions  Beyond  Missions  in  Africa  and  elsewhere,  is  a  real 
loss  to  the  whole  missionary  enterprise. 

V.  East  Africa  (British,  German,  Portuguese).    Twenty  Societies  U.M.C.A. 
are  named,  with  630  missionaries ;    the  C.M.S.  having  170,  the  f° East619 
Universities  Mission  73,  the  Africa  Inland  Mission  59,  the  S.P.G.  Africa. 
(Lebombo    diocese,    Portuguese    territory)    19.       The    German 
Missions   were   naturally    strong   in   the    German    territory,    the 
Berlin  Society  having  64,  the  Moravians  55,  the  German  East 
Africa  Society  48,  the  Leipsic  Lutherans  30.     The  native  Chris 
tian  figures   are    comparatively  small   outside  the  C.M.S.,  which 

had  2159  workers  out  of   a  total  of   2962,  and  68,000  baptized 


54  AFRICA:  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

PART  ii.    Christians  out  of  83,000,  due  of  course  to  the  Uganda  Mission. 

chaiKO.  The  u.M.C.A.  is  credited  with  4574  baptized  Christians,  the 
S.P.G.  with  1700,  the  Berlin  Society  with  1668.  But  when  the 
total  of  adherents  is  given,  the  position  is  different.  The  U.M.C.A. 
adds  11,587  to  its  4574,  making  16,161.  The  American  Episcopal 
Methodists  add  11,296  to  their  1377  haptized,  making  12,673. 
But  the  C.M.S.  is  only  credited  with  its  baptized  Christians, 
whereas  in  Uganda  alone  the  catechumens  and  outside  adherents 
are  tens  of  thousands.  This,  however,  only  illustrates  the  exceed 
ing  difficulty  of  making  statistical  tables.  The  Church  of  Scotland 
Mission  is  a  small  one,  then  only  six  missionaries  and  eleven 
Christians  ;  but  it  is  now  famous  owing  to  the  Kikuyu  Conference. 
The  Universities  Mission,  undertaken  in  1859  at  the  instigation  of 
Livingstone,*  is  one  of  exceptional  interest.  Its  bishops  have 
some  almost  all  been  men  of  mark  ;  Mackenzie,  who  died  in  the  earliest 
EastTfrica  days;  Tozer,  who  courageously  moved  the  headquarters  from 
'  South  Africa  to  Zanzibar,  a  step  much  criticized,  but  which 
events  have  abundantly  justified;  Steere,  one  of  the  most  sagacious 
of  missionary  bishops,  who  built  the  cathedral  on  the  site  of  the 
old  slave-market  ;  Smythies,  intrepid  traveller  and  zealous  occupier 
of  new  ground;  Maples,  drowned  in  Lake  Nyasa  ;  Eichardson, 
Hine,  and  now  Weston.  This  Mission,  the  work  of  which  is  now 
organized  in  three  dioceses,  has  a  certain  advantage  in  avowing 
definite  principles  and  methods.  It  represents  advanced  High 
Churchmanship  even  more  distinctively  than  the  C.M.S.  represents 
the  opposite  school.  f 

VI.  Soitth  Central  Africa  (Ehodesia,  Nyasaland,  Bechuanaland, 
&c.)  Twenty-two  Societies  are  named,  with  403  missionaries, 
3093  native  workers,  29,000  baptized  Christians,  and  a  total  of 
adherents  92,600.  The  U.M.C.A.  had  45  missionaries  in  this  area, 
and  the  S.P.G.  12;  the  L.M.S.  and  U.F.  Scottish  Church  41 
each  ;  the  Established  Scottish  Church  28  ;  the  Earis  Missionary 
Society  (Barotseland)  32;  the  South  African  Dutch  Church  56. 
Of  the  native  workers,  1450  belong  to  the  two  Scottish  Missions, 
and  900  to  the  Dutch  Mission.  Of  the  baptized  Christians,  just 
half  belong  to  either  the  U.M.C.A.  or  the  U.F.  Mission,  over  7000 
to  each  ;  over  2000  each  to  the  Church  of  Scotland  and  the  Dutch 
Church  ;  the  L.M.S.  and  Wesleyans  coming  next.  Of  the  total 
adherents,  the  U.M.C.A.,  the  U.F.  Mission,  and  the  Wesleyan 
Mission  have  each  between  13,000  and  17,000;  the  L.M.S.  10,000. 

Scottish  The  United  Free  Church  of  Scotland  Mission,  on  the  Western 

Missions.     sj^e   Q£    Lalre    Nyasa,   is    one    of    great    interest    and    marked 


*  Livingstone's  great  speech  in  the  Senate  House  at  Cambridge  was  on 
Dec.  4th,  1857.  On  Dec.  4th,  1907,  a  meeting  was  held  in  the  same  place  to 
celebrate  the  jubilee  of  the  event,  when  striking  speeches  were  delievered  by 
Archbishop  Davidson,  Bishops  Talbot  and  Boyd  Carpenter,  Mr.  Weston  (now 
Bishop  of  Zanzibar),  &c. 

t  The  History  of  the  Mission,  by  A.  Moorshead,  is  published  at  the  U.M.C.A. 
office. 


AFRICA:     CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  55 

success.  Founded  at  Livingstonia  by  Dr.  Stewart  and  Dr.  Laws,  TART  IT. 
it  has  bad  its  vicissitudes  like  others ;  but  it  has  been  a  notable 
civilizing  as  well  as  Christianizing  influence,  backed  by  the  African 
Lakes  Company  which  was  formed  by  Scottish  merchants  to  do 
the  secular  work;  and  it  has  been  distinctly  prosperous  in  the 
organization  of  the  native  Church.'"'  The  Church  of  Scotland 
Mission  is  famous  for  its  splendid  church  at  Blantyre,  probably 
the  finest  in  Africa.  Both  the  Scottish  Missions  do  excellent 
industrial  work.  They  have  recently  combined  to  form  one 
Church,  to  the  great  benefit  of  both  Missions.  It  is  now  called 
11  The  Church  of  Central  Africa,  Presbyterian." 

VII.  South  Africa  (the  Union,  with  Basutoland  and  Swaziland).  Many 
In  this  field  are  the  largest  aggregates  of  Societies  and  missionaries  JJ^outh 
and  native  Christians.  Fifty- one  organizations  are  named,  but  Africa, 
seven  of  these  are  individual  Anglican  dioceses,  helped  by  the 
S.P.G.,  but  returning  their  statistics  separately.  There  are  also 
nine  other  South  African  societies,  nine  British,  ten  American, 
twelve  Continental,  four  others.  The  total  of  missionaries  given 
is  1585,  of  whom  more  than  one  third,  566,  belong  to  South  Africa 
itself,  including  177  to  the  seven  Anglican  dioceses,  and  201  to 
the  Dutch  Church.  The  Continental  Societies  supply  508,  the 
Berlin  contingent  being  167,  the  Hermannsburg  99,  and  the  Paris 
Society  43.  Great  Britain  sends  221,  more  than  half  (123)  from 
the  U.F.  Scottish  Church,  and  44  Wesleyans  (Anglicans  are 
included  in  the  diocesan  returns).  And  America  sends  151. 
The  total  of  baptized  Christians  is  621,880,  of  whom  158,720 
are  credited  to  the  South  African  Wesleyans;  156,000  to  the 
Anglicans;  114,500  to  the  Berlin  and  Hermannsburg  Missions; 
30,000  to  the  Dutch  S.  African  Church ;  and  between  17,000  and 
22,000  each  to  the  Congregationalists,  the  English  Wesleyans, 
the  U.F.  Scottish  Church,  the  Ehenish  Mission,  and  the  Paris 
Mission.  It  should  be  mentioned  that  the  South  Africa  General 
Mission,  a  British  organization,  is  reckoned  with  the  local  South 
African  societies.  Its  figures  are  61  missionaries,  and  1254 
baptized  Christians.  The  totals  of  adherents  are  in  large  figures  : 
the  Methodists  of  various  connexions  claiming  377,000,  the  Anglican 
Church  206,000,  the  Dutch  Church  137,000,  the  Congregationalist 
Missions  94,000,  the  Hermannsburg  Mission  86,000,  the  Berlin 
Mission  48,000 ;  the  total  being  1,145,000. 

Of  these  South  African  Missions  a  full  and  careful  historical 
account  was  published  in  1911,  by  Mr.  J.  Du  Plessis,  a  South 
African  himself,  and  a  member  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Church. | 

*  See  Mr.  Donald  Eraser's  admirable  book  for  study  circles,  The  Future  of 
Africa,  which  though  dealing  with  Pagan  Africa  as  a  whole,  is  obviously  the 
outcome  of  Nyasaland  experience ;  also  his  interesting  book  on  the  Mission 
itself,  Winning  a  Primitive  People  (Seeley) ;  also  two  articles  on  the  Church, 
Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  April,  1913,  and  The  East  and  The  West,  April,  1915.  Dr. 
Stewart's  "  Duff  Lectures  "  (1903)  are  a  book  of  much  value. 

t  A  History  of  Christian  Missions  in  South  Africa.  Longmans.  It  was 
reviewed  in  the  CM.  Rev.,  July,  1912.  Another  book  of  great  value  on  South 


AFRICA:   CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


PART  II. 
Chap. 5. 

South 

African 

Problems. 


Lovedalft. 


French  Mn 

Dutch 
Church. 


Kafir 
Clergy. 


Testimony 
of  Govern 
ment  Com 
mission. 


His  book  is  valuable  for  reference,  but  its  just  influence  is  marred 
by  its  quite  inadequate — we  might  say  prejudiced — notices  of  the 
Anglican  Church  and  its  work  and  the  S.P.G.  Missions.  More 
over,  its  standpoint  is  too  much  that  of  the  average  colonist  as 
against  the  native,  and  certainly  not  that  of  missionaries  like 
Moffat  and  Livingstone,  Bishop  Callaway  and  Stewart  of  Love- 
dale.  But  South  African  missionary  problems  are  among  the 
hardest  in  the  world.  With  some  seven  millions  of  natives, 
including  very  superior  tribes  of  the  Bantu  races,  and  with  a 
dominant  white  minority,  the  position  is  full  of  difficulty,  of  which 
the  Ethiopian  Movement  of  recent  years  is  but  one  illustration. 
And  the  divisions  of  Christendom  are  nowhere  more  conspicuous 
than  in  South  Africa.  Not  only  are  the  Eoman  Catholics,  the 
Anglicans,  the  Presbyterians,  the  Methodists,  the  Congrega- 
tionalists,  the  Lutherans,  and  the  Dutch  Church,  all  there  in 
strength,  but  a  host  of  minor  religious  societies  are  also  at  work. 
The  "Edinburgh"  spirit  of  comity  and  co-operation,  however,  is 
said  to  be  growing.  Among  the  most  interesting  Missions  have 
been  that  of  the  Free  Church  of  Scotland  with  its  centre  at  the 
great  educational  institution  of  Lovedale,  that  of  the  L.M.S.  in 
Bechuanaland  (with  memories  of  Moffat  and  Livingstone),  and 
that  of  the  Paris  Society  in  Basutoland  under  Casalis  and  Coil- 
lard,  and  its  extension  in  Barotseland.  The  Dutch  Church  of  the 
Colony  has  important  Missions,  which  owe  no  little  inspiration 
to  the  spirit  and  influence  of  that  great  Christian  teacher  and 
writer,  Dr.  Andrew  Murray.  Among  the  Anglican  dioceses,  now 
eleven  in  number,  and  mostly  colonial,  St.  John's,  Kaffraria,  is 
conspicuous  for  its  Kafir  clergy ;  indeed  Mr.  Du  Plessis  *  says 
that  the  Anglicans  and  the  Wesleyans  have  made  larger  use  of 
native  agency  than  others,  the  German  and  other  Continental 
Societies  being  specially  cautious  in  this  matter.  Zululand  also  is 
an  interesting  Anglican  field. 

A  few  years  ago  a  Government  Commission  on  native  affairs 
declared  that  bringing  the  natives  into  the  Christian  Church  had 
been  proved  to  be  the  best  way  of  securing  their  moral  and  social 
improvement.  Another  Commission,  appointed  to  inquire  into 
the  so-called  "Black  Peril,"  reported  in  1912  strongly  in  favour  of 
missionary  work.  "The  evidence,"  it  said,  "of  the  effect  of 
Christian  teaching  and  education  on  the  character  of  natives  is 
very  strong.  These  unquestionably  exercise  an  enormous  influence 
for  good.  .  .  .  The  Commission  is  convinced  that  the  restraining 
and  directing  influence  of  the  Christian  religion  and  education, 

African  problems  is  Black  and  White  in  South-east  Africa,  by  Maurice  S. 
Evans,  C'.M.G.  (Longmans)  ;  and  Mr.  Evans  has  also  contributed  an  impor 
tant  article  on  the  subject  to  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss,  of  April,  1915.  The  Anglican 
Church  in  South  Africa  is  described  by  Bishop  Hamilton  Bayues  in  one  of 
Mowbray's  Handbooks  of  English  Church  Expansion,  1908 ;  also  by  H.  Moore 
in  The  Land  of  Good  Hope,  published  by  S.P.G. 

*  In  an  article  in  the  International  Review  of  Missions,  Oct.,  1912. 


AFRICA  :   CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  57 

if   imparted  on  proper   lines,  is   absolutely  essential.      There   is    PART  n. 
abundant  testimony  of  the  benefit  derived  from  these  agencies,    Chap' 5- 
which  should  receive  the  fullest  possible  encouragement  in  the 
interests   of   the   white   as  well   as  the  black  races."     Viscount 
Gladstone  declared  at  a  meeting  in  London  on  Feb.  2nd,  1915, 
that  "  there  was  not  a  single  responsible  person  connected  with 
the  Government  of  South  Africa  who  would  not  bear  witness  to 
the  fact  that  missionary  effort  was  the  greatest  possible  help  to 
the  civil  Government." 

According  to  the  Census  of  1911,  the  white  nominally  Christian  Black  and 
population  of  the  States  of  South  Africa  within  the  Union  was  White- 
just  over  1,300,000.  The  black  population  was  about  5,200,000, 
of  whom  about  one-fifth  were  supposed  to  be  professing  Christians. 
Of  the  whites,  nearly  700,000  belonged  to  the  Dutch  Eeformed 
Churches,  while  the  Anglicans  were  255,000,  leaving  some  350,000 
for  all  the  rest.  The  "native"  Anglicans,  Bantu  or  "  coloured  " 
(i.e.  mixed  race),  were  277,000,  making  532,000  Anglicans  alto 
gether.  Three  years  later,  in  1914,  the  number  was  estimated  to 
be  550,000.  But  these  figures  do  not  include  the  South  African 
territories  not  in  the  Union.  Connected  with  the  Church  of 
South  Africa  there  were  in  1914  fifteen  bishops  (for  twelve 
dioceses)  and  just  600  other  clergymen,  of  whom  91  were  of  the 
Bantu  race.  Of  the  clergy,  180  were  on  the  S.P.G.  list,  as  main 
tained  or  assisted  by  its  funds.  Most  of  these  figures  are  taken 
from  an  article  by  Bishop  Gibson,*  which  gives  an  interesting 
account  of  the  Church  and  its  work  and  claims.  The  Bishop's 
appeal  at  the  end  is  particularly  moving,  almost  as  much  so  as  that 
of  the  present  Bishop  of  Bombay's  never-to-be-forgotten  paper  at 
the  Manchester  Church  Congress  in  1908. \  Bishop  Gibson  quotes 
from  the  C.M.8.  Gazette  these  words  uttered  by  Philip  Snowden, 
the  Labour  leader:  "If  the  Church  of  England  is  ever  to  regain 
her  hold  upon  the  masses  of  this  country,  it  can  only  be  by  some 
tremendous  act  of  self-renunciation  "  ;  and  he  calls  on  the  Church 
at  home  to  "  strip  herself"  "to  win  the  heathen  world  for  the 
living  Christ."  One  parish  in  South  Africa  itself,  St.  Peter's, 
Mow  bray,  certainly  sets  a  bright  example,  raising  from  a  con 
gregation  composed  chiefly  of  people  of  limited  means,  £1100  a 
year  for  C.M.S.  Missions. 

The  Koman  Catholic  Missions  in  Africa  are  extensive.  And 
they  are  mostly  modern.  Little  that  is  satisfactory  remains  of 
the  great  enterprises  of  the  15th  and  16th  centuries.  The  Portu 
guese  possessions  in  both  South- West  and  South-East  Africa  are 
not  distinguished  for  their  Christian  civilization.  According  to 
the  statistics  carefully  compiled  from  Roman  sources  for  the 

*  In  The  East  and  The  West  for  Oct.,  1914.  Reference  may  also  be  made  to 
an  article  by  a  layman,  Mr.  T.  C.  Collett,  describing  in  a  very  interesting  way 
what  he  personally  saw  of  the  Church's  work  in  Zululand.  See  The  East  and 
The  West,  July,  1914,  also  a  previous  article  in  Oct.,  1913. 

•t  See  the  last  chapter  of  this  book. 


5 8  AFRICA  :  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

PART  IT.  Statistical  Atlas  from  which  have  heen  gathered  the  figures  of 
.  protestant  Missions,  there  were  1500  priests  in  Africa,  belonging 
to  twenty  different  societies  and  religious  orders ;  the  largest  body 
being  the  White  Fathers  (French),  of  whom  there  were  234  in 
Central  Africa  ;  and  next,  the  Fathers  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  187  in 
number.  There  were  1200  lay  brothers,  the  Franciscans  having 
320  in  the  North,  and  the  Oblates  343  in  the  South ;  also  3300 
sisters,  just  half  being  in  the  South.  Only  41  native  African 
priests  are  reported,  all  in  Egypt  and  Abyssinia.  (Two  Baganda 
have  lately  been  ordained.)  The  converts  number  nearly  half  a 
million,  nearly  half  of  these  being  in  the  central  districts.  The 
recently  published  Atlas  Hierarchicus,  a  German  Eoman  Catholic 
work,  does  not  differ  widely  from  these  returns,  but  its  figures  are 
a  year  or  two  later,  and'  include  Madagascar.  They  are,  mis 
sionary  priests,  2078  ;  native  priests,  94  ;  converts,  945,000,  of 
whom  over  200,000  are  in  Madagascar. 

A  fair  comparison  of  these  figures  with  those  of  Protestant 
Missions  is  hardly  possible,  because  the  methods  of  reckoning  are 
so  difficult.  But,  quantum  valeat,  the  totals  of  Protestants  in  the 
Edinburgh  Atlas  may  be  given.  They  are,  including  (as  above) 
Madagascar,  ordained  missionaries,  2358  ;  native  ministers,  1544 ; 
converts,  1,022,476,  of  whom  120,460  are  in  Madagascar. 


CHAPTEE  VI. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS.-    WEST  AFRICA. 

Sierra  Leone  :  the  Bishops,  &c. — Influence  of  the  Colony— Diocese  of 
Western  Equatorial  Africa— S. P. G.  on  the  Gold  Coast— The  C.M.S. 
Staff- Work  of  the  Mission  and  the  Native  Church— The  Niger  :  the 
Delta  and  up  the  River— Church  Organization— Northern  Nigeria  : 
Advances  and  Repulses. 

I.  SIERRA  LEONE. 

|E  begin  our  brief  review  of  the  sixteen  years  in  the 
African  mission  field  with  Sierra  Leone,  the  first 
scene  of  the  Society's  labours.  It  has  a  missionary  |jf 
history  as  heroic  and  pathetic  as  any  in  the  world, 
but  it  has  long  since  ceased  to  occupy  a  prominent 
place  in  C.M.S.  Eeports.  The  larger  West  African  fields  are  far 
from  the  little  Colony  with  its  limited  hinterland  surrounded  on 
all  sides  save  seaward  by  French  territory.  The  pastoral  work 
has  long  been  entirely  done  by  the  local  Church ;  the  missionary 
work  in  the  hinterland  has  been  gradually  taken  over  by  it ;  and 
the  Society  now  only  subsidizes  .it  and  the  bishopric  with  grants 
of  money,  and  provides  the  higher  education  (and  two  or  three 
other  small  agencies). 

The  Colony  itself  has  an  area  of  4000  square  miles,  with  a 
population  of  75,000.  The  Protectorate  beyond  has  an  area  of 
27,000  square  miles  and  a  population  of  1,328,000.  In  the 
Colony,  52  per  cent,  are  Christians,  15  per  cent.  Moslems,  and 
33  per  cent.  Pagans.  In  the  Protectorate,  about  one  million  are 
Pagans,  and  almost  all  the  rest  Moslems. 

The  past  history  of  the  Colony  and  the  Mission  have  repeatedly 
been  recalled  within  the  sixteen  years  by  the  occurrence  of  cen-  Mission  and 
tenaries  and  jubilees.  In  1904  was  celebrated  the  hundredth 
anniversary  of  the  arrival  of  the  first  C.M.S.  missionaries  in  1804. 
In  1907  came  the  centenary  of  Wilberforce's  triumph  in  the 
abolition  of  the  slave  trade.  In  1913  was  kept  the  jubilee  of  the 
self-governing  and  self-supporting  Church.  It  is  interesting  to 
remember  that  on  the  second  of  these  occasions  there  was  a 
simultaneous  but  little  noticed  commemoration  in  London,  when 
a  party  of  West  Africans  in  this  country  assembled  at  West 
minster  Abbey,  and,  in  the  presence  of  representatives  of  the 
Wilberforce  and  Buxton  families,  deposited  wreaths  on  the  graves 


6o 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA. 


West 

African 

Governors 


Three 
Bishops. 


PART  ii.  or  monuments  of  Wilberforce,  Zachary  Macaulay,  and  Granville 
chap^.  gharp  Qn  the  third  occasion  Mr.  (now  Sir)  T.  F.  V.  Buxton,  great 
grandson  of  the  first  Sir  Eowell,  was  himself  present  at  Sierra 
Leone,  having  visited  the  Colony  for  the  purpose ;  and  he  reported 
very  favourably  on  the  Colony  and  the  Church.*  In  various 
gatherings  of  these  kinds,  the  Governors  of  Sierra  Leone  at  the 
different  periods  took  a  cordial  part.  Indeed  the  Colony  owes 
much  to  the  good  men  who  have  successively  represented  the 
British  Crown.  Sir  F.  Garde w,  Sir  C.  King  Harman,  and  Sir 
Leslie  Probyn  should  be  especially  mentioned.  These  men  have 
known  that  all  along  the  West  African  littoral,  on  the  Gold 
Coast,  and  in  the  vast  territories  of  Nigeria,  Sierra  Leone  men 
have  been  in  the  front  in  the  extension  of  British  influence  and 
commerce.  In  December,  1910,  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Con- 
naught  visited  Sierra  Leone.  He  read  to  the  assembled  notables 
a  message  from  King  George  to  his  "  ancient  and  loyal  Colony," 
which  referred  to  Sir  Leslie  Probyn's  Eeports  with  satisfaction, 
and  expressed  the  King's  "  trust"  that  his  African  subjects  might 
be  "  blessed  with  peace,  happiness,  and  prosperity." 

When  our  sixteen-year  period  began,  Dr.  Taylor  Smith  was  still 
Bishop  of  Sierra  Leone.  He  had  been  a  worthy  successor  of 
Bishop  Ingham,  and  his  happy  spirit  had  given  him  an  influence 
quite  unique,  especially  enabling  him  to  promote  love  and 
harmony  in  the  diocese.  But  in  1901  he  was  appointed  Chaplain- 
General  of  the  Forces,  and  left  Africa,  to  his  own  unfeigned  regret. 
Of  his  great  work  in  the  Army  this  is  not  the  place  to  speak.  He 
was  succeeded  by  the  Eev.  E.  H.  Elwin,  a  C.M.S.  missionary  in 
the  Colony.  Bishop  Elwin  did  excellent  service  for  a  few  years, 
and  died  at  his  post  in  1909.  The  Acting  Governor,  Mr.  Haddoii 
Smith,  C.M.G.,  said,  "  The  Colony  has  lost  in  Bishop  Elwin  a  man 
of  broad  views  who  understood  the  people.  Sir  Leslie  Probyn 
and  myself  have  lost  a  great  personal  friend."  Mr.  Denton  wrote 
a  touching  In  Memoriam  of  him,  mentioning  especially  his  "  radiant 
sunniness."  f  Dr.  Walmsley,  Vicar  of  St.  Ann's,  Nottingham,  was 
appointed  his  successor.  Many  of  the  African  clergy  have  died 
during  our  period,  some  after  lengthened  periods  of  service.  The 
Eev.  George  Nicol,  a  son-in-law  of  Bishop  Crowther,  had  been 
ordained  in  1850,  and  died  in  1907.  The  senior  Archdeacon 
to-day,  the  Yen.  G.  J.  McCaulay,  was  ordained  in  1863.  There 
are  now  36  African  clergymen  in  the  Colony  and  Protectorate,  seven 
of  whom  are  engaged  in  the  Society's  educational  work,  and  the 
remainder  are  pastors  or  missionaries  of  the  independent  Church. 
The  names  of  McCaulay,  Johnson,  Bickersteth,  Wilson,  Nylander, 
Taylor,  During,  etc.,  appearing  in  the  list,  remind  us  that  their 
progenitors  were  early  converts  who  at  their  baptism  took  the 
names  of  missionaries  or  missionary  supporters.  Their  training 

*  Mr.  Buxton's  account  appeared  in  the  CM.  Review,  May,  1913. 
t  CM.  Review,  Jan.,  1910.     Bishop  Elwin's  own  account  of  Sierra  Leone 
appeared  in  the  CM.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1904, 


African 
Clergy. 


C.MS.  MISSIONS-.    WEST  AFRICA.  61 

was  at  Fourah  Bay  College,  which  is  the  most  important  educa-    PART  n. 
tional  institution  on  the  whole  West  Coast.*     Seventeen  of  them    chap>  6- 
are  graduates  of   Durham  University,  to  which  that  College  is 
affiliated  ;  and  six  others  have  the  "  L.Th."  from  the  same  source. 
The  University  in  1913  conferred  the  honorary  degree  of  M.A. 
on  Archdeacon  McCaulay  and  Canon  Moore.    A  noteworthy  event 
of  1914  was  the  ordination  of  a  Krooman,  J.  E.  Sabo,  believed 
to  be  the  first  of  his  tribe  admitted  to  the  ministry  of  the  Church. 
For  the  College,  and  the  Grammar  School,  and  the  Annie  Walsh 
Girls'  School,  the  Society  is  still  responsible. 

Although  the  bulk  of  the  work  at  Sierra  Leone  is  now  done  by  English 
the  African  Church,  the  good  service  of  the  few  English  mis-  £s°n" 
sionaries  must  not  be  forgotten.  Mr.  Alley,  who  retired  in  ill 
health  in  1905,  had  laboured  27  years.  Mr.  Eowan  and  Mr. 
Hewitt,  both  clergymen  of  the  Church  of  Ireland,  were  successive 
Principals  of  Fourah  Bay  College  for  a  few  years.  The  latter, 
and  five  other  missionaries,  have  been  transferred  to  other  fields, 
and  are  still  at  work  there  :  Mr.  Alvarez,  who  was  a  well-known 
Oxford  man  more  than  twenty  years  ago,  and  was  for  some  years 
an  intrepid  pioneer  in  the  hinterland  of  the  Colony,  is  now  Secre 
tary  in  Northern  Nigeria;  Mr.  Hewitt  and  Mr.  Caldwell  are  in 
China ;  Mr.  Garrett,  who  was  Principal  of  the  Grammar  School, 
is  in  Uganda ;  Miss  Eichards  is  in  Travancore  (where  her  father 
worked  so  long) ;  and  Miss  C.  J.  Elwin  went  to  India  under  the 
C.E.Z.M.S.  Death  has  not  failed  to  exact  its  tribute  in  a  country 
once  called  "  the  white  man's  grave  "  ;  five  members  of  even  so 
small  a  staff  have  fallen :  Bishop  Elwin,  Mr.  Hensley,  Mr. 
Kinahan,  Mr.  F.  Wilson  (whose  wife  was  a  daughter  of  David 
Livingstone),  and  Mrs.  Castle.  All  the  more  must  we  thankfully 
note  that  all  but  one  of  the  present  staff  have  served  throughout 
our  period :  Mr.  Denton,  the  Secretary,  and  Mrs.  Denton ;  Miss 
Bisset,  head-mistress  of  the  Annie  Walsh  School,  who  has  been 
actually  thirty  years  at  work  there ;  and,  of  her  two  helpers,  one, 
Miss  Pidsley,  has  served  17  years,  though  the  other,  Miss  Lowe, 
is  a  recent  recruit.  The  Christians  attached  to  the  Anglican 
Church  in  Sierra  Leone  diocese  now  number  about  16,000.  In  1914 
there  were  77  adult  baptisms,  and  459  of  children  of  Christian 
parents.  There  were  4000  children  in  the  schools.  The  contri 
butions  to  Church  funds  amounted  to  £5800. 

When  the  present  Bishop,  Dr.  Walmsley,  had  been  a  year  in  Bishop 
the  Colony,  he  wrote  an  extremely  interesting  account  of  his  first  iSpS!-ey  S 
impressions,  f     About  the  Church  life  of  the  Negro  Christians  he  sions- 
wrote  very  impressively  : — 

"  As  to  Church  life  generally  it  is  hard  to  speak.     How  much  more 
shall  be  required  of  us,  us  with  all  our  ages  of  Christian  life  and  tradition, 


*  A  full  account  of  the  College  and  its  work,  by  Mr.  Denton,  appeared  in 
the  C.M.  Intell.  of  Aug.,  1905. 
f  Printed  in  the  C.M.  Review,  May,  1912. 


62 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA. 


TART  II. 


Sierra 
Leone  in 
fluencc. 


than  of  this  native  Church,  still  so  young !  We  still  have  need  to  go  on 
to  reAeioTTjs,  full  growth  ;  how  much  more  must  they  !  W^hat  long  train 
ing  is  needed  before  the  whole  man  is  brought  into  subjection  to  the 
obedience  of  Christ,  before  men  learn  that  religion  is  not  merely  or 
chiefly  a  matter  of  the  emotion  but  of  the  will  !  And  how  often  do  I  feel 
when  one  laments  some  terrible  lapse,  how  terribly  much  harder  is 
e-yKpdreia  for  that  one  who  has  given  way  than  for  me.  I  know  I  must 
not  condone  the  sin,  but  how  much  does  one  feel  for  the  sinner  !  .  .  . 
What  a  wonderful  word  that  is  of  St.  Paul's,  etAi/cpfj/eto,  transparency 
of  motive  and  of  life,  more  readiness  to  endure  hardness,  more  true  sense 
of  proportion  !  .  .  I  tremble  at  the  sight  of  the  large  congregations,  the 
numbers  of  communicants,  the  enthusiastic  missionary  meetings-.  It  is 
not  hypocrisy — though  where  are  there  not  hypocrites  ? — but  it  is  a 
failure  of  all  that  Christ  claims  of  heart  and  will  and  life.  We  here,  as  at 
home,  need  a  fresh  outpouring  of  the  Spirit." 

It  is  unquestionable  that  the  influence  of  Sierra  Leoneans  on 
the  West  African  coast  generally  has  not  always  been  good ;  but 
while  we  hear  much  of  their  inconsistency  and  low  standard  of 
living,  we  are  rarely  given  the  facts  on  the  other  side.  Here  is 
one,  reported  by  the  Bishop  : — 

"Two  ladies,  wives  of  officers  from  Northern  Nigeria,  over  1000 
miles  away,  came  on  shore  (at  Sierra  Leone]  from  the  mail-boat  which 
was  staying  here  a  few  hours  on  its  way  home.  They  said  they  must 
if  possible  see  the  Annie  Walsh  School.  They  had  not  seen  it  before, 
nor  known  of  it  otherwise,  but  they  said  there  was  a  young  woman,  the 
wife  of  a  government  clerk  from  Sierra  Leone,  living  with  her  husband 
near  them  in  the  bush,  and  they  often  asked  her  how  it  was  that  her 
home  was  what  it  was,  with  Christian  atmosphere  and  ideals,  and  her 
answer  always  was, '  The  Annie  Walsh  School '  ;  and  they  must  see  the 
school  that  had  trained  that  young  wife." 

That  excellent  School  celebrated  its  jubilee  in  Nov.,  1915. 
TheHinter-      Of  the  hinterland,  the  Protectorate  as  distinct  from  the  Colony, 
land.  the  Bishop  also  wrote  much  that  was  interesting.       It  reaches  to 

the  sources  of  the  Niger,  near  which  is  the  town  of  Falaba,  a  name 
familiar  to  us  now  as  being  that  of  a  British  mail  steamer  sunk  by 
a  German  submarine.  Pagan  tribes  cover  the  whole  territory,  but 
there  is  an  increasing  Moslem  element.  Mr.  Alvarez  did  impor 
tant  work  there  until  his  transfer  to  the  Niger.  The  Missions  are 
now  tbe  charge  of  the  Church.  There  are  altogether  some  300 
miles  of  railway,  and  traders,  both  white  and  black,  have  settled 
at  tbe  interior  stations. 

Sierra  Leone  will  always  be  a  name  dear  for  its  hallowed  asso 
ciations,  and  the  Church  there  will  ever  command  our  warm  and 
prayerful  sympathies.  Critics  of  it  should  read  Lady  Knutsford's 
Life  of  Zachary  Macaulay,  the  Governor  in  its  earliest  days. 
They  might  appreciate  more  correctly  the  really  great  work  done 
in  the  Colony.* 

*  See  an  article  on  Zachary  Macaulay,  by  the  present  writer,  C.M.  IntelL, 
Sept.,  1901.  Also  a  review,  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Dec.,  1910,  of  A  Transformed 
Colony,  a  book  by  Mr.  T.  J.  Alldridge,  I.S.O.,  for  many  years  Government 
Commissioner  on  the  Coast. 


C.M.S.  MissiOA'S:    WEST  AFRICA.  63 

TT      NTPPWTA  PlBT  II. 

11.    IMQLKIA.  Chap    6 

Very  much  larger  is  the  field  of  the  Society's  other  West  African  Yoruba  and 
Missions.  To  reach  them  we  must  proceed  a  thousand  miles  east-  sions!  i 
ward,  along  what  used  to  be  called  the  Guinea  Coast.  Passing 
Liberia  and  the  Gold  Coast  Colony,  German  Togo  and  French 
Dahomey,  we  come  to  the  Colony  of  Lagos  and  its  hinterland,  in 
which,  since  1844,  has  been  carried  on  the  C.M.S.  Yoruba  Mission. 
Then  farther  on,  we  come  to  the  Delta  of  the  Niger,  and  enter 
the  field  of  the  Niger  Mission,  so  long  associated  with  the  name 
of  Bishop  Samuel  Crowther.  Ascending  the  Eiver  a  few  hundred 
miles,  we  enter  the  great  Central  Sudan.  That  vast  region  is  now 
nearly  all  divided  between  England  and  France  (German  posses 
sions  just  touching  it),  and  it  is  only  within  our  sixteen  year  period 
that  the  exact  boundary  line  has  been  settled,  as  before  explained. 
The  Colony  and  hinterland  of  Lagos,  the  Niger  territories,  and 
that  part  of  the  Sudan  under  a  British  Protectorate,  are  now 
united  under  the  one  name  of  Nigeria,  and  Nigeria  is  now  divided 
into  the  Northern  and  the  Southern  Provinces.  The  Government 
divisions  have  been  changed  two  or  three  times,  and  readers  are 
apt  to  be  confused. 

The  whole  territory  also  forms  the  Diocese  of  Western  Equa  -  wSern0f 
torial  Africa.  The  name  is  rather  a  clumsy  one,  but  it  was  given  Equatorial 
by  Archbishop  Benson  to  correspond  with  Eastern  Equatorial Afnca- 
Africa  on  the  other  side  of  the  Continent.  That  eastern  diocese, 
however,  has  been  divided  into  the  two  dioceses  of  Mombasa  and 
Uganda,  and  we  may  well  expect  that  in  time  the  western  diocese 
will  also  be  divided.  Meanwhile,  Bishop  Tugwell  carries  the  burden 
of  the  whole  great  field,  with  its  immense  population  and  numerous 
languages,  helped  by  assistant  bishops  of  African  race.  Of  these, 
at  the  beginning  of  our  period,  there  were  two,  Bishops  Phillips  bishops, 
and  Oluwole,  who  had  been  selected  by  Bishop  Hill  for  the  office 
in  1893.  A  third  was  added  by  the  consecration,  in  1900,  of 
Bishop  James  Johnson,  whose  long  experience  and  high  character 
marked  him  out  for  episcopal  position.  He  had  been  ordained  in 
1863,  and  had  laboured  faithfully  as  a  pastor  at  Sierra  Leone  and 
at  Lagos,  and  as  superintending  missionary  at  Abeokuta,  and  every 
where  had  been  noted  for  his  high  standard  of  spirituality  and 
zeal.  He  wras  consecrated  in  Lambeth  Palace  Chapel  by  Arch 
bishop  Temple  on  Feb.  18th,  and  on  April  30th  he  preached  the 
C.M.S.  Annual  Sermon  at  St.  Bride's — the  only  non-European 
who  has  been  accorded  that  high  privilege.*  Bishop  Phillips  died 

*  Old  readers  of  C.M.S.  publications  will  remember  "Sarah  Forbes 
Bonetta,"  a  child  of  a  local  Yoruba  chief,  who  was  kidnapped  by  the  Daho- 
mians,  rescued  by  Capt.  Forbes,  R.N.,  and  educated  in  England  at  the  ex 
pense  of  Queen  Victoria.  She  married  a  well-known  African  merchant  at 
Lagos,  Mr.  Davies,  and  the  Queen  became  godmother  to  her  daughter.  That 
daughter,  who  became  Mrs.  Bandle,  and  her  two  children,  were  taken  by 
Bishop  Johiibon  to  Windsor  in  July,  1900,  and  received  most  graciously  by  Her 


64 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA. 


S.P.G.  on 

the  Gold 
Coast. 


PART  11.    in  1906,  honoured  for  his  simple  goodness  and  faithful  labours  ; 
Cha^e.    bufc  the  other  twQ  naye  continued  their  important  labours,  Bishop 
Oluwole  in  the  Yoruba  Country,  and  Bishop  Johnson  in  the  Benin 
district  of  the  Delta,  and  have  rendered  essential  service  to  Bishop 
Tugwell  and  the  whole  Church. 

There  was  also  for  a  short  time  (1904-09)  an  English  assistant- 
bishop  for  the  Gold  Coast  Colony,  which  was  then  under  Bishop 
Tugwell's  jurisdiction,  and  in  which  the  S.P.G.  was  reviving,  after 
many  years'  interval,  a  Mission  originally  begun  in  the  18th  cen 
tury.  This  was  Bishop  Hamlyn,  who  had  been  a  C.M.S. 
missionary  at  Lagos.  In  1909  a  new  diocese  was  formed  for  that 
Colony,  with  a  title  derived  from  its  capital,  Accra  ;  and  Bishop 
Hamlyn  became  an  independent  diocesan  bishop.  He  has  since 
been  succeeded  by  Bishop  O'Eorke.  The  first  African  clergyman 
there  (since  Philip  Quaque  in  the  18th  century)  was  ordained  in 
1915. 

The  extension  of  the  British  Protectorate  over  the  important 
regions  of  the  Central  Sudan  invited  a  fresh  outlook  over  those 
great  territories,  generally  known  as  Hausaland  (more  correctly, 
the  Hausa  States).  It  was  Hausaland  which  J.  A.  Eobinson  and 
G.  Wilmot  Brooke  had  essayed  to  enter  in  1890.  Although  their 
deaths,  within  a  few  months  of  each  other,  had  put  an  end  for  a 
time  to  their  heroic  enterprise,  neither  they  nor  their  colleagues 
ever  doubted  that  the  Christian  Message  would  one  day  be  pro 
claimed  in  those  lands  ;  and  now  Bishop  Tugwell  himself  resolved 
to  invade  them  once  more  in  the  name  of  the  Lord.  In  January, 
1900,  he  and  four  comrades  left  Lagos  on  this  new  expedition  j  with 
what  result  we  will  see  presently. 

C.M.S.  i\iis-  The  mission  staff  of  the  Diocese  in  1899  comprised  thirteen 
sion  staff.  ciergymen,  nine  laymen,  eight  wives,  and  twenty  other  women  ; 
total  50.  The  figures  for  1915  are  24  clergymen,  12  laymen, 
17  wives,  and  25  other  women  ;  total  78.  Of  the  50  of  1899, 
22  are  still  at  work.  Bishop  Tugwell  has  served  25  years,""'  and 
Mrs.  Tugwell  (who  as  Miss  White  went  out  in  1894)  21.  The 
oldest  missionaries  now  are  Mrs.  Wood,  who  as  Miss  Green  went 
out  in  1888,  and  has  continued  as  a  mother  in  Israel  since  her 
husband's  death;  another  widow  who  has  remained  in  the  Mission 
for  which  her  husband  gave  his  life,  Mrs.  Fry,  who  as  Miss  Leach 
went  out  in  1893  ;  and  Mrs.  Melville  Jones,  who  as  Miss  Higgins 
went  out  in  1889.  Others  who  have  also  exceeded  twenty  years 
are  Archdeacon  Melville  Jones  (1893),  Archdeacon  Dennis 
(1893),  the  Eev.  J.  McKay  (1893),  Mrs.  McKay  (Miss  Grover, 
1893),  the  Eev.  H.  Proctor  (1892),  Miss  Thomas  (1891),  Miss 

Majesty,  only  six  months  before  her  death.     See  his  own  account  of  the  inter 
view,  CM.  Gleaner,  Sept.,  1900. 

*  At  the  Synod  Meeting  in  May,  1915,  an  address  and  handsome  present 
were  given  to  Bishop  Tugwell,  on  completing  twenty-one  years  of  his  episco 
pate,  which  is  already  seven  years  longer  than  that  of  any  other  English 
bishop  in  West  Africa. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS-.    WEST  AFRICA.  65 

Warner  (1892).     The  rest  of  the  twenty-two  still  at  work  should    PART  ii. 
be  named,  if  only  to  suggest  thankfulness  for  health  preserved  in    cllap'  6- 
a  West  African  climate : — -Miss  Boyton   (1895) ;   Miss  Holbrook 
(1896) ;  Eev.  and  Mrs.  J.  C.  E.  Wilson  (formerly  on  the  Congo),  Kev. 
S.  E.  Smith,  Eev.  H.  F.  Gane,  Mrs.  Dennis  (1897) ;  Dr.  Miller, 
Eev.  J.  D.  Aitken,  Mrs.  A.  W.  Smith  (nee  Blackwall)  (1898). 

The  Mission  suffered  the  following  losses  by  death  : — the  Eev.  Losses  by 
T.  Harding,  the  senior  missionary,  who  had  served  almost  thirty  BeSre-and 
years,  and  who  was  found  dead  in  December,  1912,  in  a  remote  ment- 
village,  on  his  knees,  like  Livingstone  ;  the  Eevs.  J.  0.  Dudley 
Eyder  *  (one  of  the  first  Hausaland  party,  1900),  G.  T.  Fox|  (son 
of  the  C.M.S.  Hon.  Sec.),  E.  Fry,  J.  S.  Owen,  E.  A.  Wise,  and  A.  Field 
(lost  in  the  Falctba)  ;  Messrs.  Coleman  and  Dear ;  Mrs.  Harding 
(before  her  husband),  Mrs.  Gane  (his  first  wife,  nee  Hamlin) ;  Misses 
Duncum,  Hickmott,  Philcox,  Squires.  J  Dr.  Stones  has  been  trans 
ferred  to  Egypt  and  the  Eev.  J.  L.  Macintyre  to  Palestine ;  the 
Eev.  J.  H.  Linton  to  Persia  ;  Misses  E.  F.  Fox  (daughter  of  the  Hon. 
Sec.)  and  M.  L.  H.  Warner  to  the  Punjab ;  Miss  Downer,  to  Uganda. 
The  Eev.  P.  A.  Bennett  went  as  a  C.C.C.S.  chaplain  to  East 
Africa.  The  Eev.  Dr.  A.  E.  Eichardson  has  become  a  well-known 
member  of  the  Church  Army.  Dr.  Jays  and  Mr.  Theodore  Lunt 
both  failed  in  health,  the  latter  immediately  on  reaching  Africa ; 
their  home  services  are  familiar  to  us  all.  Miss  Maxwell,  a 
specially  esteemed  honorary  missionary  from  Scotland,  was  for 
some  years  the  leader  of  the  band  of  women  at  Onitsha  on  the 
Niger ;  and  she  has  paid  them  occasional  visits  since,  a  most 
welcome  service.  The  Colonial  Associations  sent  one  recruit  to 
this  Mission,  in  the  person  of  Miss  Alice  Wilson,  of  New  Zealand, 
who  worked  on  the  Niger  for  thirteen  years. 

The   C.M.S.    staff    has   in   recent    years   been   recruited   from  West 
Jamaica,   a  committee,  with  the  Archbishop  of  the  West  Indies  Jil 
at  its  head,  having  been  formed  in  the  island  for  the  selection  and 
training  of  candidates.    These  men  are  of  course  of  African  descent, 
and  their  native  climate  is  tropical.    One  of  them  was  ordained  by 
Bishop  Oluwole  in  1913,  the  Eev.  W.  A.  Thompson. 

Of   the   actually   "  native  "  clergy,  the  senior  (except  Bishop  African 
J.  Johnson  and  Archdeacon  Crowther)  passed  away  three  years  CIersy- 
ago.     This  was  the  aged  Yoruba  pastor  of  Ibadan,  the  Eev.  Daniel 
Olubi,    baptized   in   1848,   ordained   in  1871,  and   known  to  old 
readers  of  the  C.M.S.  publications  as  Mr.  Hinderer's  assistant;    The 
senior  now  is  the  Eev.  Nathaniel  Johnson,  pastor  of  the  principal 

*  A  most  touching  account  of  his  death  will  be  found  in  the  C.M.S.  Report, 
1901,  p.  69. 

t  See  Dr.  Harford's  In  Memoriam  of  him,  CM.  Revieiv,  May,  1912,  p.  307. 
Dr.  Miller  wrote  in  the  Diocesan  Magazine,  "Two  men,  both  young,  both 
truly  gentle,  loveable,  holy  men,  C.M.S.  missionaries,  now  lie  buried  in  the 
Hausa  country.  Both  were  Trinity  men,  both  at  Ridley,  both  as  curates 
under  Mr.  Lillingston ;  and  both  lives  were  sacrificed  for  Kano— Claude 
Dudley  Ryder  and  George  Fox." 

t  Also  Miss  E.  Dennis,  who  died  Dec.  19,  1915. 

F 


66  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA. 


the  Eev  Thos  Aaesina  Jacobson  Ogunbiyi,  paid  a  visit  to 
and  PaieltTneand  England  in  1912,  and  wrote  interests  notes 
nf  Vm  iournev  in  the  Diocesan  Magazine. 

Mo8le,11Son0£Two]oTS  special  difficulties  of.  the  Missions  -  Nigena  were 
the  Niger...  noticed  in  the  previous  chapter,  viz.,  the  liquor  traffic  and 

advance  5  Man?  The  increase  o£  mosques  in  the  Yoruba  Country 
and  other  parts  of  Southern  Nigeria  is  a  cause  of  much  anxie  y. 
The  Christian  stand  against  polygamy  has  always  been  a  di  fficulty, 
even  within  the  Church  ;  and  the  Moslem  laxity  in  this  respe, 
atocte  many  who  realize  that  the  old  idolatry  and  superstate 
must  fall  befrn-e  advancing  civilization  and  who  have  o  choose 
between  Islam  and  Christianity.  At  the  same  time,  t  -has 
been  a  growing  dissatisfaction  with  then-  own  religion  among  the 
youngerLd  more  intelligent  Mohammedans,  Not  knowing  Arabic 
they  have  been  reading  Sale's  English  version  of  the  |  Koran  a 


The  Native 


tcrnces  and  even  cannibalism,  are  still  heard  of  in  the  remoter 
Sets  '  But  public  opinion  in  the  large  Yoruba  towns  would 
condemn  such  things.     Christianity  influences  the  whole  ,  aountay 
indirectly,  as  the  local  kings  and  chiefs  fully  realize,  and  that 
indirect  influence   is   not  limited   to   social  improvement.     For 
±nce,  the  Make  or  principa!  chief  <**»*>£****£* 
England  in   1904,   is   actually   a  frequent  at  endant  at  church 
although  he  makes  no  definite  profession  of  Christianity  ;  and  1 
C  more  than  once  asked  for  a  day  or  a.  week  of  prayer  in  some 
special  circumstances  of  need.    This  Alake  whose  name  ^  Badebo 
is  a  son  of  Sagbua,  the  famous  chief  who  originally  welcomed 
Townsend  and.Crowther  to  Abeokuta  in  1846,  and  to  whom  Queen 
Victoria  sent  a  Bible.     That  Bible  perished  in  a  fire,  ^d  King 
Edward,  when  Badebo  came  to  England,  gave  him  anothei 

^withstanding  all  difficulties  both  from  the  outward  environ- 


baptisms  ofldult  converts  after  due  individual  mstruction  ;  and 
the  yearly  return  has  continually  increased,  the  numbe 

*  See  the  aecovmt  of  the  reception  o£  the  Alake  by  the  C.M.S.  Committee, 
CM.  Intelligencer,  July,  1904. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA.  67 

first  of  the  sixteen  years  being  460,  and  in  the  last  of  them  5860.  PART  11. 
The  last  total  of  the  Christian  communities  connected  with  the  Chap-  6- 
Anglican  Church  was,  baptized  members,  51,750 ;  catechumens, 
22,900 ;  making  over  74,000  adherents.  There  are  now  71  African 
clergymen,  of  whom  57  are  supported  by  the  native  Church  ;  and 
784  African  lay  agents,  of  whom  473  are  similarly  supported. 
The  contributions  of  the  Christians  amounted  in  1914  to  £22,418. 
In  seven  years  (as  reported  to  the  Synod  in  May,  1914)  the  number 
of  churches  had  increased  from  101  to  358,  and  of  other  buildings 
for  worship,  from  167  to  315.  The  general  progress  is  strikingly 
illustrated  by  the  facts  stated  in  connexion  with  the  21st  anni 
versary  of  Bishop  Oluwole's  consecration,  June  29th,  1914.  His 
single  share  in  the  work  as  an  Assistant  Bishop  had  included  the 
ordinations  of  fifty  deacons  and  fifty  priests  (of  course,  partly  the 
same  individuals),  and  the  confirmation  of  13,000  people.  Three 
years  before  this,  Bishop  Oluwole  gave  the  Synod  an  interesting 
review  of  fifty  years'  history  of  the  Colony  and  the  Mission,  which 
was  printed  in  the  C.M.  Review  for  November,  1911.* 

The  C.M.S.  Missions  in  this  great  diocese  are  for  convenience 
grouped  in  three  divisions,  practically  continuing  the  old  practice 
of  the  Society's  Reports,  viz.,  the  Yoruba  Mission,  the  Niger 
Mission,  and  the  Northern  Provinces  Mission.  Under  the  first 
of  these  three  divisions,  one  of  the  most  notable  advances  in 
recent  years  has  been  in  the  Jebu  country,  where  the  Mission 
was  undertaken,  and  is  carried  on,  by  the  Lagos  Church  itself. 
At  the  very  beginning  of  our  period,  Mr.  (now  Bishop)  Hamlyn 
compared  that  district  to  Uganda ;  and  the  resemblance  has  been 
much  greater  since  then.f  The  pastoral  care  of  the  converts  Pastoral 
in  the  Yoruba  section  of  the  Mission  (of  which  the  Jebu  work  is  Work> 
a  part)  is  now  almost  all  carried  on  by  the  local  Church  Councils, 
while  the  schools  are  still  chiefly  in  the  Society's  hands.  But 
the  English  ladies  exercise  an  influence  upon  the  African  women  work  of 
and  girls,  both  by  visiting  and  by  teaching,  which  cannot  be 
measured.  The  Church  in  the  Yoruba  Country  is  deeply  indebted 
to  Mrs.  Wood,  Mrs.  Fry,  Miss  Boyton,  Miss  Thomas,  and  many 
others.  The  Training  Institutions  are  of  great  importance  in 
supplying  catechists  and  pastors ;  and  also  school  teachers,  male 
and  female,  for  there  is  everywhere  a  demand  for  education,  and 
the  Government  by  a  new  educational  code  has  lately  recognized 
the  importance  of  religion.  This  view  was  expressed  in  these 
striking  words  :— 

"  The  examples  of  India  and  China,  as  well  as  of  Africa,  appear  to 
demonstrate  that  purely  secular  education,  and  even  moral  instruction 


*  See  also  his  latest  survey  of  the  work,  given  to  the  Synod  in  May,  1915, 
and  printed  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Oct.,  1915. 

t  See  Archdeacon  Melville  Jones's  article  on  the  Mass  Movement,  C.M.  Rev., 
Feb.,  1914. 


68  C. M.S.  MISSIONS-.    WEST  AFRICA. 

*  t  ,  vpKmmm  sanction,  among  races  who  have  not  the  atmo- 
W'  JSrifcSSff  JSSSta  *thlal  standards  have  produced  in 
Ctap.6.  ,phere  w™*  J£™u  oduoe  a  class  ot  young  men  and  women  who  lack 


the  incentive  of  religious  sanctions. 

This  is  very  satisfactory.     Of  course  the  Government  makes  no 

distinction  of  creed  or  denomination.     Only  what  may  be  called 

"  ^rCinffSe'at  O^tdor  Archdeacon  Merville  Jones, 
is  natoaUy  °ne  of  the  mosf  important  agenc.es  in  the  Mission 
C°"e8e-  Bishop  Tugwell  reports  that  since  its  establishment  in  1896,  the 
S  number  of  students  has  been  240,  of  whom  85  are  > ,ow  at 
work  and  124  are  at  present  under  training.  Of  the  85,  ten  have 
been  opined;  two  are  tutors  in  the  College;  23  are  catechists 
and  50  are  schoolmasters  or  Scripture  readers.  Every  student 
has  to  take  his  full  share  in  the  work  of  cooking,  washing,  garden 
ing  Ac  ,  &o,  so  that  the  cost  to  the  Mission  is  reduced  to  a 
mfnimum,  and  when  the  student  goes  into  work  he  can  shift  for 
himself,-so  that  "the  dignity  of  labour  is  daily  and  hourly 

^OnTof  the  agencies  in  this  Mission,  which  has  a  success  almost 
un;que  in  C.M.S.  experience,  is  the  Lagos  Bookshop,  with  its 
branches  at  interior  towns.  It  pays  its  way  and  leaves  a  profit. 
In  the  year  ending  March,  1914,  it  sold  no  less  than  5227  English 
and  11,512  Yoruba  Scriptures,  12,000  Yoruba  Prayer  Books,  13,945 
hymn  'books,  besides  a  large  amount  of  general  literature.  The 
printing  press  produced  a  Yoruba  History  of  Lagos  and  other 
Ckjand  prints  a  weekly  paper  J/*  Nw™  «£•»•£ 
Bevision  Committee  is  engaged  on  the  Yoruba  New  Testament 
and  much  new  translational  work  is  being  done  by  different 
missionaries  in  various  languages. 

The  general  movement  in  favour  of   Christianity  is   not  the 
Jult  ofa  sense  of  sin  or  of  a  desire  for  a  Saviour     The  people  do 
aim  at  a  "  higher  life,"  but  this  phrase  m  their  lips  too  ofter .means 
something  very  different  from  its  meaning  m  ours.     They  want 
octal  advancement,  and  they  see  that  the  old  heathenism  is  out  of 
character  with  it.     But  this  feeling  must  be  taken  advantage  of 
I   i    leads  to  inquiry,  that  inquiry  will  certainly  open  the  eyes  of 
some      Accordingly  we  read,  "  Every  nerve  is  being  strained  in  the 
Eon  to  cope  with  the  situation,  and  the  number  of  teachers  ,s 
fraduallv  increasing.     But  much  has  to  be  left  undone  because  of 
the  lack  o  agents      In  one  district  alone  only  six  of  the  twenty- 
five   churchefha^    a  resident  teacher;    in   another  there    are 
mt  seventeen   agents  to   work  fifty-five  churches  which   supply 
seventv  towns  and  villages;  in  a  third,  there  are  congregations 
numbering  be  ween  300  and  400  with  no  resident  teacher,  dependent 
onTvo  vilits  a  month  from  one  living  fifteen  miles  away ;  and  so 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA.  69 

on."*      Much  will  depend  upon  the  spiritual  life  of  the  regular    PARTII. 
congregations.     A  "  mission,"  conducted  by  the  Eev.  and  Mrs.  F.    chap'  6' 
Trevelyan  Snow  in  1913-14,  seems  to  have  been  attended  with  real 
blessing  ;  and  at  a  Convention  on  "  Keswick  "  lines  held  at  Lagos 
in  July,  1914,  more  than  1000  requests  forlprayer  were  handed  in. 
This  Convention  was  planned  by  the  Eev.T.  A.  J.  Ogunbiyi,  after 
his  visit  to  Palestine  and  to  England.     After  all,  it  is  the  power  of 
the  Spirit  of  God  in  the  Church  that  is  the  great  need,  as  every 
where  else.f 

The  Niger  Delta  Pastorate,  under  Archdeacon  D.  C.  Crowther  at  Niger  Delta 
Bonny,  continues  self-supporting,  and  its  adherents  have  increased  Pi 
year  by  year,  now  numbering  nearly  9000,  with  six  native  clergy 
men.  The  senior  pastor  (except  the  Archdeacon),  the  Eev.  J.  Boyle, 
died  in  1909. £  The  visits  of  Bishop  James  Johnson,  who  has  general 
oversight  of  all  the  work  in  the  Delta,  including  the  Brass  District 
and  also  Benin, §  have  been  much  appreciated.  Eeaders  of  the 
early  history  of  the  Niger  Mission  will  remember  that  nearly  half- 
a  century  ago  the  king  of  Brass,  whose  name  was  Ockiya,  invited 
Bishop  Crowther  to  start  a  mission  there.  Its  history  has  been 
chequered,  but  it  is  interesting  to  record  that  in  1911  a  son  of 
Ockiya  was  ordained  by  Bishop  Johnson.  A  Theological  Institu 
tion  was  opened  in  1912  as  a  memorial  to  Bishop  Crowther, 
costing  the  Native  Christians  £1200.  The  late  Eev.  Dr.  Allan, 
who  visited  West  Africa  in  behalf  of  the  Society  in  1902,  brought 
back  an  interesting  collection  of  relics  and  curios  illustrative  of  the 
old  idolatry  and  cannibalism  of  the  Delta,  which  he  presented 
to  the  University  of  Oxford,  and  they  can  be  seen  in  the  University 
Museum.  But  a  much  greater  token  of  missionary  success  is  that 
at  the  notorious  juju-town  to  the  north-east  of  the  Delta,  where 
the  enormities  were  so  glaring  that  the  British  authorities  destroyed 
the  oracle,  there  is  now  a  congregation  (Presbyterian)  of  a 
thousand  souls,  with  a  former  juju  priest  as  one  of  the  leaders. 

The  work  up  the  Niger,  between  the  Delta  and  the  confluence  pn  the 
of  the  Kworra  and  Binue  Eivers,  may  be  regarded  as  the  Mid  Niger? 
Niger  Mission.      Its  centre  has  always  been  Onitsha,  the  oldest 
station     on    the    river,    first    occupied    in    1857.       In     Bishop 
Crowther's  time  there  was  little  to  encourage  in  these  districts,  and 
his   mission    agents    themselves    were   not    satisfactory ;    but     a 
complete  change  has  come  over  the  whole  work  in  recent  years. 
English  and  African  missionaries  are  labouring  side  by  side,  and 

*  From  the  C.M.S.  Report,  1914. 

f  There  are  some  interesting  papers  on  West  African  questions  in  the  Pan- 
Anglican  Reports,  Vol.  IV.,  Section  D ;  among  them,  Bishop  J.  Johnson  on 
Missions  and  Native  Customs  (S.  D.  3  (f)) ;  Bishop  Oluwole  on  Pastoral  Care  of 
Converts  (S.  D.  2  (i)),  and  on  Evangelistic  Work  (p.  24)  ;  Archdeacon  Melville 
Jones  on  Equal  Evangelization  of  Sexes  (p.  146). 

$  He  had  lately  returned  from  England,  where  he  was  a  conspicuous  figure 
at  the  "  Africa  and  the  East  "  Exhibition.  "  He  had  endeared  himself  to  all  " 
who  were  engaged  in  it. 

§  On  Benin,  see  Bishop  Johnson's  Report,  C.M".  Review,  Nov.,  1913. 


70  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:.  WEST  AFRICA. 

PART  ii.  the  influence  of  Christian  women  from  England  has  been  most 
Chap.o.  ^ipf^  such  as  Miss  Maxwell,  Miss  Warner,  Miss  Hornby,  Miss 
Martin,  Miss  Holbrook,  Miss  E.  Dennis— to  name  only  those  of 
oldest  standing.  Their  work  is  the  more  important  because 
throughout  the  Ibo  Country  the  men  largely  outnumber  ^the 
women  among  the  Christians— which  leads  to  perplexing  marriage 
questions  and  other  difficulties.  In  this  middle  Niger  district, 
and  in  the  north-eastern  part  of  the  Delta  which  adjoins  it, 
lie  the  spheres  of  Archdeacon  Dennis,  the  Eevs.  S.  E.  Smith, 
G.  T.  Basden,  J.  C.  E.  Wilson,  H.  Proctor,  and  J.  D.  Aitken,  Mr. 
Cheetham,  and  others  who  have  done  no  less  zealous  service, 
though  for  a  shorter  time  ;  while  Dr.  Druitt's  Medical  Mission  has 
naturally  been  one  of  the  most  effective  agencies.  Sir  F.  Lugard 
laid  the  foundation  stones  of  the  Dobinson  Memorial  Dispensary 
and  the  Hill  Operating  Theatre  (in  memory  of  Archdeacon  Dobin 
son  and  Bishop  Hill),  near  Onitsha,  in  February,  1913.  Onitsha 
has  now  its  own  Church  Council,  and  in  1907  the  Christians 
sent  to  the  Society  £257  in  commemoration  of  the  jubilee  of  the 
station.  Towns  and  villages  all  over  the  territory  on  both  sides  of 
the  river  have  now  their  little  bands  of  converts,  including  the 
I  jaw  and  Sobo  countries,  where  Mr.  Proctor,  Mr.  Aitken,  and  Mr. 
Eeeks  have  been  doing  good  work.  The  first  confirmation  in  the 
Ijaw  District  was  held  by  Bishop  Tugwell  in  January,  1915.  The 
demand  for  more  teachers  is  persistent,  and  the  openings  are  most 
inviting.  There  is,  in  fact,  almost  a  "  mass  movement,"  con 
stituting  a  most  urgent  call  for  reinforcements.  Mr.  Aitken  re 
ported  only  a  year  ago  that  in  a  few  months  he  had  registered 
2000  people  who  had  thrown  away  their  idols.* 

Church  The  Church  Councils  at  Lago's,  Abeokuta,  Ibadan,  and  other 

Organiza-  centres>  and  the  Delta  Pastorate,  have  prepared  the  way  for  the 
complete  synodical  organization  of  the  diocese.  In  1906,  at  a 
large  meeting  of  clergy  and  laity  at  Lagos,  a  draft  constitution  was 
approved,!  and  the  Synod  has  met  yearly  from  ^that  time.  All 
licensed  clergy  in  priests'  orders  are  members  of  it,  and  lay  dele 
gates  from  the  congregations.  Subject  to  certain  conditions  of 
parochial  organization,  the  right  of  representation  depends  on  the 
support  of  the  clergy.  A  congregation  raising  £200  is  entitled 
to  four  delegates,  and  smaller  contributors  in  proportion ;  _  and 
poor  congregations  may  combine  to  secure  a  delegate  jointly 
elected.  The  Synod  appoints  a  Diocesan  Board  to  assist  and 
advise  the  Bishop ;  and  Patronage  Boards  are  formed  on  the  Irish 
and  Colonial  system.  District  Councils  deal  with  local  affairs. 
The  four  chief  ones  above  mentioned  are  now  financially  and 
administratively  independent  of  the  C.M.S. ;  while  others,  which 

*  A  sketch  of  the  Ibo  Mission  for  50  years  from  its  commencement  in  1857, 
by  the  Rev.  G.  T.  Basden,  appeared  in  the  CM.  Review  of  March,  1907,  with 
a  striking  diagram-map. 

t  This  constitution  is  fully  described  in  an  interesting  article  by  Mr.  Baylis 
in  the  C.  M.  Review,  March,  1907. 


CJf.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA.  71 

still  partially  depend  on  it  for  funds,  have  chairmen  appointed  PART  ji. 
by  the  Mission  who  in  case  of  need  could  exercise  a  veto.  The 
reports  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Synod  have  shown  an  excel 
lent  spirit,  and  no  little  practical  wisdom  in  the  administration 
of  the  Church.  In  1906,  six  bishops  on  the  West  African  coast 
met  and  discussed  the  possibility  of  forming  an  ecclesiastical 
province.  They  adopted  resolutions  in  favour  of  it,  and  also  agreed 
upon  important  regulations  touching  marriage,  discipline,  educa 
tion,  etc.  But  the  way  has  not  opened  for  the  full  development 
then  contemplated.* 

NORTHERN  NIGERIA. 

We  must  now  take  up  the  Mission  in  Northern  Nigeria  Advance 
separately.  Bishop  Tugwell's  first  attempt  to  extend  it  into  the 
Hausa  States,  in  1900,  met  with  a  repulse.  At  first  the  outlook  was 
promising,  the  party  being  well  received  at  the  important  town  of 
Zaria,  and  the  good  knowledge  of  Hausa  attained  by  Dr.  Miller 
during  a  preparatory  visit  to  Tripoli  proving  very  useful;  but 
although  they  reached  the  still  more  important  city  of  Kano— 
a  great  centre  of  trade  said  to  be  older  than  London ! — they  were 
immediately  expelled  by  the  Mohammedan  Emir  there.  Later,  Repulses 
they  were  also  expelled  from  Zaria,  and  after  almost  a  year  in  5[ffi" 
Hausaland  they  were  compelled  to  return  to  the  Niger,  j  Subse 
quently,  the  murder  of  an  English  officer,  and  the  protection  of 
the  murderer  by  the  Emir  of  Kano,  led  to  General  Lugard  having  to 
march  against  that  city ;  and  for  some  time  the  British  authorities, 
while  showing  personal  kindness  to  the  missionaries,  declined  to 
permit  their  advance.  But  Dr.  Miller  and  others — including  the 
Eevs.  G.  P.  Bargery,  F.  H.  Lacy,  and  W.  P.  Low  J — were  again 
and  again  at  Gierku  and  other  places,  and  while  distressed  at  the 
"  loathsome  mixture  "  of  Pagan  superstition  and  Moslem  bigotry 
which  they  encountered — lantern  pictures  of  the  Crucifixion  being 
received  with  peals  of  laughter, — they  persisted  year  after  year  ; 
Dr.  Miller  giving  much  time  to  Bible  translation  in  the  Hausa 
language,  whose  "wonderful  beauty  and  wealth"  charmed  him. 
The  first  convert  was  a  lad  who  had  been  on  pilgrimage  to  Mecca, 
and  had  been  disillusioned  there.  After  two  years  with  Dr.  Miller 
he  was  sent  to  the  Training  Institution  at  Oyo,  and  there  he  was 
baptized  by  Bishop  Tugwell  in  August,  1904.  In  1905  the  Mission 

*  The  whole  history  of  the  native  Church  in  West  Africa,  and  the  possi 
bilities  of  further  development,  were  discussed  by  Archdeacon  Melville  Jones 
in  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  April,  1912. 

f  The  letters  from  this  first  Hausaland  party  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Intell. 
and  C.M.  Gleaner  of  1900. 

t  Mr.  Low  was  mentioned  in  an  official  dispatch  for  his  "  gallant  conduct  " 
when  an  outbreak  occurred  in  which  the  British  officer  in  command  was 
killed.  He  was  the  first  to  hear  the  news,  and  made  a  hazardous  journey  by 
bicycle  and  horse  to  the  place,  where,  knowing  the  language  of  the  people, 
he  had  a  chief  share  in  restoring  order, 


verts. 


New  Cam 

bridge 

Mission. 


;2  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA. 

PART  IT.  again  advanced  to  Zaria.  Inquirers  now  came  forward,  one  by 
Chap^o.  one^  an(j  -n  April,  1907,  two  Mohammedan  mallams  were  baptized. 
First  con-  Dr. '  Miller  wrote,  "  Many  are  beginning  to  seek  after  God  ;  many 
are  convinced,  but  dread  what  it  involves  to  be  a  Christian." 

In  1907  an  interesting  new  Mission  in  the  Bauchi  highlands, 
where  the  population  is  Pagan,  was  begun  in  the  following  circum 
stances.  About  the  year  1904  a  small  band  of  young  Cambridge 
men  whose  hearts  had  been  moved  by  the  call  from  unevangelized 
races,  associated  themselves  in  an  effort,  independent  of  any  other 
organization,  to  plant  a  Mission  in  some  place  which  had  never 
been  reached  by  the  Gospel  of  Christ.  It  was  to  be  interdenomi 
national,  and  to  seek  for  support  from  none  beyond  themselves. 
The  missionary  members  of  the  party  were  to  be  maintained,  if 
necessary,  by  the  other  members  of  the  Band  who  were  unable 
to  go  abroad.  It  was  a  noble  ideal,  but  the  practical  difficulties 
which  arose  in  reducing  it  to  action  were  soon  manifest.  Two 
members  of  the  Band,  which  came  to  be  known  as  the  "  C.U.M.P." 
(Cambridge  University  Mission  Party),  were  sons  of  Prebendary 
Fox,  the  C.M.S.  Hon.  Sec.  (one  a  curate  with  Canon  Lillingston 
of  Hull,  the  other  in  training  for  the  medical  profession).  The 
Band  were  thus  naturally  led  to  consult  Salisbury  Square,  and  the 
result  was  an  affiliation  with  the  Society,  by  which  a  district  in 
the  Niger  Mission  was  assigned  to  the  Party,  whose  missionaries 
supported  by  it  should  be  on  the  roll  and  under  the  regulations  of 
the  C.M.S.,  subject  in  special  cases  to  the  approval  of  the  C.U.M.P. 
Committee.  The  first  to  go  out  in  1907  was  the  Eev.  ,T.  W.  Lloyd, 
son  of  a  well-known  supporter  of  the  Society  in  South  Wales. 
The  next  in  the  same  year  was  the  Eev.  G.  T.  Fox,  and  work  was 
shortly  begun  at  Panyam  among  the  Pagans  of  the  Bauchi  high 
lands.  A  third  member  of  the  Party,  the  Eev.  C.  H.  Wedgwood, 
followed,  and  before  long  a  new  station  was  opened  at  Kabwir. 
Two  wives  and  three  other  members  of  the  C.U.M.P.  have  since 
been  added,  the  Eev.  L.  N.  Green  and  Dr.  J.  C.  Fox  in  1909,  and 
the  Eev.  E.  Hay  ward  in  1911 ;  but  Mr.  Green  has  since  retired. 
It  was  a  great  sorrow  when  Mr.  G.  T.  Fox  died  before  the  closed 
gates  of  Kano  in  1912. 

The  missionary  success  of  this  little  Band  has  been  large. 
Besides  winning  the  confidence  of  suspicious  tribes,  and  trans 
lating  portions  of  the  Scriptures  into  two  new  languages,  it  has  a 
record  of  baptisms  remarkable  in  view  of  difficulties  and  dis 
couragements  which  have  come  as  often  from  the  white  man's 
influence  as  the  black  man's  prejudice  ;  and  strong  foundations 
have  been  laid  for  the  wider  and  higher  upbuilding  which  will 
surely  follow.  Bishop  Tugwell  went  to  Kabwir  in  April,  1915, 
and  confirmed  22  persons,  including  seven  young  married  couples. 

In  1910  Dr.  Miller  had  leave  from  the  British  authorities  to  visit 
Kano  again,  and  took  with  him  his  Christian  mallams.  One  of 
these  mallams  subsequently  went  alone  to  another  town,  in  a 
district  closed  against  white  missionaries.  But  Kano  had  again 


C.  M.S.  MISSIONS:    WF.S.T  AFRICA.  73 

to  be  abandoned,  and  it  is  only  now  that  there  is  at  last  a  prospect    PART  n. 
of  the  Mission  being  allowed  to  approach  the  city.     It  must  be    chap'  6- 
borne  in  rnind  that  these  northern  provinces  are  in  fact  protected 
native  States,  similar  to  the  native  States  of  India.     The  British  Moslem 


officials  are,  as  in  India,  called  Eesidents,  and  the  actual  adminis- 
tration  is  partly  in  native  hands  ;  whereas  in  Southern  Nigeria  officials. 
the  officials  are  called  Commissioners,  and  there  are  no  "  sultans  " 
or  "  emirs."  This  no  doubt  accounts  in  part  for  the  Government 
restrictions  on  missionary  work;  yet  it  must  be  frankly  added 
that  some  of  the  Eesidents  are  confessedly  opposed  to  Christian 
effort  in  Moslem  districts.*  But  Dr.  C.  H.  Kobinson,  who  himself 
visited  the  Hausa  country  after  his  brother  J.  A.  Eobinson's  death, 
considers  that  the  best  hope  for  West  Africa  would  be  "  the  con 
version  of  the  Hausas  and  of  one  or  two  other  races  in  the 
interior,  who  possess  a  strength  of  character  which  is  not  to  be 
discovered  amongst  the  peoples  in  the  coastal  districts."  t  Mean 
while,  at  Zaria  and  elsewhere,  there  have  been  further  baptisms, 
and  the  converts  have  shown  steadfastness  and  zeal.  An  interest-  Christian 
ing  recent  development  is  the  gathering  of  115  Christians  and  Villa';o- 
inquirers  into  a  new  village  by  themselves,  which  is  called  Gimi. 
Dr.  Miller  reports  warmly  on  this  experiment.  Among  recent 
recruits  to  the  Hausa  Mission  is  a  New  Zealand  clergyman,  but 
an  Oxford  man,  the  Eev.  Leonard  S.  Kempthorne,  son  of  the 
Eector  of  Nelson  Cathedral. 

All  this  while,  good  work  has  been  going  on  in  the  older  parts  Lokoja  and 
of  the  Northern  Nigeria  field,  at  Lokoja,  and  in  the  Nup6  country,  Nn|lt!' 
and  at  Bida,  the  scenes  of  many  visits  by  Bishop  Crowther  in 
former  days.  Quite  recently,  the  hitherto  unpromising  outlook  has 
much  changed,  and  a  widespread  spirit  of  inquiry  is  now  visible, 
almost  like  that  in  the  I  bo  or  the  Yoruba  Country.  People  are 
building  churches  and  schools  for  themselves,  and  begging  for 
teachers.  Mr.  Alvarez,  who  was  transferred  from  Sierra  Leone  to 
Northern  Nigeria  in  1901,  has  been  in  principal  charge,  to  the  great 
advantage  of  the  work.  The  Bishop  also  appointed  Mr.  Macintyre 
Archdeacon,  but  he  has  been  invalided  home,  and  will  probably 
work  in  Egypt  or  Palestine. 

Other  Missions  have  begun  work  during  these  years  in  Northern  other 
Nigeria,  the  most  important  being  the  Sudan  United  Mission,  an  M 
interdenominational  organization.     Their  principal  field  of  labour 
is  up  the  Binue,  mainly  among  the  Pagan  population.     From  time 
to   time    all   the   Missions,  including   the   C.M.S.,  have   met   in 
conference  and  discussed  matters  of  common  interest  in  the  prac 
tical  arrangements  of  the  work  and  such  subjects  as  the  liquor 
traffic  and  polygamy.!     Bible  translation  has  also  been  done  in 

*  See  Dr.  Miller's  article,  "Northern  Nigeria:  Two  Outlooks,"  in  the 
CM.  Eev.,  July,  1909. 

f  History  of  Christian  Missions,  p.  299. 

t  An  interesting  account  of  one  such  Conference  at  Lokoja  over  which 
Bishop  Tugwell  presided,  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Revieiv.  Nov.,  1910,  under  the 
title,  "  Where  Niger  and  Binue  Meet." 


74  CM.S.  MISSIONS:    WEST  AFRICA. 

PAKT  ii.    combination  ;  *  but  in  Hausa  almost  everything  is  the  work  of  Dr. 

cim^fi.    Miller.     Similar  gatherings,  it  should  be  added,  have  taken  place  in 

Southern  Nigeria.    Of  course  the  Eoman  Catholic  Missions  always 

stand  aloof  from  such  co-operation  ;  and  their  influence  in  Nigeria 

is  unhappily  rendered  doubtful  by  their  laxity  regarding  heathen 

customs.  . 

Testimony       This  brief  account  of  the  Society's  West  Africa  Missions  may 

of  Lugard    be  fitl     concluded  by  quoting  utterances  of  Sir  F.  Lugard  and 

Son.  Sir  H.H.  Johnston.     The  former,  in  his  Eeport  to  Government  in 

1906,  wrote  as  follows  touching  the  friendly  attitude  of  the  Emir  of 

Zaria  : — 

"This  friendly  attitude  and  the  remarkable  results  achieved  are 
probably  and  almost  entirely  due  to  Dr.  Miller's  exceptional  tact  and 
personal  influence,  together  with  his  absolute  mastery  of  the  Hausa 
language.  .  .  The  Eesident  .  .  .  cannot  too  warmly  express  his  grati 
tude  to  Dr  Miller.  ...  The  Emir  himself  has  apparently  formed  a 
close  friendship  with  Dr.  Miller,  and  invites  a  frank  expression  of  his 
opinions  on  social  abuses  which  come  under  his  notice, 
very  great  deal  of  good  has  resulted." 

And  Sir  H.  H.  Johnston,  in  a  review  of  Mr.  E.  D.  Morel's  book 
on  Nigeria  expressed  disagreement  with  that  gentleman's  criticisms 
on  some  of  the  C.M.S.  work,  and  added,  "  In  fact,  the  C.M.S.  for 
good  or  for  ill,  has  done  more  to  create  British  Nigeria  than  the 
British  Government." 

Lastly  let  it  be  suggested  that  the  Western  Equatorial  Africa 
Diocesan,  Magazine,  a  monthly  periodical  admirably  edited  by 
Mr.  Watson  of  Newcastle,  should  be  read  by  all  who  are  interested 
in  West  Africa,  f 

*  See   Archdeacon  Dennis's  very  interesting  account  of  the  Union  Ibo 
Bible,  completed  in  1912  after  seven  years'  labour,  CM.  Rev.,  April,  1912. 

*  To  be  had  from  Mr.  W.  Watson,  15,  Grosvenor  Place,  Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Price  2/6  a  year. 


CHAPTEE  VII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    EAST  AFRICA. 

British  East  Africa :  Mombasa,  Frere  Town,  &c. — German  East  Africa : 
Progress  Prior  to  the  War — British  East  Africa  :  the  Interior — Kikuyu 
District — Kikuyu  Conference. 

|N  the  same  year  in  which  the  C.M.S.  kept  its  Centenary,    PART  n. 
the  proposed  division  of  the  Diocese  of  Eastern  Equa-    (<hap-  7- 
torial  Africa,  over  which  three  bishops,  Hannington,  Diocese  of 
Parker,  and  Tucker,  had  presided,  was  carried  out,  and  Mor 
the  two  dioceses  of  Mombasa  and  Uganda  came  into 
being.     Bishop  Tucker  retained  Uganda,  and  the  Eev.  W.  G.  Peel 
was  consecrated  for  Mombasa  on    St.  Peter's  Day,  1899.      For 
nearly  twenty  years  Mr.  Peel  had  worked  in  India,  and  had  been 
Secretary  at  both  Madras  and  Bombay ;  and  his  varied  experience 
and  high  reputation  pointed  him  out  as  the  right  man  for  a  post 
of  peculiar  difficulty.* 

The  Diocese  of  Mombasa  comprises  extensive  territories  in  both 
British  and  German  East  Africa,  inhabited  by  numerous  tribes 
speaking  different  languages  and  dialects,  and  without  any  of  the 
comparatively  advanced  organization  of  a  kingdom  like  Buganda. 


BRITISH  EAST  AFRICA— THE  COAST  DISTRICT. 
The  neighbourhood  of  Mombasa  itself,  the  port  of  British  East  Frere  Town: 

a  retro 
spect. 


Africa,  had  been  the  scene  of  the  labours  of  Krapf  and  Eebmann,  aretr°- 


the  first  missionaries  in  that  part  of  the  world  (1844) ;  and  when 
the  Society  revived  the  old  Mission  in  1874,  it  was  primarily  to 
receive  freed  slaves,  rescued  by  British  cruisers  from  the  Arab 
slave  ships  then  infesting  the  coast.  This  work  was  undertaken 
at  the  request  of  Sir  Bartle  Frere,  who  negotiated  the  treaty  with 
the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar  which  eventually  brought  the  East  African 
slave  trade  to  an  end ;  and  the  settlement,  founded  by  the  Eev.  W. 
Salter  Price,  was  named  Frere  Town  accordingly.  The  success  of 
Mr.  Price's  work  was  strikingly  illustrated  when,  ten  years  later, 
a  fresh  cargo  of  rescued  slaves  was  brought  in ;  the  men  who 
received  and  attended  to  them  and  taught  them  being  their  prede 
cessors  of  ten  years  before.  Besides  Frere  Town  itself,  use  was 
also  made  of  the  old  station  of.Eabai,  fifteen  miles  inland,  where 
*  P.S. — April,  1916.  Bishop  Peel's  death  is  a  heavy  loss  to  the  Mission. 


PART  IT. 

Chap. 7. 


The  East 

African 

Christians. 


Inland 
^Missions : 
Taita,  &c. 


Mombasa 
town. 


76  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA. 

Rebmann  had  lived  nearly  thirty  years  in  the  old  days  with  his 
handful  of  converts ;  and  thither  gathered  large  numbers  of  fugi 
tives  from  the  domestic  slavery  of  the  country,  who  were  ransomed 
by  the  British  East  Africa  Company  compensating  the  owners. 
Evangelistic  work  was  also  carried  on  among  the  neighbouring 
tribes ;  Giriama  and  Jilore  became  familiar  names  in  C.M.S.  publi 
cations  ;  and  the  patient  and  prayerful  labours  of  Douglas  Hooper, 
H.  K.  Binns,  W.  E.  Taylor,  and  many  others,  and  of  a  succes 
sion  of  devoted  women,  bore  definite  fruit. 

Bishop  Peel  had  heard  much  that  was  unfavourable  about  the 
Mission  before  he  reached  Africa,  but  he  was  encouraged  beyond 
expectation  by  what  he  saw.  His  long  Indian  experience  had 
taught  him  the  mistake  of  judging  a  people  only  just  come  out  of 
the°darkest  superstition  and  the  grossest  immorality  by  a  standard 
scarcely  applicable  to  our  home  population  with  all  the  advantages 
of  its  environment.  And  the  development  of  trade  on  the  coast 
had  brought  a  motley  multitude  in  which  the  little  bands  of  native 
Christians,  with  all  their  real  imperfections,  were  comparatively  as 
lights  in  the  darkness.  Archdeacon  Binns,  in  1910,  with  ^  a  local 
experience  of  thirty-five  years,  wrote  of  the  village  of  Eabai,  '<  The 
change  in  the  country  is  marvellous.  The  difference  in  the  attitude 
of  the  whole  people 'towards  the  religion  of  Christ,  the  growth  in 
grace  of  many,  the  happy  Christian  homes,  the  sight  of  Christian 
mothers  taking  their  little  ones  to  church  daily,  the  voices  raised 
in  prayer  at  our  prayer  meeting,  the  attendance  of  so  many  at  the 
Lord's  Table  -these  things  cause  me  to  thank  God  and  take 
courage."  Ptecently  there  has  been  a  hopeful  movement  among 
the  surrounding  tribes,  particularly  in  the  Digo  Country  to  the 
south  ;  and  the  whole  number,  of  baptized  Christians  in  the  Coast 
district  exceeds  1400,  besides  a  large  number  of  catechumens. 
Further  inland  are  the  Missions  in  the  Taita  country,  where  Mr. 
Wray  laboured  so  patiently  for  thirty  years,  until  he  became  in  an 
unusual  degree  the  father  as  well  as  pastor  of  a  people  transformed 
from  the  most  degrading  heathenism."  Excellent  work  has  been 
clone  by  Mr.  Vladimir  Vassil  Verbi,  a  Bulgarian  by  birth,  but  now 
in  English  orders,  with  his  wife  and  her  sister  (who  went  out  in 
1896-7  as  the  Misses  Mayor) ;  also  by  Mr.  Maynard,  one  of  the 
zealous  missionaries  of  the  New  South  Wales  Association. 

Mombasa  itself  is  mainly  a  Mohammedan  town,  and  the  work 
has  been  as  difficult  as  at '(say)  Peshawar;  but  here  also  there 
are  now  very  hopeful  signs,  such  as  more  than  one  hundred  men 
in  baptism  and  confirmation  classes,  and  the  first  baptisms  _  of 
immigrants  from  India.  Among  the  developments  of  our  period 
have  been  the  Mzizima  Hospital,  worked  by  Dr.  Shepherd,  the 
Buxton  High  School,  opened  by  Mr.  Victor  Buxton  in  1904,  and 
the  East  African  Industries  Company,  formed  by  the  same  valued 
friend  for  the  good  of  the  people,  of  course  independently  of  the 

*  See  the  remarkable  testimony  of  an  English  officer,  CM.  Gleaner,  Jan., 
1916. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA.  77 

Mission.""'     But  the  chief  outward  and  visible  sign  of  the  Christian    PARTII. 

occupation  of  the  coast  is  the  new  cathedral,  built  as  a  memorial 

to  Bishops  Hannington  and  Parker  and  the  Eev.  Henry  Wright, 

which  was  dedicated  on  May  31st,  1905.    It  is  an  imposing  structure 

with  a  strikingly  Oriental  effect.     It  is  a  notable  fact  that  while  The  four 

many  older  mission  fields,  and  colonial  dioceses  too,  are  as  yet  Cathedrals 

without  central  churches  that  can  be  dignified  with  the  name  of  Afric?. 

cathedrals,  the  comparatively  young  dioceses  in  Bast  and  Central 

Africa  have  four,  viz.,  Uganda,  Mombasa,  Zanzibar,  and  Likoma. 

The  latter  two  are  of  course  fruits  of  the  Universities'  Mission ; 

and  the  Likoma  cathedral,  on  an  island  in  Lake  Nyasa,  was,  like 

that  in  Uganda,  to  a  large  extent  built  by  the  native  Christians 

themselves. 

The  death,  of  one  African  clergyman,  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Jones,  African 
should  be  mentioned.  Some  sixty  years  ago  he  was  rescued  from  clergy- 
a  slave-ship  by  a  British  cruiser,  and  taken  to  Bombay,  whence 
he  was  sent,  as  were-  others,  to  the  C.M.S.  Mission  at  Nasik, 
where  he  was  educated  and  baptized.  In  1864  he  and  another 
ex-slave,  Ishmael  Semler,  were  sent  to  Mombasa  to  work  under 
Rebmann.  Both  were  ordained  by  Bishop  Hannington  in  1885. 
Jones  accompanied  Hannington  on  his  last  journey,  and  brought 
back  the  news  of  his  murder,  the  returning  caravan  being  preceded 
by  the  flag  inscribed  with  the  word  Ichabod,  which  has  been 
shown  at  missionary  exhibitions  all  over  England.  He  died  in 
1904. f  Semler  is  still  at  work  after  fifty  years  on  the  coast.J  A 
third  African,  J.  R.  Deiinler,  was  ordained  by  Bishop  Tucker  in 
1896,  and  a  fourth,  Lugo  Fussell  Gore,  by  Bishop  Peel  in  1903. 

GERMAN  EAST  AFRICA. 

Turning  to  German  East  Africa,  we  find  ourselves  in  a  growing  ^ 
and  deeply  interesting  Mission,  though  one  of  the  least  familiar  to  M 
C.M.S.  members  and  friends.     When  the  first  party  for  Uganda  ttc 
went  up   country  in  1876,  one  man  was  left  at  a  place  called 
Mpwapwa,§  some  250  miles  from  the  coast,  recommended  for  an 
intermediate  station  by  Captain  Cameron,  who  had  lately  made 
one  of  the  earliest  journeys  across  Africa.     In  the  two  neigh 
bouring  districts  of  Ussagara  (or  Ukaguru)  and  Ugogo,  the  work 
has  been  carried  on  ever  since ;  and  the  name  of  Mpwapwa  has 

*  An  interesting  account  of  the  East  African  Industries,  by  Mr.  Buxton, 
appeared  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Jan.,  1909.  See  also  Col.  Kenyon's  article, 
Jan.,  1914. 

f  Mr.  Joseph  Chamberlain,  when  he  visited  East  Africa  in  1902,  was  much 
interested  in  Jones,  and  in  the  Mission  generally. 

J  The  Rev.  G.  W.  Wright  says,  "  In  spite  of  his  years  Mr.  Semler  confronts 
the  mixed  crowd  in  the  market-place  with  boldness  and  vigour  "  ;  and  adds 
the  interesting  fact  that  in  working  among  the  Indian  immigrants  at  Mom 
basa  he  was  assisted  for  a  time  by  a  convert  of  Dr.  Pennell's  from  the  Afghan 
Frontier,  Sheikh  Allah  Bakhsh,  who  was  one  of  the  medical  students  at 
Bannu. 

§  This  was  the  old  spelling.    It  is  now  spelt  Mpapua. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA. 


PART  II. 

Chap.  7. 


Bishop 

Peel's 

journeys. 


Should  this 
Mission  be 
given  up  ? 


Other 
Missions. 


Recent 
Progress. 


been  familiarized  at  home  through  its  adoption  by  the  first  of 
the  bands  of  young  laymen  formed  to  promote  Missions  in  our 
parishes.  The  Mpwapwa  Band  of  St.  James's,  Holloway,  has  had 
many  imitators. 

British  and  Australian  and  Canadian  missionaries  have  worked 
together  in  these  districts,  and  Bishop  Peel's  letters  describing  his 
visits  to  the  country  have  been  of  singular  interest.  It  was  here 
that  he  started  his  plan  of  self-sacrifice  on  the  simplest  scale,  each 
Christian  family,  on  sitting  down  to  its  principal  daily  meal,  taking 
a  certain  quantity  of  the  food  and  putting  it  aside  then  and  there 
as  God's  portion.  In  1899  there  were  200  baptized  converts.  The 
returns  for  1914  give  1300  baptized  and  nearly  4000  catechumens. 
When  the  Society  was  faced  with  heavy  deficits  a  few  years 
ago,  the  question  was  gravely  considered  whether  this  work  could 
be  handed  over  to  another  Society.  There  would  be  a  distinct 
advantage  in  concentrating  upon  British  East  Africa ;  and  there 
were  active  German  Missions  in  the  German  territories,  while  the 
U.M.C.A.  was  at  Zanzibar  and  in  the  adjoining  districts  to  the 
south.  But  in  view  of  the  whole  past  history,  and  of  Bishop  Peel's 
reports,  it  was  felt  impossible  to  abandon  such  a  work ;  and  this 
decision  has  been  rewarded  by  the  definite  progress  that  has  been 
achieved  in  the  last  three  or  four  years. 

In  the  CM.  Review  of  March,  1913,  the  Eev.  Dr.  T.  B.  E.  West- 
gate,  a  C.M.S.  missionary  from  Canada,  gave  particulars-  of  all 
these  Missions.  His  figures  were  for  1912,  and  were  taken  from 
the  German  official  Adressbuch.  The  C.M.S.  was  credited  with 
20  missionaries  and  1053  Christians ;  the  U.M.C.A.  with  32  mis 
sionaries  and  4149  Christians;  five  German  Societies  together, 
with  225  missionaries  and  10,500  Christians;  the  three  Roman 
Catholic  Missions  with  315  missionaries  and  34,000  Christians. 

Meanwhile,  far  away  to  the  west,  at  the  south  end  of  the  Victoria 
Nyanza,  there  was  a  small  Mission  in  the  country  of  Usukuma. 
Although  in  German  territory,  and  nominally  in  Bishop  Peel's 
jurisdiction,  this  had  been  worked  from  Uganda ;  and  it  had  its 
own  historic  interest  as  being  at  the  place  where  Alexander  Mackay 
died.  But  its  isolation,  and  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Africa  Inland 
Mission,  led  to  the  two  C.M.S.  missionaries  being  transferred  to 
Uganda  in  1909,  and  the  handful  of  converts  being  committed  to 
the  care  of  the  A.I.M. 

Bishop  Peel's  letter  received  early  in  1914  was  accompanied  by 
a  remarkable  little  map  of  the  Mission  in  German  East  Africa, 
constructed  by  his  daughter  on  the  spot.*  It  shows  that  the 
district  allotted  by  the  comity  of  Missions  to  the  C.M.S.  extends 
some  250  miles  east  and  west,  and  about  100  miles  north  and 
south ;  and  in  that  area  there  are  no  less  than  370  dots  of  different 
shapes  indicating  stations,  out-stations,  &c.  In  every  one  of  these, 
the  Bishop  wrote,  reading  and  writing  were  being  taught,  in  some 


*  See  C.M.  Review,  Sept.,  1914. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA. 


79 


cases  three  times  a  week,  in  others  only  once  a  fortnight ;  and  in  PART  IT. 
every  one  there  were  some  converts  under  instruction  for  baptism,  Chap-  7-' 
it  might  be  one  hundred,  it  might  be  half  a  dozen.  In  the  joint 
report,  signed  by  Archdeacon  Eees  and  Mr.  Doulton,  the  370 
become  405,  showing  that  the  map  actually  understated  the  facts. 
The  Mission  had  profited  much  by  the  Pan-Anglican  grant,  out  of 
which  good  school-buildings  had  been  erected.  Some  particularly 
interesting  illustrations  of  work  and  its  fruits  are  given.  Such  are 
"  the  celebration  of  Holy  Communion  for  three  or  four  Christians 
in  an  isolated  station  by  the  light  of  a  hurricane-lantern,  with 
the  verandah  of  a  native  beehive  hut  for  a  sanctuary,  and  the 
missionary's  beast  of  burden  eating  his  corn  a  few  yards  away"  ; 
the  special  service  on  Sunday  mornings  for  old  people  at  Berega' 
and  the  Bishop  addressing  170  of  them,  but  no  hymns  as  they 
could  not  sing ;  the  simple  medical  work  which  a  convert  named 
Danieli,  trained  by  Dr.  Baxter,  carried  on  during  the  doctor's  fur 
lough,  "under  Miss  Spriggs's  superintendence";  the  spirit  of  the 
catechumens,  who  regard  it  as  their  obvious  duty  "  to  take  the 
Christian  message  anywhere";  and  "the  tiny  god-houses,  once 
much  in  evidence  in  gardens,  now  scarcely  ever  seen."  In  other 
reports,  several  individual  native  teachers  have  been  highly 
spoken  of.  Mr.  Doulton,  for  instance,  wrote  of  the  "faithful 
ness"  of  one,  his  "example  to  the  flock,"  "his  true  witness  for 
Christ  by  life  and  word." 

During  Bishop  Peel's  visit  to  German  East  Africa  in  1913,  he  Laymen 
ordained   three  lay  missionaries   of   long  experience,   Mr.  J.  H.  or(*ailied- 
Briggs,  Mr.  D.  Deekes,   and  Mr.  E.   W.  Doulton,  giving   them 
deacons'    and   priests'    orders   on   successive    Sundays;    and   he 
appointed  the  Eev.  D.  J.  Eees  Archdeacon.     Mr.  Deekes,  it  will 
be  remembered,  was  the  one  missionary  with  Alexander  Mackay 
when  he  died  in  1890.    Mr.  Doulton  is  a  Sydney  man,  sent  by  the 
New  South  Wales  Association,  and  was  one  of  the  first  to  offer 
when  the  C.M.S.  Deputation  went  to  Australia  in  1892. 

All  through  these  past  years  the  German  authorities  were  not  German 
only  vigorous  in  developing  the  country,— the  railway  from  the  Influence- 
coast  already  nearing  Tanganyika,— but  also  were  courteous  and 
friendly  to  the  Society's  missionaries  in  their  territory.  Latterly 
they  urged  the  missionaries  to  push  forward  the  education  of  the 
people,  avowing  their  preference  for  Christian  employes  rather 
than  Mohammedans,  while  if  the  former  class  were  not  available 
the  latter  must  be  taken.  A  remarkable  testimony  to  the  success 
of  the  C.M.S.  schools  among  the  Wagogo  was  given  by  First 
Lieutenant  Styx,  a  German  official,  in  1907.  The  upper  classes 
were  being  taught  German;  but  the  religious  instruction  was 
given  in  Kigogo,  the  native  language,  which  the  Mission  had 
reduced  to  writing  for  the  first  time.*  In  1910  the  German 
authorities  ordered  all  chiefs,  and  their  heirs,  to  learn  to  read 

*  See  C.M.  Gazette,  Sept.,  1907. 


8o  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA. 

PART  n.  and  write.  A  Swahili  seminary  was  lately  opened, -the  Berlin 
7.  Society  f  the  Moravians,  and  the  C.M.S.  working  together, — which 
should  'facilitate  ..the  general  adoption  of  Swahili  as  the  lingua 
franca  for  the  whole  country.  This  was  arranged  in  1911,  when 
'Missions'  Inspektor  Axenfeld  visited  East  Africa.* 

It  must  be  regretfully  added  that  the  chief  difficulty  of  the 
Mission  has  been  with  the  Eoman  missionaries,  who,  as  in  so  many 
other  parts  of  the  world,  have  passed  by  Pagan  tribes  as  yet 
unreached  in  order  to  induce  the  Anglican  Christians  to  join 
them. 

So  far,  until  the  War  broke  out.  The  only  information  since 
received  is  given  in  the  Appendix. 

BRITISH  EAST  AFRICA:  INTERIOR. 

We  must  now  go  northward  again  into  British  East  Africa,  still 
in  tke  diocese  of  Mombasa.  The  advance  of  the  Uganda  Eailway, 
and  the  inviting  highlands  and  fine  climate  through  which  (after 
the  first  100  miles)  it  passed,  naturally  attracted,  not  only 
European  settlers  and  sportsmen,  but  also  Swahili  traders  from 
the  coast,  who  are  all  Moslems,  and  who  everywhere  spread  their 
religion.  Several  Christian  Missions,  however,  have  been  estab 
lished  during  the  period  under  review  in  the  Ukamba  and  Kenia 
provinces,  the  principal  ones  that  are  Protestant  being  those  of 
the  C.M.S.,  the  Church  of  Scotland,  and  the  Africa  Inland  Mission, 
the  latter  an  interdenominational  organization  with  bases  in  both 
England  and  the  United  States;  and  the  Eoman  Catholics  are 
also  strong.  About  1900  there  begins  to  appear  in  the  C.M.S. 
Kikuyu  Eeports  the  now  famous  name  of  Kikuyu,  which  is  the  central 
District.  an(1  heaitby  district  in  which  is  situated  Nairobi,  now  the  capital 
of  British  East  Africa.  Mr.  A.  W.  McGregor,  who  had  worked 
at  Taveta  with  Mr.  Steggall,  was  commissioned  in  that  year  to  go 
forward  and  prospect  with  a  view  to  a  C.M.S.  Mission  among  the 
Wa-Kikuyu,  one  of  the  largest  tribes  in  the  country.  He  found  at 
Nairobi  the  headquarters  of  the  railway,  and  a  fine  field  for 
missionary  work;  and  there  also,  shortly  afterwards,  the  C.C.C.S. 
located  a  chaplain  for  the  European  community.  In  1902  Mr. 
McGregor  was  joined  by  the  Eev.  H.  Leakey,  and  in  the  following 
year  he  went  forward  into  the  Kenia  Province,  a  country  dominated 
by  the  mighty  mountain  of  that  name.  Mr.  G.  Burns,  of  the 
New  South  Wales  Association,  followed  at  Nairobi;  and  other 
stations  have  since  been  opened.  Canada  sent  two  brothers,  the 
Eev.  E.  W.  Crawford  and  Dr.  T.  W.  Crawford ;  and  other  mission 
aries  have  since  been  added.  Meanwhile  the  centre  of  the  Church 
of  Scotland  Mission  had  been  fixed  near  a  station  on  the  railway 
twenty  miles  from  Nairobi,  to  which  had  been  given  the  properly 
tribal  and  district  name  of  Kikuyu.|  Mr.  McGregor's  station, 

*  See  CM.  Review,  Feb.,  1914,  p.  107. 

f  An  excellent  account  of  the  Kikuyu  country  and  its  people,  by  Mr. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA.  Si 

Weithaga,  is   progressing   well.      The    British   authorities   have    PART  IT. 
chosen  two  of  the  Christians  to  be  chiefs  of  districts;  and  one  of    chf£i7- 
them  signalized  his  appointment  by  strong  measures  against  drink 
and  immorality.     Mr.  McGregor  writes  that  the  Kikuyu  people 
are  distancing  all  the  other  tribes  : — 

"  Kikuyu  workmen  are  now  found  engaged  in  all  kinds  of  employment 
to  the  satisfaction  of  their  employers.  Perhaps  no  other  tribe  in  East 
Africa  save  the  Baganda  can  show  such  a  record  of  service  by  members 
of  their  tribe.  Kikuyus  are  found  working  in  the  engineering  workshops, 
at  the  carpenter's  bench;  as  High  Court  interpreters,  in  the  Medical 
Department  of  the  Government ;  as  clerks  in  government  offices ;  in  the 
post  office  as  telegraphists,  &c." 

Of  the  country  round  Mount  Kenia  a  most  interesting  account  Mount 
is  given  by  Mrs.  Crawford — who  as  Miss  Grimes  is  so  well  known  Keuia- 
through  her  sacred  poetry,  and  who  has  been  a  pioneer  missionary 

to  new  tribes   with  her  husband,  the   Canadian    doctor in    her 

excellent  book,  By  the  Equator's  Snowy  Peak*  At  Kahuhia,  where 
the  British  Government  station  is  called  Fort  Hall,  the  veteran 
Douglas  Hooper,  though  almost  a  wreck  physically,  continues  his 
devoted  labours  for  the  Africa  which  called  him  from  Cambridge 
thirty  years  ago ;  working  largely  through  the  energies  of  his  wife 
as  a  medical  missionary.  It  is  a  happy  thing  that  he  is  now 
being  joined  by  his  son  (the  child  of  his  first  wife,  "Edith  Baldey"), 
the  Eev.  H.  D.  Hooper,  who  was  born  in  Africa.  In  some  of 
these  districts  the  celebrated  warlike  tribe,  the  Masai,  are  met 
with.  The  results  of  the  work  cannot  be  compared  with  those  in 
Uganda,  but  the  returns  of  1914  give  some  330  baptized  Christians 
and  about  500  catechumens. 

It  was  with  the  view  to  avoiding  as  far  as  possible  the  puzzling  Kikuyu 
of  such  relatively  simple  and  ignorant  people  with  the  differences  t<ollference- 
that  separate  Christians,  and  of  preparing  the  way  for  the  future 
formation — if  God  bless  the  plans — of  an  united  Christian  Church, 
—that  the  Kikuyu  Conference  of  1913  was  held  which  has  led  to 
so  much  controversy  at  home.      But   this   important   matter   is 
noticed  at  length  in  Chap.  XL. 

Varied  translational  work  has  been  accomplished  in  the  different  Literary 
parts  of  this  great  diocese.     The  important  language  is  that  of  the  Workt 
coast,  Swahili,  which  the  Government  are  fostering  as  a  general 
medium  of  communication.     At  Mombasa   much  has  been  done 
in  the  form  of   it  spoken  there,  which    is  regarded  by  some    as 
differing  sufficiently  from  the  Swahili  of   Zanzibar  to  require  a 
distinct  version  of  the  Bible  and  Prayer  Book.     Both  the  New  and 

McGregor,  appeared  in  the  CM.  Review,  Jan.,  1909.     Also  see  his  interesting- 
letter  in  the  Gleaner  of  Oct.,  1915. 

*  Published  by  the  C.M.S.  The  retirement  of  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Crawford, 
owing  to  the  latter's  ill-health,  is  a  great  loss  to  the  Mission.  Bishop  Peel's 
account  of  the  country  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Intell.  of  Aug.,  190G. 

G 


82  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EAST  AFRICA. 

PART  IT.  Old  Testament,  and  the  Prayer  Book,  in  this  dialect,  have  been 
oimixT.  revise(i;  commentaries  on  the  Gospels  written;  the  Pilgrim's 
Progress  begun;  a  Swahili  magazine  edited.  Mr.  Binns  and 
Archdeacon  Hamshere  have  been  thus  busily  occupied.  In  the 
language  of  the  Taita  country,  Ki-sagalla,  Mr.  Wray  produced  the 
four  Gospels,  most  of  the  Prayer  Book,  a  hymn-book  and  two  or 
three  smaller  books.  There  has  been  a  joint  committee  for  Kikuyu 
translations.  In  German  East  Africa,  Australian  and  Canadian 
missionaries  have  revised  the  New  Testament  in  the  language  of 
Ugogo.  As  everywhere,  the  Bible  Society  and  the  S.P.C.K.  have 
printed  and  supplied  these  various  translations. 

The  c.M.s.  In  1899  the  missionary  staff  of  the  Diocese  of  Mombasa  com- 
staff-  prised  15  clergymen,  15  laymen,  18  wives,  and  20  other  women ; 
total  68.  The  figures  for  1915  are  25  clergymen,  3  laymen,  23 
wives,  and  18  other  women ;  total  69.  The  change  in  the  clerical 
and  lay  numbers  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  several  of  the  laymen 
have  been  ordained  since.  Of  the  whole  68  of  1899,  30  are  still 
on  the  staff.  The  deaths  have  been  only  five.  Only  one  man  has 
been  taken,  a  young  layman  who  died  almost  immediately  on  land 
ing.  Three  men  lost  their  wives,  Mr.  Hamshere,  Mr.  Briggs,  and 
Mr.  Doulton,  each  of  whom  had  married  one  of  the  women 
missionaries. '  All  three  have  married  again,  this  time  also  women 
missionaries.  Also  the  wife  of  the  Eev.  A.  E.  Steggall  died.  But 
several  men  have  retired  who  might  in  the  African  climate  be 
called  veterans.  Dr.  Baxter  and  Mr.  Wray  would  be  veterans  in 
any  Mission,  with  36  and  30  years  respectively;  and  Messrs. 
Burness,  Cole,  Taylor,  England,  Wood,  and  Luckock,  Mr.  and 
Mrs  Bailey,  and  Miss  Brewer,  all  served  over  20  years.  Among 
the  thirty  of  1899  still  at  work,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Binns  have 
nearly  40  years  to  their  credit,  Mr.  Douglas  Hooper  30,  Messrs. 
Deekes,  Briggs,  Archdeacon  Hamshere,  Doulton,  McGregor, 
Maynard,  Verbi,  Mrs.  Burns,  Mrs.  Leakey,  Mrs.  Deekes,  and  the 
Misses  Deed,  Wilde,  Ackerman,  and  'Lockett,  20  years  or  more. 

Among  those  who  have  retired,  Mr.  Taylor  will  be  remembered 
for  his  linguistic  work ;  Mr.  Wray  for  his  long  and  patient  service 
at  Taita,  before  referred  to ;  Dr.  Baxter,  and  Messrs.  Cole,  Beverley, 
and  Wood,  for  equally  patient  labour  in  Ussagara  ;  Mr.  Steggall  as 
for  several  years  the  missionary  at  Taveta,  the  place  at  the  foot  of 
Mount  Kilimanjaro  recently  captured  by  the  Germans ;  Dr. 
Edwards  as  the  first  medical  missionary  at  Mombasa ;  Mrs.  Bailey 
(Miss  M.  Harvey)  as  having  been  the  first  of  the  modern  band  of 
women  missionaries  of  the  Society. 

Australia  is  well  represented  in  this  diocese.  New  South  \\  ales 
has  sent  Mr.  Doulton,  Mr.  Burns,  Misses  Miller  and  Jackson; 
Victoria  has  sent  Mr.  Maynard,  Miss  Dixon,  and  Miss  Good  (now 
Mrs.  Doulton).  Canada  also  has  sent  good  men,  the  brothers 
Crawford  (before  mentioned)  and  the  Eev.  Dr.  Westgate. 
On  the  effects  of  the  War  on  the  Mission,  see  the  Appendix. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA. 

NOTE. — The  name  of  Uganda  is  now  used  only  of  the  whole  Protectorate. 
The  old  kingdom  is  officially  called  by  its  local  native  name,  Buganda,  which 
is  only  a  small  part  of  the  Protectorate.  Busoga,  Bukedi,  Bunyoro,  Toro, 
Ankole,  and  other  native  kingdoms,  are  in  Uganda,  but  not  in  Buganda.  The 
people  are  called  Baganda,  Banyoro,  Batoro,  &c.,  and  one  individual  is  a 
Muganda,  a  Mutoro,  &c.  The  languages  are  Luganda,  Lunyoro,  &c.  The 
term  Waganda,  ivhich  was  common  in  earlier  days,  is  the  Swahili  or  coast  word 
for  the  pi'ople,  and  corresponds  with  Baganda. 

The  New  Diocese  of  Uganda— Testimonies  of  Governors  and  Visitors- 
Four  Christian  Kings— Conversion  and  Death  of  Mwanga — Bones  of 
Martyrs  found— Bishop  Wilkinson's  Gifts— Progress  and  Extension 
of  the  Mission— Educational  and  Medical  Work— The  Cathedrals— 
Baganda  Clergy  and  Evangelists  —  Baganda  Christians  —  Roman 
Mission— Church  Organization:  Synod  Meeting  —  New  Heresy — 
Advantage  of  one  Church— The  C.M.S.  Staff— Bishop  Tucker: 
Retirement  and  Death  ;  the  Archbishop's  Tribute. 

HE  formation  of  the  new  Diocese  of  Uganda,  by  its  PART  IT. 
separation  from  the  rest  of  Eastern  Equatorial  Africa,  ch^:8- 
coincided  in  time  with  local  events  of  importance  The  new 

T  .    T  '  e  •     -,       /.  V  Diocese  of 

which  gave  promise  of  a  new  period  of  peace  and  Uganda. 

progress.  These  events,  the  suppression  of  the 
Sudanese  Mutiny,  the  capture  and  exile  of  the  two  kings,  Mwanga 
and  Kabarega,  the  near  approach  of  the  Uganda  Eailway,  the  arrival 
of  Sir  H.  H.  Johnston  as  Special  Commissioner,  and  the  arrange 
ments  made  by  him  for  the  future  government  of  the  country, 
through  the  Kabaka,  the  Katikiro,  and  the  Council  of  Chiefs,  have 
already  been  noticed.  A  new  era  had  arrived;  and,  as  the  C.M.S. 
Committee  said  in  their  Eeport,  "  The  Christianity  of  Uganda, 
having  survived  the  horrors  of  barbarism,  had  now  to  be  tested  by 
the  enticements  of  civilization  and  trade."  It  was  good  that  at 
such  a  juncture  Bishop  Tucker  should  be  relieved  of  the  charge  of 
the  varied  work  carried  on  in  the  immense  areas  of  British  and 
German  East  Africa,  and  thus  be  able  to  devote  himself  wholly, 
as  he  did  with  so  much  untiring  energy  and  good  judgment,  to 
the  care  of  the  expanding  Uganda  Mission  and  growing  Baganda 
Church. 


84  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  UGANDA. 

The  results  of  the  work  were  conspicuous.  Sir  H.  Johnston,  in 
hap^.  hig  firgt  Officiai  Beport,*  said,  "  The  rapid  spread  of  Christianity 
Testimonies  over  Uganda  is  one  of  the  greatest  triumphs  to  which  the  advocates 
no5OVer~  of  Christian  propaganda  can  point;  ...  the  difference  between 
the  Uganda  of  1900  and  the  blood-stained  barbarous  days  of 
Mtesa  and  Mwanga  is  really  extraordinary,  and  the  larger  share 
is  due  to  the  teaching  of  Anglican  and  Eoman  Catholic  mission 
aries."  His  successors  have  said  much  the  same.  Colonel  Hayes 
Sadler,  who  followed  in  1902,  said  before  he  left  England  that  he 
had  read  the  accounts  of  the  Mission  "  with  amazement "  ;  and 
on  his  return  two  years  later  he  said,  "  Now  I  have  seen  the  work 
I  am  still  amazed."  Colonel  Sadler  proved  a  most  sympathizing 
ruler,  and  when  he  left  in  1904,  a  letter  was  addressed  to  him  by 
the  Bishop,  Archdeacon  Walker,  and  the  Eev.  Henry  Wright  Duta 
(Secretary  of  the  Mengo  Church  Council),  in  which,  after  express 
ing  their  sense  of  the  wisdom  of  his  administration,  they  said  :— 
"  Your  interest,  not  merely  in  the  material  development  of  the 
country,  but  in  the  intellectual  and  spiritual  well-being  of  the 
people  over  whom  you  have  been  placed  in  the  providence  of  God, 
we  shall  ever  gratefully  remember."  Other  Commissioners,  Mr. 
G.  Wilson  for  instance,  and  Sir  H.  Hesketh  Bell,  have  also  been 
friends  to  all  good  work.  The  latter,  after  leaving,  wrote  as  follows 
to  Bishop  Tucker  :— 

"  Any  success  that  may  have  attended  my  administration  has  been 
largely  due  to  the  good  feeling  and  harmony  that  has  prevailed  among 
us  all,  and  to  the  generous  appreciation  which  we  have  all  felt  for  each 
other's  work.  No  one  admires  more  than  I  do  the  wonderful  results 
obtained  by  the  C.M.S.  in  Uganda,  and  my  heartiest  good  wishes  accom 
pany  the  continued  progress  of  the  work." 

and  of  Visitors,  too,  have  borne  frank  testimony  to  what  they  have 

Statesmen,  seen.  Mr.  Herbert  Samuel,  who  is  now  a  member  of  the  British 
Cabinet,  wrote  to  the  Westminster  Gazette  in  1902  a  most  graphic 
account,  beginning,  "It  is  profoundly  impressive  to  attend  a 
Sunday  service  here."  Mr.  Winston  Churchill,  when  Under 
Secretary  for  the  Colonies  in  1907,  visited  Uganda,!  and  ^on^ his 
return,  on  two  or  three  public  occasions,  expressed  his  admiration. 
"  Coming  into  that  community  in  the  heart  of  Africa,  it  seemed  to 
him  as  if  he  had  come  to  a  sort  of  centre  of  peace  and  illumination 
in  the  middle  of  barbarism  and  darkness ;  as  if  he  had  come  into 
a  new  world  where  all  the  hopes  and  dreams  of  the  negrophile 
and  philanthropist  had  at  last  been  fulfilled."  This  was  said  at  a 
great  meeting  of  laymen  at  the  Church  House,  arranged  by  the 
C.M.S.  Lay  Workers'  Union  ;  but  Mr.  Churchill  did  not  confine 
his  praise  of  the  Mission  to  audiences  sure  to  be  sympathetic. 
Almost-  immediately  on  arrival  home  he  addressed  the  National 

*  Extracts  were  given  in  the  CM.  Intell,  Nov.,  1900.     Sir  H.  Johnston's 
book  on  Uganda  was  described  at  length  in  the  CM.  Intell.,  Dec.,  1902. 
f  See  a  full  account  in  the  CM.  Bev.,  Feb.,  1908. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA.  85 

Liberal  Club,  and  told  the  crowd  of  members  there  that  while  "  in    PAUT  n. 
some  parts  of  the  Empire  he  had  found  the  official  classes  dis-    Ghap-  8- 
trustful  of  missionary  enterprise,"   "  in   Uganda  he  found  them 
very  grateful."     And  no  wonder  !     After  referring  to  the  "naked 
savages  "  met  with  en  route  through  East  Africa,  he  said,  "  Once 
in    Uganda,   you   were   in   another   world.     You   found   clothed, 
cultivated,  educated  natives.     You  found  200,000  who  could  read 
and  write,  a  very  great  number  who  had  embraced  the  Christian 
faith  sincerely,  and  had  abandoned  polygamy  in  consequence  of 
their  conversion." 

Equally  striking  was  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Eoosevelt,  who  was  and  of 
in  Uganda  in  1910.  He  pointed  out  the  "  immeasurable  advance  "  iSSfveit. 
of  even  an  imperfect  Christianity  upon  the  "  Stygian  darkness  " 
of  Paganism,  thus  rebuking  "  those  who  complain  of  or  rail  at 
missionary  work  in  Africa  "  because  of  the  "  shortcomings  "  of 
native  Christians.  His  article  on  the  subject  was  written  for  the 
Daily  Telegraph,  and  appeared  in  that  paper  on  July  22  in  that  year. 
He  wound  up  thus,  "  The  result  is  astounding.  .  .  .  What  has 
been  accomplished  by  Bishop  Tucker  and  those  associated  with 
him  makes  one  of  the  most  interesting  chapters  in  all  recent 
missionary  history." 

Naturally   Sir    Henry   Stanley   watched    the   development    of  Death  of 
Uganda  with  almost  paternal  gratification.     In  1901  he  wrote  to  ytanleJ'- 
the  three  leading  chiefs  who  were  Eegents  a  remarkable  letter,  in 
the  course  of  which  he  said,  "  Your  prayers  and  ours  ascend  and 
meet  at  the  throne  of  God,  and  with  one  blessing  He  blesses  you 
and  us."     He  died  in   1904,  thankful  for  having  had  so  large  a 
share  in  opening  up  Africa.""" 

One   remakable  testimony  of   quite   a  different  kind  is  worth  Indian 
recording.     After  the  capture  and  exile  of  the  rebel  kings,  in  1899,  sowlersin 
the  Indian  troops  that  had  been  sent  to  put  down  the  insurrection  Uganda, 
returned  to  India.     Some  of  them,  Mohammedans,  who  were  then 
posted  at  Quetta,  went  to  the  missionary  there  and  asked  for  the 
Christian  Scriptures,  that  they  might  discover  what  had  produced 
such  a  people  as  they  had  seen  in  Uganda.     They  had  actually 
found  black   Africans   in  the   local  military  force  who  knelt   in 
prayer  night  after  night ! — a  thing  to  impress  the  Moslem  mind. 

The  Uganda  Mission  has  been  so  closely  associated  with   the  Christian  • 
general  history  of  the  country  for  many  years  past  that  it  is  not  ^jSng 
easy  to  separate  the  story  of  the  Mission  from  that  of  the  kingdom.  Countries. 
The  education,  installation,  marriage,  and  investiture  of  the  young 
Kabaka  have  been  noticed  in  the  previous  chapter.     But  he  is  not 

*  The  general  facts  about  Stanley's  visit  to  Uganda  in  1875,  and  his 
challenge  to  Christendom,  to  send  a  Mission  there, — which  led  to  the  O.M.S. 
enterprise, — are  well  known.  But  some  deeply  interesting  additional  par 
ticulars  will  be  found  in  the  C.M.  Intelligencer  of  July,  1904,  which  appeared 
soon  after  Stanley's  death.  They  were  taken  from,  an  original  communication 
from  the  Katikiro  of  Uganda  printed  in  Uganda  Notes  (the  local  organ  of  the 
Mission),  and  from  an  article  by  Stanley  himself  in  the  Cornhill  Maqazine  of 
Jan.,  1901. 


86  C.MS.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA. 

PART  ii.  the  only  local  "king  "who  has  publicly  confessed  Christ.  Four 
chapes.  kjngs  of  countries  outside  Buganda  proper  are  also  Christians. 
(1)  The  king  of  Toro,  Daudi  Kasagama,  was  baptized  before  our 
sixteen-year  period,  in  1896.  (2)  The  king  of  Koki,  Kamswaga, 
was  baptized  in  1900,  taking  the  name  of  Edward  Hezekiya ;  and 
his  wife,  who  was  named  Keziya.  They  were  confirmed  by 
Bishop  Tucker  when  he  visited  Koki  a  few  months  later.  (3)  The 
king  of  Ankole,  Kahaya,  was  baptized  in  1902,  with  his  wife  and 
several  chiefs.  Ankole,  or  Nkole,  is  the  farthest  part  of  the 
Uganda  Protectorate,  and  borders  on  German  territory ;  and  the 
whole  story  of  the  entrance  there  is  very  interesting.  Mr.  Clayton 
and  Mr.  (now  Bishop)  Willis  were  the  early  missionaries.  (4)  The 
king  of  Bunyoro,  Andereya,  a  son  of  Kabarega,  was  a  devout  and 
energetic  Christian  before  his  selection  to  succeed  a  weak  ruler 
who  had  followed  Kabarega.  "  No  one  in  Bunyoro,"  wrote  Mr. 
Lloyd,  "  has  done  more  for  the  advancement  of  Christ's  Kingdom 
than  Andereya."  An  interesting  account  of  his  "  coronation  "  was 
sent  by  Mr.  Fisher.  The  king  himself  read  the  Lesson,  2  Chron. 
vi.  1-20;  and  the  Rev.  H.  W.  Duta  preached  "  an  appropriate  and 
solemn  sermon."  * 

Conversion  More  remarkable  are  the  conversion  and  baptism  of  those  who 
have  been  prominent  enemies  of  the  Gospel.  That  Mwanga 
himself  was  one  of  them  is  a  signal  illustration  of  the  power  of 
divine  grace.  He  had  been  sent  as  a  prisoner,  with  his  wife, 
down  to  Mombasa.  While  there  he  taught  her  to  read,  and 
asked  for  a  Swahili  Bible  ;  and  Mrs.  Burt  visited  him,  and  found 
him  familiar  with  the  New  Testament.  Subsequently  he  was 
moved  to  the  Seychelles  Islands,  and  there  he  died  in  1903 ;  but 
he  had  been  baptized  first,  and  was  believed  to  be  truly  peni 
tent.  The  Eev.  H.  W.  Duta,  the  leading  Muganda  clergyman, 
preaching  in  the  cathedral  after  the  news  was  received,  pictured 
Mwanga's  arrival  in  heaven,  and  Bishop  Hannington  meeting  him 
with  the  usual  salutation  of  the  country,  "  How  do  you  do,  my 
friend?"  His  remains  were  conveyed  back  to  Uganda,  and 
interred  beside  those  of  his  father  Mtesa.f  To  the  Seychelles  also 

Kabarega  Kabarega,  the  king  of  Bunyoro,  was  banished,  and  to  him  his 
i  Luba.  Qkristian  son  an(j  SUCCessor  Andereya  sent  a  Bunyoro  evangelist 
to  teach  him  of  Christ,  with  the  result  that  in  1909  he  was 
baptized  by  the  Bishop  of  Mauritius  (Dr.  Gregory)  when  on  a 
visit  to  those  Islands,  which  are  within  his  jurisdiction.  A  chap 
lain  there,  Mr.  Pickwood,  wrote  that  he  was  "  a  dear  old  man." 
The  same  happy  change  cannot  be  reported  of  Luba,  the  chief 
of  Busoga  who  murdered  Hannington  at  Mwanga's  order.  He 

*  See  C.M.S.  Gazette,  Jan.,  1909. 

t  It  is  interesting  to  notice  that  Mwanga's  mother  is  a  Christian.  When 
she  was  baptized  does  not  appear,  but  she  was  confirmed  in  1905,  along  with 
ten  of  her  household.  Miss  G.  Bird  wrote  of  a  prayer  meeting  in  that  year 
at  her  house,  adding,  "  We  simply  marvelled  at  the  grace  and  power  of  God 
in  changing  one  who  had  been  so  hard." 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS.-    UGANDA.  87 

became  friendly  and  helped  in  church   building,  but   his   heart    PAETII. 
never  seemed  to  be  touched,  and  he  died  in  1906.     But  his  son    chap'  8- 
was   baptized   in   that   same  year,  and   baptized,  it  was   deeply 
interesting  to   hear,   by  Hannington's   son,   who  had   joined  the 
Mission   three  years    before  ;  and  a  daughter  of  Luba  also  was 
received  into  the  Church  in  1909.     Mr.  J.  E.  M.  Hannington  has 
also  discovered  the  exact  spot  where  his  father  was  murdered  in 
1885.* 

Along  with  these  striking  links  with  the  past  may  be  mentioned  The  Bones 
the  discovery  of  the  bones  of  the  three  boy  martyrs  who  had  Martyr?.°y 
been  roasted  to  death  by  Mwanga  in  1885.  They  were  acciden 
tally  found  on  May  22nd,  1905,  during  a  visit  of  the  then  Bishop 
of  Zanzibar,  Dr.  Hine,  who  was  taken  to  see  the  place  where  the 
boys  had  suffered ;  and  he,  being  himself  a  doctor,  pronounced 
the  bones  to  be  those  of  lads  of  their  age.f  Another  episcopal 
visitor,  Dr.  Wilkinson,  the  Bishop  of  London's  Suffragan  for  Bishop 
Northern  Europe,  generously  presented  a  granite  Celtic  cross  to  S?£nson'8 
be  erected  on  the  spot,  and  also  gave  the  money  to  build  a  chapel 
for  the  King's  School  at  Budo  (see  infra)  in  memory  of  the  three 
martyrs,  sending  from  England  four  stained  glass  windows  com 
memorating  the  event.  This  cross  was  unveiled  by  Bishop 
Tucker  during  the  second  meeting  of  the  Synod  of  the  Church 
in  July,  1910.  Within  the  following  week  or  two  he  solemnly 
interred  with  Christian  rites  the  remains  of  the  king  who  had  put 
those  boys  to  death,  and  also  laid  his  hands  upon  the  young 
Kabaka  in  the  ancient  rite  of  Confirmation.  Could  any  coinci 
dence  be  more  significant  and  touching  ?  Do  not  the  three 
events  thus  strangely  associated  represent  in  brief  the  whole  story 
of  Uganda  ? 

Another  deeply  interesting  occasion  of   remembering  the  past  Kew  church 
was  on  Nov.  29th,  1912,  when  Bishop  Willis  dedicated  a  new  church  of  MaciSyl 
at  Natete,  on  the  site  of  Alexander  Mackay's  house,  and  where  house- 
the  earliest  baptisms  in  Uganda  took  place.     Fifty-seven  men  and 
six  women  who  had  been  baptized  there  in  those  days,  were  seated 
in  front.     The  Katikiro  had  made  a  list  of  those  still  alive  who 
were  baptized  there,  141  men  and  25  women,  including  two  of 
the  three  regents,  seven  head  chiefs,  twenty-five  other  chiefs,  and 
eleven  clergymen.     The  Rev.  H.  W.  Duta  preached,  and  in  his 
sermon  pointed  to   different  parts  of  the  church :  "  There  stood 
Mackay's  bed ;  here  stood  his  smithy ;  and  in  that  corner  (by  the 
Holy  Table)  was  the  boys'  room  where  I  slept." 

We  now  turn  to  the  general  work  of  the  Mission.     The  English  fj[gfjfssssio°nf. 
staff    in    1899   comprised    eighteen    clergymen,    eleven   laymen,  Retro- 
seven  single  women,  and  four  missionaries'  wives.     There  were  sPects- 

*  See  CM.  Eev.,  Oct.,  1913,  p.  640. 

f  Bishop  Tucker's  account  of  the  discovery  appeared  in  the  C.M.  IntelL 
of  Sept.,  1905.  Bishop  Mine's  account  of  his  visit  was  printed  in  Central 
Africa,  the  organ  of  the  U.M.C.A.,  in  the  same  month,  and  was  copied 
into  the  C.M.  IntelL  of  October. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA. 


TART  II. 

Chap.  8. 


Present 
liesults. 


Extension 
to  outlying 
Fields. 


Fruits  of 
the  Exten 
sion. 


ten  native  clergymen  and  over  900  native  teachers,  all  sup 
ported  by  the  Church,  as  has  always  been  the  case.  There 
were  17,000  baptized  Christians,  and  a  much  larger  number  of 
adherents.  The  adult  baptisms  in  the  preceding  year  were  2724. 
Almost  all  these  were  in  Buganda  proper,  the  work  in  Toro  and 
other  surrounding  districts  being  still  quite  young.  In  1901,  at 
the  Brighton  Church  Congress,  Bishop  Tucker  reviewed  the  ten 
years  of  his  episcopate,  showing  that  the  baptized  Christians  had 
increased  from  200  to  30,000,  and  the  places  of  worship  from  one 
to  700,  of  which  thirty-five  were  in  the  capital  and  its  suburbs. 
On  the  tenth  anniversary  of  his  consecration,  April  25th,  1900,  he 
had  held  his  one  hundredth  confirmation,  and  had  up  to  that  time 
laid  his  hands  on  7580  candidates. 

Now  it  was  the  results  to  about  these  dates  that  elicited  the 
testimonies  of  governors  and  visitors  already  cited.  But  subse 
quent  years  have  largely  added  to  the  figures  just  given.  In  1915 
the  baptized  Christians  numbered  107,000.  If  the  7500  catechu 
mens  are  added,  we  have  a  definite  Christian  population  con 
nected  with  the  Anglican  Church  of  over  114,000.  But  the 
"  adherents  "  number  many  thousands  more  ;  making  a  probable 
total  of  over  200,000.  The  adult  baptisms  in  the  year  were  7392. 
There  were  forty-two  native  clergymen  and  over  3000  teachers, 
all  supported  without  drawing  on  C.M.S.  funds. 

The  geographical  extension  also  has  been  remarkable.  When 
Pilkington  was  in  England  in  1896,  at  the  time  that  the  "  Three 
Years'  Enterprise"  was  launched,  he  proposed  a  "  T.Y.E."  for 
Uganda,  with  a  view  to  reaching  the  surrounding  districts  within 
a  radius  of  200  miles  from  the  capital.  But  the  actual  extension 
has  been  much  wider  than  that,  eastward,  westward,  and  north 
ward, — not  southward  because  that  way  lies  the  great  Lake, 
which  (as  before  stated)  is  as  large  as  Ireland.  In  Koki  and 
Ankole  to  the  south-west,  in  Toro  to  the  west,  in  Bunyoro  to 
the  north-west,  in  the  Nile  (or  Northern)  Province  to  the  far 
north,  in  Busoga,  Bukedi,  and  Kavirondo  to  the  north-east  and 
east,  the  work  has  been  extending  and  developing  ;  while  the 
development  of  the  districts  within  Buganda  proper,  and  of  the 
central  institutions,  has  been  equally  notable. 

Extremely  interesting  have  been  the  reports  year  by  year  of  the 
advancing  tide  of  Christianity  in  the  outlying  regions ;  but  it  is 
impossible  to  give  details  here.  Among  the  pioneers  who  have 
been  especially  energetic  may  be  named  Mr.  A.  B.  Lloyd,  Mr. 
Fisher,  Mr.  Clayton,  and  Mr.  Kitching.  Mr.  Fisher  has  opened 
no  less  than  nine  new  centres  of  work.  Bunyoro,  where  he 
and  his  excellent  wife  laboured  for  some  years,  has  presented 
a  remarkably  changed  aspect,  largely  owing  to  the  devotion 
of  the  king,  Andereya,  as  already  mentioned.  Busoga,  which  for 
some  years  was  a  discouraging  field,  has  recently  been  the  scene 
of  what  may  almost  be  called  a  mass  movement.  "  Thousands  of 
people  clamouring  for  teachers  "  ;  "  chief  after  chief  persistently 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   UGANDA.  89 

begging  that  a  man  may  be  sent,  offering  to  erect  any  necessary  PAKE  n 
buildings  and  to  supply  the  teacher  with  food  "  ;  "  crowds  of 
inquirers,  who  are  searchingly  examined  before  admission  as 
catechumens  "  ;  —  such  are  some  of  the  reports.  Toro  has  become 
almost  an  independent  Mission,  sending  forth  its  own  evangelists 
into  neighbouring  districts.  It  was  here  that  the  first  pygmy 
convert  from  Stanley's  Great  Forest  was  instructed  and  baptized. 
Ankole  was  the  first  sphere  of  Mr.  Willis,  now  the  Bishop  of 
Uganda  ;  and  Kavirondo  was  the  second  —  a  country  with  a  people 
quite  different  from  the  Baganda,  naked  and  barbarous,  and  yet 
teachable.  The  Bukedi  Country  is  towards  the  slopes  of  Mount 
Blgon,  and  here  the  work  is  in  its  earliest  stage.*  Far  to  the 
north,  in  the  Nile  Province,  Mr.  Lloyd  and  Mr.  Kitching  began 
work  in  the  Acholi  district,  among  the  Gang  people,  in  1904  ; 
and  though  the  occupation  was  not  continuous,  a  few  converts 
were  baptized  ;  and  this  mission  has  since  been  revived  at  a  place 
called  Gulu,  where  (wrote  Mr.  Fisher)  "  the  people  want  nothing, 
wear  nothing,  and  do  nothing."  Baganda  evangelists  have  even 
gone  as  far  as  Gondokoro,  a  name  so  familiar  to  all  readers  of 
African  travels,  and  near  where  the  Anglo-Egyptian  Sudan  used 
to  begin.  The  latest  intelligence  from  this  distant  field  is  very 
encouraging.j 

One  field,  the  Sesse  Islands  in  the  Lake,  which  at  one  time  gave 


so  much  promise,  and  where  Mr.  Gordon  laboured,  will  not  now  Sl 
be  found  in  the  returns  at  all.  This  is  owing  to  the  sleeping  sick 
ness,  which  ravaged  the  Islands,  and  the  Government  removed 
the  survivors  to  the  mainland.  Touching  accounts  came  of 
Baganda  Christians,  men  and  women,  who  volunteered  to  go  to 
the  Islands  and  teach  and  care  for  the  sick  and  dying,  knowing 
that  it  meant  death  to  themselves,  which  in  fact  it  did.t  Great 
efforts  have  been  made  by  the  Government  to  grapple  with  this 
mysterious  disease,  and  at  length  with  considerable  success.  Two 
years  ago  it  was  reported  that  the  annual  death-rate  from  it  had 
fallen  from  8000  to  500. 

Another  extension  for  a  short  time  was  among  the  Nandi  An  un 
people,  living  on  a  high  plateau  east  of  Kavirondo,  and  approached 
from  a  station  on  the  railway.  The  strange  customs  of  this  tribe 
were  noticed  in  the  C.M.S.  Eeport  of  1911,  where  there  are 
further  references  to  the  periodicals.  Mr.  Herbert  sought  for  two 
years  to  gain  influence  among  them,  but  they  did  not  even  care 
for  learning  to  read,  and  in  1912  he  was  transferred  back  to 
Buganda,  where  men  were  urgently  needed,  and  the  work  was 
suspended  for  a  while. 

This  was  the  extreme  east  of  the  field.     At  the  extreme  west, 

*  Bishop  Tucker's  exploratory  visit  to  Mount  Elgon  was  described  in  the 
C.M.  Intcll.,  April,  1904. 

t  See  C.M.  Gazette,  Nov.,  1915. 

t  See  particularly  the  account  of  thirteen  women  who  thus  went,  in  the 
C.M.  Gleaner  of  March,  1910. 


9o  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   UGANDA. 

PART  IT.    more  than  500  miles  distant,  on  the  edge  of  Stanley's  great  forest, 

chain  8.    work  was  begun  some  years  ago  by  native  evangelists  from  Torp, 

A  perse-      ana  Bishop  Tucker  took  a  long  journey  to  the  village  of  Mboga  in 

ti!md  C     S"  1898  to  see  the  little  band  of  converts  gathered  in.  .  His  account 

church.       of  tilis  visit;  m  the  32nd  chapter  of  his  great  book,  is  one  of 

the   most   interesting    in    all    its    pages.     The    Christians    have 

repeatedly  undergone  severe  persecution,  and  it  is  believed  that 

200  of  them  were  attacked  and  slain  by  a  heathen  tribe  in  1910. 

In  1913  Mr.  Lloyd  visited  them,  and  found  "  a  splendid  number 

of  young  men  and  women  who  to  all  outward  appearance  are  still 

faithful  and  trying  to  follow  Christ."     Owing  to  a  readjustment  of 

the  boundary  line  between  the  British  Protectorate  and  the  Congo 

Free  State,  Mboga  has  lately  fallen  to  the  Belgians,  and    these 

Christians  get  no  sympathy  from  their  Eoman  Catholic  rulers  ; 

but  they  are  visited  by  volunteer  teachers  from  Toro. 

Kdiiru-  The  work  of  the  English  missionaries  at  the  capital  and  other 

Work.  chief  stations  is  mainly  educational  and  supervisory.  In  addition 
to  about  350  elementary  schools  scattered  over  the  country,  which 
are  taught  by  native  teachers,  there  are  the  High  School  for 
the  sons  of  chiefs  and  others  who  can  pay  the  fees,  worked  for 
some  years  by  Mr.  Hattersley,  and  of  which  Mr.  Eraser,  now  of 
King's  Kandy,  had  charge  for  a  time ;  the  King's  School  at  Budo,*  for 
Kanaka  an  some  time  under  the  brothers  Weatherhead  (and  still  under  one 
old  boy.  of  them),  for  a  higher  and  partly  English  education,!  of  which 
school  the  Kabaka  likes  to  call  himself  ''an  old  boy";  the 
Normal  School  for  training  school  teachers ;  and  the  Theological 
Hall,  for  training  lay  readers  and,  in  its  highest  department, 
candidates  for  ordination.  In  this  last-named  work,  Mr.  Eoscoe 
and  Archdeacon  Walker  did  great  service  in  former  years.  And 
then  the  Girls'  High  School  at  Gayaza,  which  is  of  the  greatest 
importance,  as  well-taught  and  well-disciplined  women  are  one 
of  the  chief  needs  of  the  country,  and  women  school-teachers  are 
much  wanted.  Mrs.  Albert  Cook  has  rendered  specially  useful 
service  by  her  lectures  to  women  and  girls  on  the  duties  of  wives 
and  mothers  and  on  moral  questions.  The  Government  grant  for 
C.M.S.  schools  in  Uganda  was  £850  in  1913. 

Training          Some  fresh  progress  has  been  made  in  the  last  three  or  four 

and118      3  years  in  systematizing  what  may  be  called  the  educational  ladder, 

Teachers,     particularly  in   that    department   which   is    concerned  _  with   the 

training  of  evangelists,  pastors,  and  teachers.     Promising  young 

men  who  seem  fitted  for  definite  Christian  work  are  first  prepared 

for  it  locally  by  actual  practice  under   the  guidance  of  regular 

evangelists.     From  among  them  the  picked  men,  spiritually  and 

educationally,  are  chosen  by  the  district  councils  arid  trained  for 

*  It  is  interesting  that  near  Budo  there  is  a  church  standing  on  the  site  of 
Mackay's  workshop.  See  Col.  Kenyon's  account,  CM.  Review,  Jan.,  1914. 

f  A  particularly  interesting  article  on  the  "View-point  of  a  Muganda  Boy," 
by  the  Rev.  H.  T.  C.  Weatherhead,  appeared  in  the  CM.  Rev.,  March,  1911. 
See  also  an  article  by  Mr.  H.  W.  Weatherhead  in  the  CM.  Rev.,  June,  1907. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   UGANDA.  91 

a  "  diocesan  junior  certificate."  Step  by  step  the  best  of  them  PART  11. 
go  up,  until  they  are  ready  for  entrance  into  the  Theological  Hall,  ch^i8 
with  a  view  to  becoming  lay  readers  with  the  bishop's  license  ;  and 
again,  those  who  desire  it  present  themselves  for  further  testing 
for  the  theological  course  for  Holy  Orders,  which  occupies  two 
years.  And  all  through,  practical  evangelistic  work  alternates 
with  the  study  of  the  Bible  and  Prayer  Book.  Schoolmasters  and 
teachers  go  through  similar  though  of  course  not  identical  stages ; 
and  schoolmistresses  also,  but  the  supply  of  these  is  inadequate, 
owing  to  the  early  age  for  marriage.  General  education  also  is 
arranged  in  grades  more  or  less  similar.  This  brief  summary 
will  suffice  to  give  some  little  idea  of  the  amount  of  responsible 
work  to  be  done.* 

The  Society  early  saw  the  importance  of  industrial  training  in  industrial 
the  Mission,  and  for  some  years  excellent  work  was  done  under  Work< 
a  Swedish-Canadian  lay  missionary,  Mr.  Kristen  Eskildsen  Borup. 
Brick-making,  building,  carpentry,  rope-making,  printing,  book 
binding,  were  taught;  and  the  first  "cathedral  "  was  one  outcome 
of  this.  But  in  1904,  after  a  visit  paid  to  Uganda  by  Mr.  (now  Sir) 
T.  F.  V.  Buxton,  a  philanthropic  company  was  formed  to  carry  on 
this  work  apart  from  the  Society,  though  in  friendly  relations  with 
it.  This  was  in  every  way  a  better  plan  than  the  Mission  itself 
inevitably  drifting  into  trade  ;  but  some  amount  of  industrial 
training  is  still  usefully  given  in  the  principal  schools.  A  highly 
successful  Industrial  Exhibition  was  held  in  1908. 

Not  less  important  has  been  the  expansion  of  the  Medical  Medical 
Mission.  There  are  hospitals  at  Mengo  and  in  Toro,  with M 
345  and  78  beds  respectively,  and  five  branch  dispensaries  in  other 
places.  Great  has  been  the  influence,  both  bodily  and  spiritual, 
of  Drs.  A,  E.  and  J.  H.  Cook  and  their  colleagues.  The  building 
of  the  first  regular  hospital  synchronized  with  the  C.M.S.  Cen 
tenary  and  the  commencement  of  our  sixteen-year  period,  and  it 
was  opened  by  Sir  H.  Johnston  in  May,  1900.  It  was  at  that 
time  the  finest  building  in  Uganda.  Two  years  later,  during  a 
very  heavy  storm,  it  was  struck  by  lightning  and  burned  to  the 
ground,  but  happily,  owing  to  the  energy  of  the  attendant  "  boys  " 
in  removing  the  patients,  without  loss  of  life.  The  Katikiro  gave 
utterance  to  the  right  moral  when  he  said,  "If  God  has  allowed 
our  hospital  to  perish,  it  is  that  we  must  build  a  bigger  and  better 
one."  This  "  bigger  and  better  one  "  in  due  course  superseded 
the  temporary  buildings  used  in  the  interim,  being  opened  on  the 
second  anniversary  of  the  fire,  Nov.  28th,  1904.  In  the  last  few  years 
the  in-patients  have  numbered  over  2000  a  year,  and  the  visits 
of  the  out-patients  over  60,000.  A  branch  hospital  for  European 
patients  was  built  and  equipped  in  1912,  being  a  gift  from  Mr. 
Theodore  Walker  of  Leicester,  a  member  of  the  C.M.S.  Committee, 
in  memory  of  his  wife,  with  whom  he  had  visited  the  Mission. 

*  A  full  account  of  the  "  Educational  Problem  in  Uganda,"  by  Bishop  Willis, 
appeared  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Nov.  and  Dec.,  1915. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA, 


The  CatLe 
druls. 


Cathedral 
Services. 


PART  IT.  There  is  also  a  separate  building  for  Indian  patients;  and 
cimp.  s.  ano^er  distinct  block,  for  isolation  cases,  was  opened  by  Mr. 
Eoosevelt,  when  he  visited  Uganda  in  1909,  and  was  named  the 
Eoosevelt  block ;  also  a  dispensary,  given  by  Mr.  Wellcome,  of 
the  well-known  firm  of  druggists,  Burroughs  and  Wellcome.  The 
amount  taken  in  fees  in  1913  was  Bs40,000,  a  large  part  being 
from  the  European  patients.  In  the  same  year  the  electric  light 
was  installed.  The  Toro  hospital,  under  Dr.  Bond,  received  600 
in-patients  in  1914,  and  24,000  visits  of  out-patients. 

Fire  also  destroyed  the  cathedral  in  1910.     It  was  the  fourth 
central  church  erected  at  the  capital.     The  first,  put  up  in  1890, 
was  replaced  in  1892  by  a  larger  one,  which  was  blown  down 
in  1895 ;  and  the  next  one  lasted  nine  years.     These  were  in  fact 
huge    native   huts,    constructed  with   reeds,  and  thatched.      The 
immense  building  planned  and  erected  by  Mr.  Borup,  the  Swedish- 
Canadian  missionary  before  mentioned,  was  also  the  work  of  the 
native  Christians,  and  thoroughly  African  in  style,  though   more 
substantially  built,  partly  of  brick.     It  held  4000  people,  and  is 
familiar  to  English  friends  through  photographs.     It  was  conse 
crated  on  June  21st,  1904 ;  and  the  offertory  on  the  occasion  is 
worth  noting  :  thirteen  cows,  four  goats,  125  eggs,  130  fowls,  75,000 
cowries,    3100   rupees,   1064   pice;    the  whole  representing  £85. 
Many  impressive  services  had  been  held  in  these  successive  build 
ings  ;  for  example,  the  yearly  anniversary  of  the  Christian  victory 
over  the  Moslem  usurpers  in  1889 ;  the  annual  Day  of  Intercession 
for  Missions,  St.  Andrew's  Day,  and  the  annual  Empire  Day ;  the 
memorial  service  for  Queen  Victoria,  and  the  Coronation  service 
for  King  Edward  ;  also  a  week  of  special  services  in  1906  for  the 
revival  of  spiritual  life;    all  these  being  attended  by  thousands 
inside  and  outside  the  great  building.-    But  on  Sept.  23rd,  1910,  this 
NOW  Cathe-  church  also  was  struck  by  lightning  and  destroyed.     King  George 
"    immediately  telegraphed  a  warm  message  of  sympathy ;   and  the 
people,  headed  by  the  Katikiro,  forthwith  made  plans  for  a  new 
cathedral  that  should  not  be  so  liable  to  destruction  in  that  way. 
It  was  estimated  to  cost  £20,000,  and  the  chiefs  proposed  to  raise 
half   that   sum    on  the  spot,  while  Bishop   Tucker,   who  was  in 
England  at  the  time,  appealed  for  the  balance  of  £10,000,  which 
was  quickly  subscribed  by  sympathizing  friends  who  felt  that  such 
a  gift  from  the  Church  at  home  was  a  true  way  of  showing  thank 
fulness  to   God  for  His    spiritual  Church  raised  up  in   Uganda. 
Many  difficulties  have   arisen  in  carrying  out  the  plans,  but  the 
building  is  now  gradually  rising.     The  foundation-stone  was  laid 
by  the  Kabaka  on  Nov.  8th,  1915.    The  growing  material^  prosperity 
of  the  country,  however,  has  caused  a  great  advance  in  the  cost 
of  everything,  and  larger  funds  will  now  be  necessary. 

*  On  Sunday,  Nov.  8th,  1908,  there  was  a  special  service  to  celebrate  King 
Edward's  birthday,  when  the  "kings"  of  Toro,  Bunyoro,  and  Ankole,  who 
had  travelled  long  distances  for  the  purpose,  together  with  the  young  Kabaka, 
attended.  Mr.  Koscoe  described  the  striking  scene.  (C.M.S.  Gazette,  Feb.,  1909.) 


ing 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS-.    UGANDA.  93 

The  important  translational  and   literary  work  of  the  English    PART  n. 
missionaries  must  not  be  forgotten.     The  Bible  and  Prayer  Book,    chap'  8- 
and  the  "  Pilgrim's  Progress,"  with  various  reading-books,  &c    had  Literary 
been  produced  in  Luganda  (the  language  of  Buganda)  before  our  W°r 
period,  Walker  and  Pilkington  having  been  especially  useful  in  this 
department.     Since  then,  the  Scripture  and  Prayer  Book  versions 
have  been  revised ;  commentaries  on  the  Gospels  and  the  Thirty- 
nine  Articles,  and   manuals  of   Church  History,  &c.,  have   been 
prepared ;   the  first  version  of   the  whole  Bible  in  Lunyoro  (the 
language  of  Toro  and  Bunyoro)  has  been  completed ;  and  a  large 
amount  of  preliminary  work  has  been  done  in  several  languages 
and  dialects  used  in  the  outlying  parts  of  the  Protectorate.     Mr. 
Bowling,  Mr.  Crabtree,  Mr.  Maddox,  Mr.  Baskerville,  Mr.  Kitching, 
and  others,  have  been  engaged  in  this  important  but  little  noticed 
department  of  missionary  service.     Miss  Chadwick  and  the  Eev. 
H.  W.  Duta  were  presented  by  the  Bible  Society  in   1901  with 
well-bound  copies  of  the  Luganda  Bible,  which  they  had  revised. 
A  notable  first  start  in  really  indigenous  literature  was  made,  quite 
at  the   beginning    of   our   period,    by    Ham    Mukasa,    the    clever  A  native 
Secretary  who  accompanied  the  Katikiro  to  England  in  1902.     He  (;ommen- 
actually  prepared  a  Commentary  on  St.  Matthew's  Gospel.     Arch-   " 
deacon  Walker   wrote,   "  Hani's   attempt  is  valuable,   because  it 
shows  us  how  to  express  ourselves  in  a  way  the  people  will  under 
stand  ;  it  is  illustrated  with  native  proverbs.     In  many  places  the 
commentary  seems  very  short  and  deficient.     [How  could  it  be 
otherwise  !]     Still  it  is  most  interesting  to  get  such  a  view  into 
the  mind  of  one  who  has  been  taught.  .  .  Possibly  there  are  some 
who  could  not  stand  a  much  stronger  dose." 

The  pastoral  and  evangelistic  work  is  now  almost  entirely  carried  Work  of 
on  by  the  Baganda  clergy  and  teachers,  except  in  the  newer  and  J^™'la 
outlying  districts.  Among  so  large  a  body,  there  are  of  course 
great  varieties  in  character  and  efficiency,  and  a  percentage  of  sad 
failures  is  inevitable,  if  experience  in  all  Church  history  is  a  guide. 
But  the  testimonies  of  Bishops  Tucker  and  Willis,  and  of  the  most 
experienced  missionaries,  regarding  them  are  truly  a  cause  of 
profound  thankfulness  to  God.  In  particular,  several  of  the  clergy 
have  been  spoken  of  in  the  highest  terms.  Of  one  of  them  a 
senior  missionary  wrote  in  1905,  "Whether  we  consider  his 
private  or  his  public  life,  through  all  runs  one  great  desire,  that 
God  and  His  Truth  shall  reign  in  the  land.  After  many  years  of 
friendship  and  close  intimacy  I  cannot  better  sum  up  his  life  than 
by  applying  to  it  Francis  Xavier's  great  motto,  Ad  majorem  Dei 
(/loriam."  Of  the  Eev.  Apolo  Kivebulaya,  of  Toro,  we  read  that 
in  earlier  days  he  was  "  beaten,  imprisoned,  put  in  the  press-gang, 
and  had  his  house  burnt  down  and  all  his  property  destroyed," 
yet,  said  Bishop  Tucker,  "  he  has  borne  it  all  with  a  smile  upon 
his  face  and  a  song  upon  his  lips."  And  in  1912  it  was  said  that 
the  large  ingathering  of  converts  was  chiefly  due  to  "  the  work  of 
Baganda  pastors  and  catechists  "  ;  "  their  zeal  is  a  real  inspiration." 


94 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA. 


PART  IT 
' 


Other 

Bagancla 

Clergy. 


The  oldest  and  most  influential  of  the  clergy,  Henry  Wright 
,  died  in  1913.  He  was  one  of  the  first  converts  baptized  in 
Death  of  1882,*  and  suffered  with  others  in  Mwanga's  persecution.  He  was 
H.w.Dwta.  one  of  t}ie  first  lay-readers,  and  one  of  the  first  deacons  and  priests. 
He  had  been  universally  respected,  and  had  done  specially  good 
work  when  assisting  Pilkington  and  others  in  Bible  translation  and 
revision.  Of  the  other  five  first  ordained  by  Bishop  Tucker  in 
1893,  two  are  still  on  the  roll  after  more  than  twenty  years,  viz., 
Yairo  Mutakyala  and  Yonathani  Kaidzi  (named  evidently  after 
Jair  or  Jairus,  and  Jonathan).  The  other  two,  Nikodemo  Seb- 
wato  and  Zakaria  Kizito,  were  great  chiefs.  The  former,  who 
was  the  Sekibobo  (special  title  of  the  chief  of  the  province  of 
Kyagwe),  was  (in  Archdeacon  Baskerville's  words)  "  the  faithful 
friend,  adviser,  and  helper  in  the  Mission  "  for  two  years,  and  then 
died.  '  The  latter,  who  was  the  Kangao  or  chief  of  the  large 
province  of  Bulemezi,  was  one  of  the  three  regents  appointed  to 
rule  the  country  during  the  Kabaka's  minority^ 

Altogether,  forty-nine  ordinations  to  the  diaconate  have  been 
reported,  forty-six  of  them  by  Bishop  Tucker  and  three  by  Bishop 
Willis.  The  number  on  the  list  in  1915  is  thirty-nine,  of  whom 
six  are  deacons.  Only-three  deaths  have  been  reported,  viz.,  of 
Duta  and  Sebwato  as  above,  and  of  Nuwa  Kikwabanga,  one  of  the 
second  band  ordained,  in  1896,  who  died  of  sleeping-sickness  in 
1905.  He  went  to  the  coast  with  Stanley  in  1889,  and  returned  to 
Uganda  in  the  following  year,  with  Bishop  Tucker's  first  party, 
which  included  Pilkington  and  Baskerville.  Archdeacon  Walker 
•  wrote  of  him,  "  Nuwa  was  a  good  man,  and  one  of  the  first  I  knew 
in  Uganda.  He  saved  H.  W.  Weatherhead's  _life  during  the 
Nubian  mutiny  by  carrying  him  away  and  hiding  him  in  a 
swamp." 

Baganda  to  A  new  outlet  for  the  zeal  of  the  Church  is  now  provided.  The 
Missiondan  new  Sudan  Mission  is  working  not  far  from  the  northern  boundary 
of  the  Uganda  Protectorate,  and  an  appeal  has  been  made  to  the 
Church  of  Uganda  to  join  in  it.  At  the  last  Synod  meeting,  when 
the  Eev.  A.  Shaw  of  the  Sudan  Mission  was  present  and  explained 
the  case,  four  of  the  Baganda  clergy  offered  to  go.  One  was 
chosen,  the  Bev.  Yosuwa  Kiwavu,  a  senior  man,  ordained  in  1899, 
who  has  been  working  with  exemplary  devotion  in  Busoga  for 
fifteen  years.  Two  boys  from  the  King's  School  at  Budo,  "  who 
could  have  commanded  almost  any  salary  they  liked  to  ask  in 
Uganda,"  also  offered  and  were  accepted.  Eventually  a  party  of 
twelve  was  made  up,  including  five  teachers,  two  wives,  and  two 
boy-servants.  "  The  Bishop's  eyes,"  wrote  one  missionary,  "  were 
full  of  tears  "  of  thankfulness. 

Many  of   the  unordained  evangelists  and  teachers  have  been 

*  He  had  gone  down  to  the  coast  with  Mr.  Pearson,  and  was  baptized  by  a 
member  of  the  Universities'  Mission  on  Easter  Monday,  April  10th,  1882. 
This  was  a  few  days  later  than  the  first  baptisms  in  Uganda  itself  on  March 
18th.  Duta  returned  to  the  interior  with  Hannington's  first  party. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA.  95 

highly  spoken  of  in  the  letters.  In  The  East  and  The  West  of  PART  n. 
Oct.,  1914,  Mr.  Eoscoe  gave  a  clear  and  interesting  account  of  the  cliap-  8- 
gra'dual  development  of  the  native  agency.  It  began  in  QIQ  ^aganda 
healthiest  of  all  ways,  with  the  voluntary  efforts  of  the  early  anc?ngelists 
converts  to  win  their  relatives  and  friends.  Then  the  Christian  Teachers, 
chiefs  sent  young  men  out  to  their  different  clans,  arranging  for 
their  food  and  lodging.  Then  the  missionaries  formed  plans  for 
their  training.  As  the  numbers  increased,  it  was  found  that  the 
evangelists  needed  also  allowances  for  clothing,  &c.  ;  which  led 
to  the  commencement  of  the  Native  Church  Fund,  with  regular 
collections  at  the  Sunday  services.  And  so  the  system  has 
developed,  until  there  are  now  more  than  3000  of  these  men, 
including  school  teachers,  and  over  200  women.  In  many  parts 
of  the  country  they  have  been  the  pioneers,  and  when  the  mis 
sionary  has  arrived  he  has  found  "  synagogues  "  (as  the  smaller 
places  for  worship  are  called),  and  little  schools,  and  congre 
gations,  all  ready  for  further  pastoral  care.  But  the  voluntary 
efforts  of  the  Christians  are  by  no  means  superseded  by  these 
more  systematic  plans.  To  mention  only  one  case  which  chances 
to  be  reported,  "  Queen  "  Esther  of  Toro  lately  took  the  women's 
confirmation  class  in  that  district  during  the  illness  of  the  regular 
teacher.  Meanwhile  the  spreading  education  enables  young  men 
to  obtain  posts  under  Government,  in  which  much  higher  pay  is 
given  than  the  simple  allowances  of  the  Church ;  a  clerk  or  inter 
preter  getting  as  much  in  a  month  as  an  evangelist  gets  in  a  year ; 
and  Mr.  Roscoe  expresses  thankful  surprise  that  so  many  have 
resisted  the  temptation  thus  presented  to  them,  though  it  can 
scarcely  fail  to  compel  the  Church  to  revise  its  scale  of  pay. 
A  few  years  ago  this  scale  was  thus  described :  "  The  senior 
clergy  have  a  house  and  garden  and  27  rupees  (36s.)  a  year,  while 
licensed  lay  readers  receive  16  to  18  rupees,  and  teachers  from 
six  to  fourteen  a  year  "  ;  but  there  has  been  an  increase  since  then. 
In  1914  there  were  458  men  and  102  women  under  training  for 
future  service,  at  seventeen  different  centres. 

Concerning  the  Baganda  Christians  generally,  the  accounts  are,  "p 
naturally  and  inevitably,  of  a  mixed  character.  The  missionaries 
on  the  whole  do  not  use  the  language  of  such  occasional  visitors 
as  have  been  above  cited.  These  visitors  see  the  outside  of  things, 
which  is  in  every  way  impressive  and  gratifying.  The  missionaries 
see  behind  the  scenes,  and  moreover  judge  by  a  higher  standard, 
in  fact  a  standard  never  applied  by  ordinary  judges  to  whole 
populations.  Church  attendance  and  other  externals  of  religion 
are  satisfying  enough ;  but  the  moral  standard  is  low,  and,  in 
Mr.  Rowling's  words  in  1902,  "  We  are  finding  exactly  as  St.  Paul 
did,  that  after  a  few  years  the  Christians  need  to  be  stirred  up  to 
the  practical  side  of  Christianity."  The  bitter  tonic  of  persecu 
tion,"  wrote  Mr.  Chadwick  in  1903,  "  has  been  replaced  by  the 
insidious  leaven  of  conventionality,  with  its  resulting  insincerity." 
But  we  have  to  remember  "  the  hole  of  the  pit  whence  they  were 


96 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA. 


PART  II. 


Vice  and 
Virtue. 


Moral  In 
fluence  of 
Chris 
tianity. 


digged."  Mr.  Weatherhead  wrote  in  1909  confirming  the  state 
ment  of  a  well  known  writer  in  South  Africa,  that  "  the  most 
reprobate  character  in  England  is  but  an  infant  in  vice  by  the  side 
of  the  quite  young  African  boy  or  girl "  ;  and  Mr.  Blackledge 
wrote  in  1905,  "  Christianity  has  worked  wondrously.  Whereas 
before  its  advent  there  was  not  a  pure  man  or  woman,  and  purity 
in  the  home  was  a  thing  unheard  of,  yet  now  we  know  from  the 
closest  personal  acquaintance  that  there  are  hundreds  of  pure 
men  and  women,  and  hundreds  of  pure  homes."  Naturally,  also, 
the  advent  of  trade  and  traders,  and  the  employment  of  large 
numbers  of  men  by  the  Government,  have  increased  the  wealth 
of  the  people,  and  it  has  been  remarked  how  important  for  them  is 
the  prayer  "  In  all  time  of  our  wealth,  Good  Lord,  deliver  us." 

At  the  beginning  of  1913,  a  few  months  after  the  return  to 
Uganda  of  Mr.  Willis  as  the  new  Bishop,  he  set  about  a  careful 
and  searching  inquiry  into  the  moral  condition  of  the  Church, 
visitino-  the  central  churches  in  order,  and  examining  the  teachers 
and  workers.  The  information  thus  obtained  was  both  saddening 
and  cheering;  saddening  as  revealing  a  great  deal  of  sin,  but 
cheering  as  showing  that  the  sin  was  recognized  and  deplored. 
Then  in  the  summer  came  the  meeting  of  the  Synod,  which 
gravely  and  earnestly  discussed  what  measures  should  be  taken. 
It  was  eventually  resolved  to  follow  the  lines  indicated  by  our 
Lord  in  St.  Matt,  xviii. :  first,  private  efforts  to  deal  with  the 
evil '  then  the  action  of  the  local  Church  Council,  through  visitors 
usin'o-  personal  influence  and  calling  the  people  to  prayer;  and 
only  when  these  plans  failed,  the  drastic  step  of  excommunication. 
One  practical  measure  has  been  the  formation  of  branches  of  the 
Mother's  Union  at  the  different  centres.  Meanwhile,  so  far  as 
outward  crime  is  concerned,  the  influence  of  Christianity  has 
been  unmistakable.  "  While  trade  and  plantations  and  cotton 
ginneries  are  increasing  rapidly,"  wrote  Mr.  Chadwick  in  1913, 
the  police  reports  show  no  increase  of  crime.  .  .  .  Ine 
year  has  brought  record  numbers  in  schools  and  churches  and  a 
record  minimum  in  the  courts.  The  Baganda  have  to  a  great 
extent  been  fortified  to  stand  amid  the  astonishing  changes. 

From  Mr.  Chadwick  also  came,  at  the  same  time,  a  significant 
illustration  of  the  effect  of  both  the  educational  and  the  moral 
influence  of  Christianity.  At  Entebbe,  the  post  on  the  Lake 
nearest  to  the  capital,  there  is  a  large  and  increasing  European 
community,  official  and  mercantile.  Until  lately,  almost  every 
head  servant  or  clerk  was  a  Mohammedan  Swahih  from  the  coast. 
No  one  would  employ  a  Muganda  in  any  position  of  trust.  This  is 
now  entirely  changed.  "  Now  nearly  all  the  servants  and  office 
boys,  and  a  growing  number  of  the  clerks,  are  Baganda;  and  the 
great  majority  are  Christians,  at  least  in  name.  It  is  largely  due 
to  the  training  in  our  schools,  both  intellectual  and  moral. 

The  changes  in  the  social  life  of  the  people  are  great, 
horrible  barbarities  of  the  days  of  Mtesa  and  Mwanga  are  things  ot 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS-.    UGANDA.  9; 

the  past  ;  but  the  proofs  of  them  remain.      "  Even  now  we  see    PART  n. 
men  and  women  without  hands,  noses,  lips,  eyes,  ears    teeth  "    uh^:8- 
wrote  Mr.  Blackledge  in   1904.     The  position  of  women  is  no  Home  »fe. 
longer  that  of  "  a  mere  machine  for  cultivating,  cooking,  and  child- 
hearing."     Home  life  is  beginning  to  be  understood  and  valued. 
I  he  treatment  of  children  in  a  Christian  home  is  a  wonderful 
contrast  to  what  it  used  to  be  in  the  old  days."     «  The  dignity  of 
labour  is  now  recognized  by  a  people  who  once  left  almost  all 
work  to  women."  J 


We  have  become  accustomed  to  regard  Uganda  as  a  Christian  Bug 
country,  lo  what  extent  is  this  true  ?  First,  we  must  distinguish  fe, 
between  the  old  kingdom,  now  officially  called  by  its  native  name  is  SSs- 
Buganda,  and  the  Uganda  Protectorate,  which  includes  the  sur-ti:m? 
rounding  countries.  Take  Buganda  alone.  According  to  the  last 
Government  census  (1911)  the  population  was  about  660,000.  Of 
these,  127,000  declared  themselves  as  belonging  to  the  Anglican 
Church  ;  155,000,  to  the  Eoman  Church  ;  55,000  as  Moslems  ;  and 
221,000  as  still  cleaving  to  the  old  heathen  lulare  superstition. 
But  almost  all  the  leading  chiefs  and  their  families  and  clans  pro 
fess  Christianity  in  one  of  its  two  forms,  and  neither  the  Moslems 
nor  the  lubare  section  exercise  influence,  while  from  the  latter 
converts  are  continually  being  made.  If,  therefore,  we  are  to 
judge  Buganda  by  the  standard  of  the  historians  who  write  of  the 
"  conversion  "  of  European  nations  in  the  Dark  Ages,  Buganda  is 
a  Christian  country  ;  and  certainly  there  is  no  other  great  mission 
field  (not  reckoning  South  Sea  Islands)  that  has  so  clear  a  right  to 
the  name.  But  the  population  of  the  Uganda  Protectorate  was 
reported  as  2,900,000,  of  which  number  Buganda  has  only  one- 
fifth.f  In  the  outlying  countries,  Toro,  Ankole,  Buriyoro,  Busoga, 
Bukedi,  and  the  still  larger  territories  beyond,  some  70,000  were 
entered  as  Anglicans,  and  about  the  same  number  as  Eoman 
Catholics  ;  and  as  there  were  only  some  20,000  Moslems,  the  great 
bulk  of  the  population  was  Pagan.  Clearly  the  Uganda  Pro 
tectorate  has  no  claim  to  be  called  a  Christian  country. 

The  Eoman  Church  has  three  missions,  one  French  (the  White  The  Roman 
Fathers),  one  English  (from  Mill  Hill),  and  one  (in  the  Northern  Mission- 
Province)  Austrian.    The  staff  of  the  two  former  has  comprised  159 

*  Mr.  Blackledge's  article  here  cited  appeared  in  the  CM.  Intelligencer  of 
July,  1904.  In  the  same  number  there  was  an  equally  interesting  account  of 
ullage  life  by  Miss  Tanner.  The  work  of  the  women  missionaries  amon°-  the 
Baganda  women  and  girls  was  described  in  two  excellent  articles  by  Miss  A  L 
Allen  in  the  CM.  Review  of  July,  1912,  and  by  Mrs.  A.  G.  Eraser  in  the 
Internal  .  Rev.  Miss,  of  July,  1914.  (Mrs.  Fraser,  now  of  Trinity  College, 
Kandy,  was,  as  Miss  Glass,  a  missionary  in  Uganda.  One  of  the  most  graphic 
accounts  of  the  journey  to  Uganda,  when  the  railway  was  only  half  con 
structed,  was  written  by  her  in  the  CM.  Gleaner  of  July,  1900.)  In  Vol.  V.  of 
the  ^  Pan-  Anglican.  Congress  Reports,  there  is  an  interesting  paper  on  the 
Iraming  of  Women  Converts  for  Home  Life,  by  the  late  Miss  Robinson 
(p.  260). 
t  Details  of  population  were  given  in  the  C.M.S.  Gazette,  Jan.,  1914,  p.  18. 


II 


98  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   UGANDA. 

PART  ii.  priests  and  lay  brothers  and  41  nuns.*  They  have  at  last  ordained 
chains.  twQ  of  tlieir  converts  to  the  ministry  of  the  Church.  It  is  only 
right  to  say  that  their  numbers  are  largely  swollen  by  the  custom 
of  baptizing  the  young  children  of  heathen  parents.  The  original 
plan  of  the  British  authorities,  by  which  the^Anglican  and  Roman 
Missions  were  to  be  confined  to  the  districts  allotted  to  them 
respectively,  soon  proved  unworkable,  as  was  to  be  expected. 
Baganda  Christians  often  moved  from  one  district  to  another, 
and  neither  Church  was  willing  to  lose  touch  with  its  own  people. 
There  has  long  been  no  such  geographical  division,  and  the  two 
bodies  are  intermingled,  though  there  are  districts  where  the  one 
or  the  other  is  exceptionally  strong.  At  the  capital,  the  Eoman 
Catholic  headquarters  are  on  Eubaga  Hill,  and  the  Anglican 
cathedral  on  Namirembe  Hill  (i.e.  the  Hill  of  Peace). 

No  religious      There  is  a  tradition  in  the  newspapers  that  the  "  Catholics  and 

Fighting.     protestants  "  were  always  engaged  in  faction  fights,  and  even  had 

open  war  at  one  time.     There  never  was  anything  of  the  kind. 

The  "French  party"  and  the  "  English  party"  did  fight  once,  in 

1892,  but  the  quarrel  had  nothing  to  do  with  religion ;  it  was 
a  revolt  of  the  former  party  against  Captain  Lugard's  influence, 
some  time  before  the  Union  Jack  was  hoisted.     It  is  mentioned 
here  because  in  1908  Bishop  Tucker  had  to  write  to  the  Times 
protesting   against   the   unwarranted    legend   (Times,   May    1st). 
There  has  been  no  strife  since   the  Protectorate  was  settled  in 

1893,  and,  wrote  the  Bishop,  "  the  only  rivalry  that  exists  between 
them  to-day  is  that  of  good  works." 

One  conspicuous  feature  of  the  C.M.S.  Uganda  Mission  has 
been  the  successful  organization  of  the  Church.  From  the  first, 
Bishop  Tucker  set  himself  to  prepare  the  way  for  a  self-sup 
porting,  self-governing,  and  self-extending  Church.  On  his  first 
visit  in  1890,  when  he  only  stayed  a  few  weeks  in  the  country, 
he  appointed  six  lay  readers.  In  1892,^  on  his  second  visit,  he 
commissioned  ten  more,  and  ordained  six  deacons.  And  ^he  de 
termined  that  none  of  these,  or  any  others,  should  be  paid  with 
C.M.S.  money.  The  Christian  community  was  to  maintain  them 
all ;  and  thus  was  laid  the  foundation  of  self-support.  Self-exten 
sion  came,  one  may  say,  by  direct  divine  inspiration.  The  re 
markable  spiritual  movement  among  the  Christians  in  1893  led  to 
hundreds  of  volunteer  evangelists  going  forth  into  all  parts  of  the 
country  to  preach  Christ.  But  self-government  was  more  difficult 
to  attain.  Bishop  Tucker  would  not  separate  the  Church  from 

*  Catholic  Missions  of  June,  1914,  says  that  the  White  Fathers  had  then  118 
priests,  14  "  brothers  coadjutors,"  1168  native  catechists,  34  European  nuns, 
and  "a  teaching  congregation  of  black  nuns  who  swarm  throughout  the 
country."  There  were  two  seminaries  with  82  and  83  students,  a  college  for 
chiefs'  sons,  and  715  elementary  schools.  (Quoted  in  CM.  Rev.,  Oct.,  1914.) 
But  many  Frenchmen  have  been  called  to  France  for  the  army.  The  Mil 
Hill  Mission  has  thirty- one  priests  and  seven  nuns.  The  total  E.G.  baptisms 
from  the  first  is  stated  to  have  been  148,890.  The  adherents  are  probably 
250,000.  (See  C.M.S.  Gazette,  March,  1915,  p.  82.) 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS.-   UGANDA.  99 

the  Mission.    He  would  not  give  the  pastoral  care  of  the  little  con-    PART  n 
gregations  to  Baganda  pastors,  while  keeping  the  evangelistic  and    chap-  8-' 
educational  departments  of  the  work  in  the  separate  hands  of  the 
Mission,  and  absorbing  some  of  the  best  natives  as  mission  agents 
apart  from  their  Church.     The  Church,  he  felt,  must  be  one°  and 
the  missionaries  must  be  members   of  it,   and  not  a  body  apart 
This  plan  was  new,  and  quite  naturally  grave  differences  found 
expression.     The  Bishop  had  to  wait  some  years  before  he  could 
fully  achieve  his  purpose.     But  at  last,  in  1909,  the  constitution 
he  had  drafted,  which  had  been  approved  by  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  was   adopted   at   a    special   meeting   at   Mengo    at 
tended  by  forty  clergymen  (white  and  black),  and  250  lay  delegates 
(nearly  all  black).     It  provided  for  a  Synod,  a  Diocesan  Council 
Parochial  and  District  Councils,  Women's  Conferences,  Tribunals 
ot  Appeal  and  Reference,  Boards  of  Education  and  Missions  and 
Theology   and   Church    Estates.      All    the   English   missionaries 
came  under  the    Synod.      Its   funds,   chiefly  contributed   by  the 
Uiurch,  were   to   be  supplemented  from  the  Bishop's  Diocesan 
Fund;  but  no  C.M.S.  grants  were  to  be  asked  for,   beyond  the 
stipends  and  equipment  of  the  missionaries   and   the  necessary 
buildings  for  their  work.     The  "  Church  Estates  "  are  lands  about  church 
ninety-two  square  miles  in   extent,  allotted   in   1900    when  the  3Jstafes  aml 
government  of  Uganda  was  arranged  by  Sir  H.  Johnston  to  »  the 
three  missionary  societies  "  (two  B.C.,  one  Anglican)  in  trust  for 
the  native  Churches.* 

The  Synod  of  1913  took  measures  for  increasing  the  Church 
funds,  especially  in  view  of  the  necessary  rise  in  the  pay  of  the 
teachers.  A  diocesan  guild  was  formed  called  the  Bazimbi 
(builders  )  Bands,  to  combine  the  Christians  in  "  building  "  not 
only  material  churches  like  the  cathedral,  but  the  true  spiritual 
Uiurch  of  Christ.  Every  adult  Christian  was  urged  to  contribute 
at  least  one  rupee  a  year  to  this  new  fund,  and  every  child  half  a 
rupee,  all  such  contributors  being  enrolled  in  the  Bands  At  a 
still  more  recent  meeting  of  delegates  to  promote  the  completion 
oi  the  cathedral,  it  was  agreed  to  call  upon  chiefs  to  give  thirty 
per  cent,  of  their  rents  to  tbe  fund ;  men  earning  good  pay  five 
per  cent,  of  their  wages ;  unskilled  workmen,  75  cents  (Is.)  per 
annum;  women,  25  cents;  and  children  10  cents,— until  the 
cathedral  is  finished.  The  previous  year's  Synod,  1912,  had 
formed  a  plan  for  raising  endowments  by  means  of  industrial 
work  on  the  Church  estates,  using  these"  for  coffee  and  cocoa 
plantations.  The  Pan- Anglican  grant  of  £4000  to  the  diocese,  Pan- \ngii- 
wnich  was  partly  invested  by  Bishop  Tucker  to  serve  as  an  can  grant- 
endowment,  is  administered  by  the  local  Board  of  Missions,  as  it 

*  Bishop  Tucker's  paper  at  the  Middlesbrough  Church  Congress  gave  a 
good  account  of  the  Church  system.     It  was  priced  in  the  CM.  ^.foec. 

t<\,    p    m?re,    e^«d  account,  from  the  diocesan  magazine,  appeared  in  the 
i./. ik/.  £i£v.t  July,  lylo. 


ioo  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   UGANDA. 

PART  n.    Was  given  with  the  special  aim  of  extending  the  barrier  against 
chap.  s.  M0]iammedan  advance.* 


toe  lYJ.Olia.iim.itJUttJ.1  ciu.vci,j-j-v^. 

A  Baganda  Uganda  Notes,  the  locally-printed  organ  of  the  Mission  and  the 
KSL  Church,  gives  in  its  number  for  August,  1915  a  particularly  mte- 
restin*  account  of  the  meeting  of  the  Synod  m  June ;  and  one  or 
two  points  are  worth  putting  dh  permanent  record  It  seems 
that  some  difficulties  had  arisen  through  the  Baganda  members 
not  understanding  the  difference  between  legislation  and  adminis 
tration  In  their  own  domestic  administration  they  have  '  an 
extraordinary  system  of  appeal."  A  man  with  a  grievance  can 
carry  it  from  court  to  court  up  to  the  Kabaka  himself  and  he  has 
no  fees  to  pay  !  So  in  matters  of  Church  discipline  for  instance, 
they  thought  they  could  appeal  to  the  Synod  which  only  meets 
once  a  year,  forgetting  that  the  Synod  itself  had  appointed  a 
Diocesan  Council  (as  well  as  District  and  Parochial  Councils,  as 
above  mentioned)  to  deal  with  administrative  matters ;  and  junior 
members  who  had  no  seats  in  that  Council  liked  to  be  «  able  to 
stand  up  and  air  their  views"  before  their  seniors  in  an  assemWy 
of  400  picked  men,— oblivious,  too,  of  the  value  of  time !  On  this 
occasion,  we  are  told,  after  "a  very  long  oration  from  a  junior 
member"  the  Katikiro  himself  rose,  and  said,  <<  My  friend  has 
spoken  at  great  length;  I  will  only  speak  in  ew  words.  Even 
when  a  vote  had  been  taken,  some  one  would  exclaim  But  I 
don't  understand  it!"  However,  the  senior  chiefs  and  clergy 
spoke  excellently;  the  Bishop  was  very  patient,  and  carefully 
explained  that  the  Synod  had  no  jurisdiction  in  certain  matters 
such  as  the  duties  of  the  clergy  and  the  regulations  of  colleges 
and  schools  ;  and  all  passed  off  happily.  The  ««  Book  of  Church 
Laws"  was  revised  and  adopted;  and  there  was  manifestly  'a 
real  desire  on  the  part  of  the  whole  Synod  to  do  what  was  best 

Advantage  ^J^ay  fairly  be  said  that,  whatever  differences  of  opinion  there 
aSS..  may  be  on  some  points  of  the  constitution  in  no  other  modern 
TWO  better  M:^nn  has  a  real  indigenous  Church,  including  the  foreign  mission, 
SS»*  bten  launched  in  so  complete  a  manner  And  it  should  be  wel 
noted  how  greatly  the  task  has  been  facilitated  by  the  fact  that 
Uganda  ha!  not  half  a  dozen  or  more  competing  Missjons,  each 
with  its  relatively  small  band  of  Christians  holding  no  communion 
with  each  other"  It  is  easy  to  see  that  the  comp  eteness  and 
strength  of  the  Church  would  have  been  greater  if  all  the  Ohiis- 
tS  of  Uganda  had  been  included  in  it.  The  equal  numbers 
and  rival  influence  of  the  Roman  Missions  have  prevented  that. 
But  the  work  of  Church  organization  has  been  much  easier  than 
it  can  ever  be  in  fields  where  several  independ ent  • ™wn  «>m- 
munions  are  gathering  their  separate  flocks^  The  Bishop ot 
Uganda  has  had  a  part  in  the  Kikuyu  plans  because  his  dioM« 
includes  a  slice  of  British  East  Africa,  in  which  several  Missi 

*  On  the  Uganda  Board  of  Missions,  see  C.M.S.  Gazette,  March,  1915,  p.  81. 


C.M.S.  MissioArs:   UGANDA.  101 

are  at  work ; '""  but  in  the  Protectorate  of  Uganda  there  is  no  need  PAKT  n. 
for  such  arrangements,  because  the  Church  of  the  non-Eoman 
Christian  community  is  one  and  undivided.  It  is  evident  that 
while  any  large  body  of  Christians  in  Central  Africa,  even 
if  denominationally  divided,  is  the  best  bulwark  against  the 
ever  advancing  tide  of  Islam  from  the  north,  the  bulwark  is 
the  more  firm  and  effective  in  Uganda  because  it  consists  of 
only  two  Churches  instead  of  ten  or  twelve  as  in  some  fields. 
This  point  is  very  cogently  expounded  by  Bishop  Willis  in  an 
article  which  appeared  in  The  East  and  The  West  of  April,  1914, 
and  which  gives  a  full  account  of  the  Church  organization. 

A  striking  testimony  to  the  excellence  of  that  organization  in  A  Presby- 

TT          i      •      i  i        1 1        -r>          -XT  -i\  r      i  V    .1        -M  .L   i      tenan  on 

Uganda  is  borne  by  the   Kev.  Norman   Maclean,  01   the  Histab-  Episcopacy 

lished  Church  of  Scotland,  in  his  fascinating  book,  Africa  in  Trans-  in  Africa- 
formation.  He  sees  in  the  C.M.S.  Church  Council  system  the  virtues 
of  Presbyterian  polity,  and  admires  the  combination  of  it  with  the 
Episcopate.  "  This,"  he  says  (p.  228),  "  is  part  of  the  secret  of 
the  power  of  the  Church  of  Uganda.  Bishop  Tucker  has  blended 
Episcopacy  and  Presbyterianism  into  a  perfect  organization.  In 
so  doing  he  has  laid  down  the  lines  on  which  the  Christian  Church 
should  be  organized  in  Africa.  A  Church  that  has  the  democratic 
power  which  Presbyterianism  can  give,  and  has  also  the  initiative 
and  unity  which  the  historic  Episcopate  gives,  is  the  ideal  Church 
for  the  African." 

But  we  may  be  sure  that  the  great  Enemy  of  mankind  will 
never  let  a  Church  like  this  alone.  We  are  "  not  ignorant  of  his 
devices."  It  has  already,  as  we  have  seen,  suffered  through  the 
power  of  the  flesh;  and  now  it  has  the  pain  of  suffering  by  the 
spirit  of  schism,  the  very  thing  to  injure  the  influence  of  an  united 
Church.  One  of  the  chiefs  adopted  views  which  are  practically 
those  of  (so-called)  "  Christian  Science,"  and  on  the  strength  of 
Deufc.  xviii.  11,  where  the  Luganda  word  for  "charmer"  is 
omusawo,  the  ordinary  word  for  "doctor,"  a  number  of  Christians 
joined  him  in  refusing  medical  aid  and  in  protesting  against  public 
prayer  for  doctors  and  hospitals.  They  then  proceeded  to  call 
themselves  "  The  Church  which  does  not  drink  medicine,"  and  to 
administer  baptism  indiscriminately,  without  test  or  examination, 
receiving  polygamists,  &c.  Large  numbers  were  influenced,  and 
the  Synod,  to  counteract  the  movement,  resolved  to  set  about  "  a 
campaign  of  instruction  and  enlightenment."  The  result  has  been 
that  many  have  been  brought  back,  and  have  become  proper 
candidates  for  baptism ;  and  one  of  the  leaders,  having  disregarded 
a  certain  Government  regulation,  was  arrested  by  Ham  Mukasa 
(who  is  now  Sekibobo,  i.e.  chief  of  Kyagwe),  and  convicted  by  the 
Kampala  Court.  But  the  schism  is  still  a  serious  one,  and  earnest 
prayer  for  the  whole  Church  is  called  for. 

*  The  exact  boundary  line  between  the  two  dioceses  of  Uganda  and  Mom 
basa  is  indicated  in  the  royal  warrant  authorizing  the  division,  under  the 
"  Bishops  in  Foreign  Countries  Act,"  1841.  See  C.M.S.  Gazettc,3&u.,  1913,  p.  16. 


102  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA. 

PART  ii.        The  present  European  staff  of  the  Mission  comprises  37  clergy  - 

chapes.    men>  -Q  iaymen,  32  wives,  and  33  other  women  ;  total  113,  a  good 

The  C.M.S.  increase  on  the  40  of  ]899,  though  far  short  of  what  is  now 

urgently  needed.     Of  those  forty  of  1899,  fourteen  men  and  seven 

women  are  happily  still  engaged  in  the  work.     The  fourteen  are 

Archdeacons  Baskerville  and  Buckley;  the  Eev.  Messrs.  Black- 

ledge,  Leakey,  Lewin,  Lloyd,   Millar,  Bowling,  Skeens,   Tegart, 

A.  Wilson,  and  F.  H.  Wright;  Dr.  Albert  Cook,  and  Mr.  Fletcher. 

Remark-      The  seven  women  include  all  the  five  who  formed  the  first  party  of 

!?  th?flSt"  women  sent  out  in  1895,  the  Misses  Furley,  Chadwick,  Pilgrim, 

parties  of     and  Thomsett,  and  Mrs.  Bowling  (then  Miss  Browne).     That  step 

ien'      was  felt  a  grave  one  at  the  time.     It  was  before  the  railway  was 

begun,   and  not  a  few  shook  their  heads  over   such   a   project. 

Certainly  no  one  expected  that  after  twenty  years  all  five  would 

still  be  at  work.    We  may  indeed  thank  God  for  such  a  manifesta 

tion  of  His  providential  care.     Moreover,  three  more  went  up  in 

the  following  year  ;  and  two  of  these  are  the  others  of  the  seven, 

Miss  Timpson  (now  Mrs.  Albert  Cook)  and  Miss  G.  E.  Bird.    The 

eighth  was  Miss  Taylor,  who  married  Mr.  Maddox,  and  retired 

with  him  in  1912. 

But  some  of   the  men  of  1899  who  are  not  now  on  the  list 


should  also  be  mentioned,  as  they  include  veterans  who  have 
indeed  borne  the  burden  and  heat  of  the  day.  Such  were  Arch 
deacon  Walker  and  Mr.  Gordon,  who  at  one  time  (1888)  were  the 
only  two  men  in  Uganda,  and  then  were  expelled  by  the  Moham 
medans.  Such  was  Mr.  Boscoe,  the  senior  of  all  except  Gordon, 
and  now  the  well-known  author  of  some  of  the  best  books  on 
Africa.  Such  were  Mr.  Hattersley  (also  the  author  of  an  excel 
lent  book,  The  Baganda  at  Home),  Mr.  Maddox  (and  Mrs.  Mad 
dox),  Mr.  Clayton,  Mr.  Fisher,  Mr.  H.  W.  Weatherhead.  All 
these  had  served  from  15  to  26  years;  and  the  retirements  of 
several  of  them  are  quite  recent.  Nor,  on  the  other  hand,  should 
we  ignore  the  services  of  some  who  joined  near  the  beginning  of 
our  period  and  are  still  at  work  ;  such  as  the  present  Bishop,  Mr. 
Kitching  and  Mr.  Chadwick  (now  Archdeacons)  ;  Dr.  J.  H.  Cook, 
Dr.  Bond,  Mr.  Casson,*  Mr.  H.  T.  C.  Weatherhead,  Mr.  Darnell, 
Mr.  Ladbury,  Miss  A.  E.  and  Miss  A.  L.  Allen,  Miss  Brewer, 
Miss  Pike  ;  also  Mrs.  Blackledge,  Mrs.  Skeens,  Mrs.  Bond,  Mrs. 
Dillistone,  who  were  missionaries  before  they  were  married.  So 
were  Mrs.  Fisher  and  Mrs.  Clayton,  whose  retirements  with  their 
husbands  were  only  recent.  Excellent  work  has  been  done  by 
many  others  with  shorter  periods  of  service. 

some  The  deaths  are  not  numerous  for  so  large  a  staff  and  for  African 

Deaths.       service.     Mr.  Martin  Hall,  who  was  drowned  in  the  Lake  in  1900, 
had  only  served  five  years,  but  the  loss  of  so  good  a  man  was 
deeply  felt.     So  was  the  loss  of  Mr.  Johnson,  in  1909,  after  eight 
years'  work;f  and  of   Mr.  Innes,}  in   1910,  after  eleven  years. 
*  Mr.  Casson  has  just  been  obliged  to  retire  owing  to  his  wife's  health. 
t  See  CM.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1909.  %  Ibid.,  Nov.,  1910. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    UGANDA.  103 

Messrs.  Farthing  and  Kemp  died  quite  early,  and  so  did  the  first    PART  n. 
Mrs.   Bond,  and   Mrs.  Owen,   and  Misses  Holdgate   and   Reed.    Chap' 8- 
Mrs.  Britton  died  soon  after  her  marriage,  but  she  had  served 
seven  years  as  Miss  Jacob.     Miss  Eobinson  put  in  ten  years  of 
valuable  work,  and  was  then  invalided  home,  and  died  soon  after 
her  resignation.      Eleven  in  all.     They  rest  from  their  labours, 
and  their  works  do  follow  them. 

Bishop  Tucker,  after  an  episcopate  of  twenty-one  years,  retired  Bishop . 
in  1911.  His  health  had  seriously  suffered  from  his  incessant  .Retirement 
travelling,  both  in  Africa  and  to  and  from  Africa  and  England.  and  Death- 
His  decision,  under  medical  advice,  was  taken  in  this  country; 
and  then  he  went  out  to  Uganda  to  pay  a  farewell  visit.  In  five 
weeks'  touring  there  he  confirmed  900  candidates,  and  ordained 
seven  deacons,  making  the  forty-six  Baganda  whom  he  had 
admitted  to  the  ministry  of  the  Church.  The  most  affectionate 
regret  was  manifested  by  the  people  at  his  retirement.  He  did 
not  come  home  to  an  idle  life.  Not  only  did  he  as  Canon  of 
Durham  throw  himself  into  the  practical  work  of  that  diocese,  but 
he  was  always  ready  to  take  long  journeys  to  tell  of  God's  work  in 
Uganda.  He  was  appointed  by  the  Archbishops  a  member  of  the 
important  Committee  on  Faith  and  Order,  and  it  was  actually  at 
the  door  of  the  Jerusalem  Chamber,  where  that  Committee  was 
meeting  on  June  15th,  1914,  that  he  was  suddenly  struck  down,  and 
passed  away  within  an  hour  in  the  adjoining  Westminster  Deanery. 
Few  Bishops  have  left  such  a  record  of  work  done  in  extending 
the  Kingdom  of  God.  Of  the  greater  part  of  his  episcopate  a 
valuable  account  remains  in  his  book,  Eighteen  Years  in  Uganda. 

At  the  Memorial  Service  held  at  St.  Bride's  Church  on  June  Arch- 1 
19th,  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  delivered  a  noble  eulogium  on  Eulogy! 
him.*     These  few  lines  must  be  extracted : — 

"  We  have  watched  and  reverenced  for  more  than  twenty  years  a  life 
of  memorable  witness  to  the  power  of  God  set  forth  in  the  leadership  of 
a  simple,  strong,  devoted  man  who  went  forth  to  tell  it  out  among  the 
heathen  that  the  Lord  is  King,  and  to  whom  it  fell  to  leave  a  record 
upon,  the  Church's  story  whereto  few  like  records  can  be  found.  Compare 
him  in  his  equipment  of  learning  or  eloquence  with  some  of  his  content 
poraries  and  friends,  and  his  light  may  pale  before  theirs.  But  reckon 
aright  his  gift  of  unfaltering  vision — his  power  of  sei/ing  with  firm  grasp 
a  great  opportunity  and  using  it  for  Christ  with  straightforward,  manly 
simplicity ;  remember  these  things,  and  you  will  again  thank  God  Who 

gave  us  such  a  man  at  such  a  time  for  such  a  task.  In  the  annals  of  the 
hurch's  mission  field,  from  the  days  of  the  Apostles  to  our  own,  you 
will  hardly  find  an  '  occasion  '  so  critical,  so  grave,  so  vast  in  possi 
bilities,  as  that  which  arose  in  East  Africa  four  and  twenty  years  ago. 
And  is  there  anywhere  a  nobler  record  of  devotion  than  the  story  of  the 
dauntless  band  who,  under  the  leadership  of  Alfred  Tucker,  went  out  to 
'  redeem  the  time  '  to  '  buy  up  the  opportunity '  for  Christ  ?  " 


*  Printed  in  full  in  the  CM.  Eeview,  July,  1914.     Archdeacon  Walker's 
Kecollectious  appeared  in  the  August  number. 


IO4 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   UGANDA. 


PART  li. 
Chap.  8. 

Kabaka's 
Letter. 


The  new 
Bishop. 


And  the  young  Kabaka  wrote  to  Sir  Victor  Buxton,— 

"  We  are  all  in  mourning  here  in  Uganda.  The  loss  to  this  country  is 
very  great.  He  never  ceased  to  think  of  us  and  to  help  us  as  much  as 
he  could.  All  native  Christians  in  Uganda  are  very  grieved,  and  this 
was  evidenced  by  the  large  crowd  that  attended  the  Memorial  Service 
held  in  the  pro -cathedral.  May  God  Almighty  help  and  comfort  poor 
Mrs.  Tucker  in  her  sorrow." 

The  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  on  Dr.  Tucker's  retirement  in 
1911,  appointed  as  his  successor  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Willis,  one  of  the 
missionaries,  who  had  been  Archdeacon  of  Kavirondo ;  and  he  was 
consecrated  on  the  Feast  of  the  Conversion  of  St.  Paul,  1912. 
Uganda  thus  received  a  bishop  already  familiar  with  the  country, 
the  people,  and  the  language.  Bishop  Willis  has  become  widely 
known  through  his  prominent  part  in  the  Kikuyu  controversy, 
and  it  is  the  barest  truth  to  say  that  he  lias  won  golden  opinions 
even  from  many  who  could  scarcely  be  expected  to  sympathize 
fully  with  his  policy. 

As  we  turn  from  East  and  Central  Africa,  we  again  recall  the 
fact  that  only  three  years  ago  we  were  celebrating  the  centenary  of 
the  birth  of  Livingstone,  which  almost  coincided  with  the  fortieth 
anniversary  of  his  death.  It  is  by  noting  such  facts  that  we 
become  able  to  appreciate  the  wonderful  changes  in  the  Dark 
Continent.  The  Lord  indeed  hath  done  great  things  for  us, 
whereof  we  are  glad. 

On  the  effect  of  the  War  on  the  Uganda  Mission,  see  the 
Appendix. 


CHAPTEK  IX. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 

Plans  for  Gordon  Memorial  Mission — C.  M.  S.  and  the  Government- 
Gordon  College— Medical  and  School  Work  at  Khartum— Bishop  of 
London's  Visit :  the  Cathedral— Lord  Cromer's  Invitation  to  C.M.S. 
—New  Mission  on  the  Upper  Nile— Progress  in  Egypt— Islam  and 
Christianity— Coptic  Church— Bishop  Maclnnes. 

]UE   preceding    chapter   recorded   the    advance    of    the    PART  n . 
Uganda  Mission  northwards  towards  the   border  of    chap- 9- 
the  Eastern  Sudan.      We  shall,  therefore,  take  that 
great  country  next  in  our  survey  before  descending 
the  Nile  to  Egypt,  although  Egypt  is  of  course  the 
base  of  the  Sudan  Mission. 

THE  EASTERN  SUDAN. 

When  the  Centenary  took  place,  the    Society's   hope  that  the  Gordon's 
lands  to  which  Gordon  had  invited  the  Mission  would  one  day  be  SJdPby 
open  to  the  messengers  of  the  Gospel  had  just  been  revived  by  Kitchener's 
Lord  Kitchener's  decisive  overthrow  of  the  Khalifa  at  Omdurman,  V 
and  the  occupation  of  Khartum ;  but  that  hope  had  for  the  moment 
been  disappointed.     The  victory  of  Omdurman  was  on  September 
2nd,  1898,  and  on  Lord  Kitchener's  return  to  England,  a  C.M.S. 
deputation  waited  on  him  to  inform  him  (1)  of  Gordon's  original 
plans,  (2)  of  the  Gordon  Memorial  Fund,  raised  in  1885  and  not 
yet  used,  (3)  of  the  Society's  desire  now  to  send  a  Mission  to 
Khartum.     A  Nottingham  Vicar,  the  Eev.  LI.  H.  Gwynne,  had 
already  offered  for  the  enterprise,  and  it  was  proposed  to  send  also 
a  young  Cambridge   man,  the  Eev.  Douglas  M.  Thornton,  who 
was  specially  interested  in  Africa  and  Mohammedanism,  with  a 
medical  missionary. 

But  permission  was  refused,  on  the  ground  that  nothing  must  but  closed 
be  done  to  arouse  Moslem  fanaticism.     In  February,  1899,  in  the  nSns 
House  of  Laymen,  Sir  John  Kennaway  moved  a  resolution  declaring  to  Moslems, 
the  duty  of  Christian  England  in  the  matter,  which  was  eloquently 
supported  by  Lord  Cranborne,  the  son  of  the  Prime  Minister,  and 
now  himself  Marquis  of  Salisbury,  and  carried  unanimously  ;  and 
Sir  Richard  Temple,  almost  the  last  survivor  of  the  great  Punjab 
band  whose   fearless  Christian    action   in  that  newly  conquered 


106      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 

PAKT  ii.    province  has  set  so  bright  and  successful  an  example,  said  he 
chap.,9.    "  could  not  understand"  the  Government's  attitude.    So  the  ques 
tion  stood  when  the  period  under  review  opened. 

Lord  Kitchener,  however,  offered,  as  an  alternative,  facilities 
for  passing  southward  of  Khartum  into  the  Pagan  districts  of  the 
Upper  Nile  ;  and  the  Committee  resolved  to  take  advantage  of  this 
opening,  encouragement  to  do  so  being  afforded  in  the  following 
autumn  by  Sir  F.  E.  Wingate's  victory  over  the  Dervish  army,  and 
the  death  of  the  Khalifa  himself.  As  it  turned  out,  however, 
Partial  Khartum,  or  rather  Omdurman,  was  occupied  first.  Just  at  that 
Opening.  timQ  ^  Government  withdrew  the  prohibition  of  the  residence  of 
foreign  traders  there,  and  Mr.  Gwynne,  accompanied  by  Dr.  Harpur, 
the  medical  missionary  at  Cairo,  were  naturally  allowed  also  to  go 
there,  though  they  were  forbidden  to  speak  to  Moslems  on  religion. 
They  gladly  seized  the  opportunity,  and  found  useful  occupation  in 
making  acquaintance  with  the  country  and  people.  Mr.  Gwynne 
found  a  sphere  also  in  ministering  to  the  British  soldiers,  and  the 
first  Christian  service  ever  held  in  the  city  was  the  service  on 
Christmas  Day  held  in  the  building  which  had  been  the  Mahdi's 
house.*  The  Coptic  Christians  also  sought  the  help  of  the 
missionaries.  A  Bible  Society  colporteur  was  allowed  to  open  a 
bookshop ;  but  notices  were  posted  up  forbidding  any  attempt  to 
change  the  religion  of  the  people. 

The  Gordon      Meanwhile,   the   great   scheme    of    the    Gordon    College    was 
>1Iegc>       formed  and  carried  out.     When  Lord  Cromer  laid  the  foundation 
stone,  he  proclaimed  religious  liberty  in  the  following  terms  :— 

"  The  Queen  and  her  Christian  subjects  are  devotedly  attached  to  their 
own  religion,  but  they  also  know  how  to  respect  the  religion  of  others. 
The  Queen  rules  over  a  larger  number  of  Moslem  subjects  than  any 
Sovereign  in  the  world,  and  they  live  contented  under  her  beneficent 
rule.  Their  religion  and  religious  customs  are  strictly  respected.  You 
may  feel  sure  that  the  same  principle  will  be  adopted  in  the  Sudan. 
There  will  be  no  interference  whatever  with  your  religion." 

"  Interference  " — of  course  not !  Who  would  wish  for  it  ?  But 
two  questions  might  be  fairly  put :  (1)  Had  the  Queen  in  India 
forbidden  Christians  to  offer  the  greatest  of  all  blessings  to  their 
Moslem  fellow-subjects?  (2)  Have  the  British  representatives  in 
the  Sudan  always  shown  their  "  devoted  attachment "  to  their  own 
religion  ? 

But  the  Gordon  College  was  duly  built  and  opened,  the  Koran 
being  regularly  studied  and  the  Bible  absolutely  excluded.  In 

*  In  an  article  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  of  August,  1900,  Mr.  Arnold  Ward 
criticized  Mr.  Gwynne's  Christmas  Day  sermon  because,  in  a  Mohammedan 
city,  it  was  on  the 'Incarnation.  The  criticism  was  replied  to  in  the  C.M. 
Intelligencer  of  September.  "  What  else  could  he  have  preached  about,  on 
such  a  day?  Does  Mr.  Ward  keep  Christmas  Day  himself?  If  so,  why?" 
There  was  a  further  note  011  the  subject  in  the  following  December.  Mr.  Ward, 
in  the  Times,  however,  pleaded  well  for  liberty  for  missionaries.  (See  C.M.S. 
Report,  1901.) 


C.M.S.  MissiOiVS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN.      107 

1901  the  Committee  drew  up  a  strong  but  careful  Memorandum, 
which  was  signed  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  (Dr.  Temple), 
and  presented  to  the  Government.  They  expressed  hearty  con 
currence  with  the  principles  of  official  impartiality  and  respect  for 
all  religious  convictions,  but  they  contended  that  the  policy  adopted 
was  inconsistent  with  that  principle,  and  with  the  religious  liberty 
which  England  professed.  A  Christian  nation,  they  urged,  while 
giving  all  due  respect  to  the  religious  convictions  of  others,  could  not 
rightly  suppress  its  own,  nor  would  non-Christian  people  respect  it 
for  doing  so.  They  set  forth  the  experience  of  the  Christian  rulers 
in  India  as  proving  the  perfect  safety  of  a  frank  profession  of  the 
Christian  faith.  They  realized  in  this  case  the  need  of  due  caution, 
and  expressed  readiness  to  submit  to  all  restrictions  really  neces 
sary,  but  urged  that  such  restrictions  should  only  be  temporary. 
This  Memorandum  was  published  in  the  newspapers,  and  excited 
much  attention.*  The  reply  came  from  Lord  Lansdowne,  as 
Foreign  Secretary,  and  stated  that  it  was  "  at  present  impossible 
to  indicate  any  time  when  the  restrictions  in  force  could  with 
safety  be  removed." 

But  the  Society  could  and  did  rejoice  at  the  general  influence 
of  British  rule  on  the  country.  Mr.  Gwynne's  letter  about  it  was 
quoted  in  a  previous  chapter.  The  Sirdar  was  Sir  F.  E.  Wingate, 
and  of  him  and  other  heads  of  the  administration  Mr.  Gwynno 
added  admiring  testimony. 

Permission  had  meanwhile  been  given  for  medical  work  to  be 
begun  at  Omdurrnan,  provided  that  religious  discussion  was 
excluded.  Dr.  A.  C.  Hall  carried  it  on  for  two  years,  and  his  skill 
and  kindness  made  him,  wrote  Mr.  Gwynne,  "a  living  epistle," 
read,  loved,  and  esteemed  by  the  Sudanese.  "  The  work  he  accom 
plished  was  the  breaking  down  of  prejudice  and  the  softening  of 
the  hearts  of  the  people."  His  death  in  1903  was  a  heavy  loss. 
His  widow,  who  as  Miss  Eva  Jackson  had  been  some  years  in  the 
Egypt^  Mission,  has  continued  working  at  Omdurman  and  Khartum 
ever  since.  A  hospital  has  now  been  built,  the  site  having  been 
granted  by  the  Government. 

In  that  year,  1903,  the  prohibition  against  private  Christian  con 
versation  was  withdrawn,  though  public  preaching  \vas  still  for 
bidden,  and  is  forbidden  to  this  day.  Leave  was  also  given  to 
open  a  Christian  school  for  girls  at  Khartum,  provided  that 
Mohammedan  children  should  not  be  obliged  to  receive  religious 
instruction.  In  point  of  fact,  scarcely  any  of  the  Moslem  parents, 
though  plainly  informed,  made  any  objection.  The  school  was 
visited  by  Princess  Henry  of  Battenberg  in  1904.|  Other  girls' 
schools  were  subsequently  opened,  in  one  case  in  response  to  a 
definite  request  from  the  people ;  and  they  have  been  carried  on 
with  equal  frankness  and  equal  freedom.  And  the  medical  mission 

*  It  was  printed  in  the  CM.  Intelligencer,  Sept.,  1901. 
t  The  girls  presented  an  address  to  Bishop  Gwynne  in  1(JOS,  concluding 
with  a  beautiful  prayer,  for  which  see  C.M.S.  Report,  1909,  p.  86. 


PART  II. 
Chap.  9. 

C.M.S.  Me 
moraridum 
to  Govern 
ment. 


Medical 

Work 

allowed. 


Girls' 

Schools 

allowed. 


PART  II. 
Chap.  9. 


Bishop 
G  wynne. 


Khartum 
Cathedral. 


Bishop  of 
London  at 
Khartum. 


Lord 
Cromer 
and  GM.i 


New  Mis 
sion  to 
Pagans  of 
Upper  Nile 


1 08      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 

at  Omdurman  continued  its  useful  career.  These  unpretending 
agencies  can  only  be  regarded  as  preliminary  to  more  vigorous 
work  when  it  becomes  possible. 

In  1904  Mr.  Gwynne  was  appointed  Archdeacon  by  Bishop 
Blyth  of  Jerusalem,  whose  jurisdiction  extended  to  Egypt  and  the 
Sudan;. and  in  1908  he  was  consecrated  Bishop  Suffragan  for  the 
Sudan.  Although  no  longer  on  the  C.M.S.  roll,  he  continued  to 
give  support  and  encouragement  to  its  work,  to  its  great  advantage. 
Although  the  Government  has  seemed  so  unduly  careful  of 
Mohammedan  feeling,  and  so  little  disposed  to  take  a  reasonable 
stand  as  a  Christian  nation,  it  is  a  satisfaction  that  the^  outward 
and  visible  sign  of  a  Christian  profession  is  now  conspicuous  at 
Khartum  in  the  new  cathedral.  The  foundation  stone  was  laid  by 
Princess  Henry  of  Battenberg  in  February,  1904.  King  Edward 
gave  £200,  and  our  present  King  (then  Prince  of  Wales)  £100,  to 
the  building  fund.  The  cathedral  was  consecrated  by  the  Bishop 
of  London  on  January  26th,  1912,  the  twenty-seventh  anniversary 
of  Gordon's  death.  In  his  sermon  the  Bishop  justly  urged  that 
the  true  way  to  insure  that  Gordon  had  not  died  in  vain  was  to 
"  turn  the  Africa  for  which  he  gave  his  life  into  a  true  and  lasting 
heritage  for  the  Kingdom  of  God." 

On  the  occasion  of  this  visit  the  Bishop  inspected  the  small 
work  permitted  to  the  C.M.S. ,  and  wrote  to  his  own  Diocesan 
Magazine,  "  The  ever-plucky  C.M.S.  has  opened  schools  for  girls  " 
(at  Omdurman).  "  After  the  opening  a  Moslem  brought  up  his 
wife,  half  veiled  of  course,  to  introduce  her  to  me,  and  to  say 
how  much  good  the  school  had  done  her."  "I  addressed  in 
Bishop  Gwynne's  garden  at  Khartum  a  delightful  gathering  of  the 
C.M.S.  missionaries  and  the  American  Presbyterians,  who  were 
asked  to  meet  me  together."  "Bishop  Gwynne  is  a  missionary 
to  his  finger-tips." 

But  we  must  go  back  a  few  years,  to  see  how  the  extension  ol 
the  Mission  south  of  Khartum  came  about. 

In  December,  1904,  Lord  Cromer  wrote  officially  to  the  Society 
proposing  definite  arrangements  for  its  undertaking  a  Mission  to 
'  the  Pagan  population  farther  south,  which  the  Government  have 
all  along  been  ready  to  favour.  The  country  was  to  be  divided 
between  the  Austrian  Eoman  Catholic  Mission,  the  American 
Presbyterian  Mission,  and  the  C.M.S.,  the  White  Nile  from 
Fashoda  to  the  Uganda  border  being  allotted  to  C.M.S.  Needless 
to  say,  the  Committee  warmly  responded  and  issued  an  appeal  for 
men  and  means.* 

In  October,  1905,  a  party  of  six  left  England  for  the  Sudan. 
They  were  joined  at  Khartum  by  Mr.  Gwynne,  and  Dr.  Albert 
.Cook   left    Uganda   about    the    same    time   and   travelled    north 
to   meet  them,  to  help   in  starting   the   Mission.      They  settled 
*  For  Lord  Cromer's  letter,  the  Committee's  Appeal,  and  other  information, 
see  the  C.M.  Intcll.,  Feb.  1905;  also  the  July  number,  for  Lord  Cromer's 
official  statement  of  his  policy,  published  in  the  Blue  Book. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAAT.      109 

among  the  Jieng  tribe  (then  called  the  Dinka,  which  is  an  Arabic  g£M  n. 
corruption  of  the  name),  about  a  thousand  miles  south  of  Khar 
toum.  As  in  so  many  cases,  however,  the  new  Mission  was  at 
first  very  discouraging.  The  population  proved  to  be  very  thin, 
owing  to  the  devastation  of  the  Mahdi's  regime,  and  sickness  drove 
several  men  home.*  In  1908  it  was  actually  suspended  for  a 
short  time  ;  but  Bishop  Gwynne  went  up  again  in  1909,  and  he 
assured  the  Committee  that  they  had  not  realized  how  much  pre 
paratory  work  had  been  done  in  teaching  the  people,  healing  their 
sick,  and  studying  the  language.  One  missionary,  the  Eev.  A. 
Shaw,  had  borne  the  burden  and  heat  of  the  day.  More  recently 
the  work  has  much  developed  at  Malek,  the  station  for  the  Jieng 
tribe,  and  the  first  converts  are  being  gathered  in. 

The  Sirdar,   Sir  F.   "Wingate,  was  now  urging  the  Society  to  To  Jieng 
move  forward  also  into  the  country  west  of  the  River,  called  thean.  A 
Lado  Enclave,  which  had  been  leased  to  King  Leopold  of  Belgium, 
but  on  his  death  had  reverted  to  the  Sudan  Government.     This 
seemed  the  more  important  because  Moslem  officials  and  soldiers 
were  being  sent  from  Egypt  among  the  Pagan  population,  and 
Mohammedan  schools  were  being  opened. 

Early  in  1911,  Bishop  Gwynne  and  Mr.  Shaw,  accompanied  by 
Mr.  0.  T.  Studd,  who  was  desirous  of  opening  an  independent 
Mission  somewhere  in  the  heart  of  Africa,  visited  the  new  territory ; 
and  in  1912-13  two  new  stations  were  established  in  or  near  it, 
one,  Lau,  among  the  Cheech  Jieng,  and  the  other,  Yambio,  among 
the  Azandi,  a  tribe  which  the  German  traveller,  Schweinfurth, 
called  the  "  Nyam  Nyam."  f  Mr.  Studd's  "  Heart  of  Africa  " 
Mission  is  among  a  similar  tribe  about  100  miles  farther  south 
west,  in  the  Belgian  Congo ;  and,  about  100  miles  to  the  south 
east,  the  Africa  Inland  Mission  have  since  begun  work. 

Besides  Mr.  Shaw,  six  clergymen  are  now  engaged  in  this 
Southern  Sudan  Mission,^  of  whom  four  are  British,  the  Revs. 
C.  A.  Lea-Wilson,  H.  F.  Davies,  A.  G.  King,  W.  Haddow ;  and 
two  Australian,  the  Revs.  K.  E.  Hamilton  (Victoria),  and  E.  C. 
Gore  (N.S.  Wales).  Also  three  laymen,  Messrs.  Scamell,  Thomas, 
and  Ewell.  Mr.  Scamell  has  his  wife  with  him,  the  first  woman 
missionary  in  that  remote  part  of  Africa.  Mr.  Hamilton  also 
is  bringing  his  wife  from  Australia. §  Mr.  Shaw  has  lately  visited  te  °m 
Uganda,  asking  the  Church  there  to  help  in  the  Sudan  Mission ; 

*  Full  accounts  of  those  early  days  appeared  in  the  CM.  Intell.  of  1906. 

t  See  an  account  of  the  Azandi  in  the  C.M.  Review  of  March,  1915,  by 
Dr.  Stones  of  Old  Cairo,  who  went  up  the  Nile  to  visit  the  new  field. 

J  The  term  "Eastern  Sudan"  is  used  to  cover  the  whole  territory  from 
Egypt  to  Uganda,  thus  distinguished  from  the  Central  and  Western  Sudan. 
"  Southern  Sudan  "  is  part  of  it,  and  practically  means  the  Pagan  territory. 

§  Mr.  Lea- Wilson  has  also  now  taken  a  wife  out  with  him.  She  is  a 
daughter  of  the  late  Kev.  W.  B.  Collins  of  the  North  India  Mission,  and 
grand-daughter  of  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Collins,  who  (with  J.  S.  Burdon)  founded 
the  old  C.M.S.  Peking  Mission  (transferred  to  S.P.G.  in  1880). 


no      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 


PART  IT.    and  one  well-trusted  Muganda  clergyman  and 'a  band  of  teachers, 
chap^.    &c  ^  were  cilosen  ^0  go  with  him  (see  p.  94). 


Progress  in 
Egypt. 


Dr.  Pain. 


The  new 
Men  of 
1899  at 
Cairo. 


The  Orient 
and  Occi 
dent. 


EGYPT. 

We  now  descend  the  Nile,  northward  into  Egypt.  The  good 
work  which  had  gradually  been  developed  in  Cairo  and  Old  Cairo 
from  the  time  of  the  British  occupation  (1882)  was  being  faith 
fully  carried  on  in  1899,  viz.,  the  services,  the  schools,  the  hospitals, 
the  village  visiting,  &c. ;  and  there  has  been  no  slackening  of  it 
during  the  period  under  review.  Women  missionaries  have 
done  excellent  service,  both  in  the  schools  and  in  visiting.  The 
medical  work  has  gone  on  without  break.  Dr.  Harpur,  after 
thirty  years'  labour,  is  as  untiring  as  ever,  living  in  the  Delta  and 
itinerating  with  his  dispensary  among  the  villages.  The  work  at 
Menouf  and  other  places  is  growing  fast,  and  promises  well.*  The 
Kev.  W.  W.  Cash  and  Misses  Cay  and  Lewis  are  also  engaged  in  it. 
Another  medical  man  of  much  spiritual  influence  joined  from 
Australia,  Dr.  Pain,  son  of  the  Bishop  of  Gippsland,  but  he  died  in 
1913  from  acute  cerebro-spinal  meningitis  caught  from  one  of 
his  patients.  But  his  death  brought  two  Moslems  to  confession 
of  Christ  and  baptism.  So  highly  was  he  esteemed  in  Australia 
and  New  Zealand  that  friends  there  had  raised  over  £2000  to 
enlarge  the  new  hospital  at  Old  Cairo,  in  which  he  was  working. 
Its  foundation  stone  was  laid  by  Sir  Algernon  Coote  in  March, 
1905 ;  and  it  was  visited  by  Lord  Kitchener  in  1913.  The  other 
medical  men  have  been  Drs.  Lasbrey,  Stones,  and  Hargreaves  ; 
and  Dr.  Lloyd,  one  of  the  first  Sudan  party,  at  Omdurman. 

Three  men  joined  just  before  and  after  the  Centenary  year,  whose 
names  are  now  well-known  :  the  Eev.  Douglas  Thornton,  whose 
large  heart  and  vigorous  initiative  made  him  a  power  at  once, 
whose  death  in  1907  was  deeply  and  widely  mourned,  and  whose, 
inspiring  biography  -f  has  secured  that  he,  being  dead,  yet  speaketh  ; 
the  Kev.  W.  H.  T.  Gairdner,  who  has  become  a  high  authority  on 
Islam,  and  who  was  selected  to  write  the  story  of  the  Edinburgh 
Conference  in  1910— a  brilliant  literary  effort;  and  the  Eev. 
Eennie  Maclnnes,  who  succeeded  Mr.  Adeney  as  secretary  on  his 
lamented  death  in  1903,  and  has  now  become  Anglican  Bishop  in 
Jerusalem.  After  Mr.  Thornton's  death,  Mr.  Gairdner  was  joined 
by  the  Eev.  E.  F.  McNeile  (a  Balliol  scholar,  and  Senior  Student 
of  Christ  Church). 

Mr.  Thornton  and  Mr.  Gairdner  began  an  important  work  in 
setting  forth  the  Christian  message  before  the  educated  Moslems 
and  the  students  at  the  famous  El  Azhar  University,  partly  through 
meetings  for  frank  discussion,  and  partly  through  the  medium 
of  a  paper  called  Orient  and  Occident,  which  has  now  appeared 
regularly  for  ten  years,  and  has  a  large  circulation  among  Moham 
medans  and  Christians.  Other  literary  work  was  undertaken, 

*  See  Mr.  Cash's  interesting  article,  CM.  Eev.,  Feb.,  1914. 

f  By  Mr.  Gairdner,    Published  by  Hodder  &  Stoughton, 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  A  AW  THE  SUDAN.       in 

and  the  bookshop  proved  useful  for  disseminating  the  truth.  PART  IT. 
Since  then,  the  Nile  Mission  Press,  an  independent  institution,  chap- 9- 
first  started  by  the  energy  of  Miss  A.  Van  Sommer,  has  done  great 
service  on  these  lines.*  Besides  direct  efforts  to  influence  the 
Moslems,  friendship  has  been  cultivated  with  the  Copts,  which 
is  in  accordance  with  the  spirit  in  which  the  work  for  the  Eastern 
Churches  was  done  by  the  Society  a  century  ago.  Evangelistic 
meetings  in  the  Coptic  churches,  with  the  cordial  co-operation 
of  bishops  and  priests,  have  been  held  in  Upper  Egypt. f  Mr. 
Gairdner  and  Mr.  McNeile  have  continued  this  varied  work  to  the 
present  day. 

In  1899  there  were  on  the  staff  four  clergymen,  of  whom  two  The  p. M.S. 
were  soon  transferred  to  other  Missions,  and  the  other  two,  statf' 
Mr.  Adeney  and  Mr.  Thornton,  have  died  ;  three  doctors,  of  whom 
one,  Dr.  Hall,  died,  and  the  others,  Drs.  Harpur  and  Lasbrey,  are 
still  at  work ;  four  wives,  of  whom  Mrs.  Harpur  and  Mrs.  Hall 
remain,  the  latter  continuing  after  her  husband's  death  ;  and 
eleven  other  women,  of  whom  one  died  (Mrs.  Lasbrey,  nee  Waller, 
sister  of  Bishop  Waller),  two  retired,  and  all  the  rest  remain  on 
the  staff,  though  not  all  in  Egypt.  The  six  still  in  Egypt  are 
Mrs.  and  Miss  Bywater,  and  the  Misses  Adeney,  Cay,  Crowther, 
and  Sells. I  Of  these,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Harpur  have  served  thirty 
years,  Mrs.  and  Miss  Bywater  25  years,  and  Mrs.  Hall  and 
Miss  Cay  only  a  year  or  two  less.  Two  other  women  went  out  in 
the  Centenary  year,  Misses  Braine-Hartnell  and  Western.  Then 
followed  Miss  Thora  Bird,  Principal  of  the  Cheltenham  Training 
College  for  Schoolmistresses,  who  rendered  important  service, 
both  at  Cairo  and  Khartum,  until  her  lamented  death  in  1910. 
The  Misses  Bywater,  McNeile,  Williams,  Jackson,  and  Tristram 
have  been  engaged  in  school  work ;  and  the  Kev.  A.  T.  Toop  has 
the  Boys'  Boarding  School. 

Altogether,  no  less  than  55  names  have  been  added  to  the  list 
in  the  fifteen  years,  but  of  these,  17  were  for  the  Southern  Sudan. 
The  figures  for  1914  for  Egypt  and  Khartum  are,  clergymen  5, 
laymen  7  (5  doctors),  wives  7,  other  women  20,  total  39.  (Or, 
including  the  Southern  Sudan,  clergymen  12,  laymen  10,  wives  9, 
other  women  20,  total  51.) 

*  Miss  Van  Sommer  conducts  an  excellent  quarterly  periodical,  Blessed  be 
Egypt  (Isa.  xix.  25),  which  gives  regular  accounts  of  the  Missions  in  the 
country.  She  has  also  started  a  "  Fellowship  of  Faith  for  the  Moslems,"  which 
was  suggested  by  the  late  Mr.  Cleaver,  of  the  Egypt  General  Mission,  after  Dr. 
Z  wemer's  address  at  Keswick  in  July,  1915.  Mr.  Cleaver  died  soon  after,  and 
the  "  Leaders  "  of  the  "  Fellowship  "  are  Dr.  Zwemer  and  Bishop  Stileman. 

t  Mr.  Thornton's  accounts  of  his  visits  to  Upper  Egypt  appeared  in  the 
C.M.  Review  of  Aug.  and  Oct.,  1907.  See  also  Mr.  McNeile's  article  in  the 
Rev.  of  July,  1911.  At  a  meeting  in  the  Palace  at  Salisbury,  arranged  by 
the  late  Bishop  John  Wordsworth,  an  influential  Copt  expressed  much 
gratitude  for  the  C.M.S.  influence  on  his  Church.  A  pleasant  account  of 
Egypt  and  the  Missions,  by  Miss  M.  C.  Gollock  (who  spent  a  winter  there), 
is  published  by  the  C.M.S.—  River,  Sand,  and  Sun. 

I  Miss  Crowther  has  now  retired,  to  be  married,  after  nearly  twenty  years' 
service.  Mrs.  Bywater  has  lately  died. 


ii2       C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 


PART  II. 

Chap. 9. 

Islam  re 
established 
by  Britain. 


Moslem 
Converts. 


Bishop  of 
London  at 
Cairo. 


Conference 
at  Cairo. 


What  have  been  the  results  of  all  this  good  work  ?  We  cannot 
expect  in  a  Moslem  country  anything  like  mass  movements  as  in 
some  other  Missions.  Not  only  are  Moslems  everywhere  the 
hardest  of  non-Christians  to  influence,  hut  in  Egypt,  to  quote 
again  Canon  Oldfield's  phrase,  British  dominance  has  "  re 
established  "  Islam.  For  instance,  both  in  Egypt  and  in  the 
Sudan,  the  official  weekly  rest  day  is  Friday — quite  a  needless  con 
cession,  as  no  Moslem  objects  to  working  after  his  attendance  at 

mosque and  hard  upon  the  Coptic  Christians  who  have  to  work 

on  Sunday,  to  say  nothing  of  English  Christians  having  to  do  the 
same.  This  is  just  one  illustration  of  what  experience  shows 
to  be  a  mistaken  policy.  Due  respect  to  other  religions,  and 
complete  impartiality  in  the  treatment  of  their  votaries,  ought  not 
to  require  the  practical  abandonment  of  the  open  profession  of 
Christianity.  Egypt  is  now,  since  December,  1914,  a  British  Pro 
tectorate,  and  the  shadowy  suzerainty  of  Turkey  no  longer  exists. 
It  is  earnestly  to  be  hoped  that  the  new  regime  may  not  per 
petuate  the  old  system. 

Nevertheless,  there  has  been  year  by  year  a  succession  of 
individual  conversions,  and  because  they  are  relatively  few  they 
can  be  described  by  the  missionaries  more  in  detail  than  in  a 
Mission  where  hundreds  or  thousands  of  baptisms  take  place  every 
year.  In  this  respect  the  Egypt  Mission  resembles  the  C.M.S. 
older  Missions  in  their  earlier  stages,  when  individual  cases  were 
reported  and  published  at  great  length.  The  difference  is  that 
it  is  unsafe  to  give  details  of  conversions  of  Mohammedans,  on 
account  of  the  danger  they  would  cause  to  fresh  inquirers  even  in 
a  land  under  British  rule.  But  now  and  then  it  has  been  possible 
to  give  particulars,  as  in  the  case  of  a  son  of  a  sheikh  at  Jerusalem, 
who  was  converted  at  Cairo  in  1906,  and  avowed  his  faith  before 
Lord  Cromer  and  several  high  Egyptian  officials.  In  the  last 
year  of  our  period,  organized  and  persistent  efforts  were  made 
by  the  Moslems  of  Cairo  to  induce  the  converts  to  apostatize,  and 
to  the  sorrow  of  the  missionaries,  their  efforts  were  successful  in 
two  cases. 

The  Bishop  of  London,  when  he  was  in  Egypt,  met  all  the 
C.M.S.  workers  at  Cairo  for  a  service  of  prayer  in  the  mission 
hospital,  which  he  wrote  of  as  "  splendid,"  "  manned  by  three 
excellent  doctors  and  a  staff  of  nurses."  He  addressed  a  meeting 
of  2000  Copts  :  "  Never  shall  I  forget  it,  when  my  temperature 
was  101 ;  and  what  I  could  see  by  its  effect  to  be  a  splendid 
address  in  Arabic  by  Mr.  Gairdner." 

Of  course  Church  organization  is  premature  with  only  a  hand 
ful  of  converts,  but  a  Church  Committee  was  . formed  in  1908 ; 
and  in  1909  the  Christians,  and  others  from  neighbouring  countries, 
held  a  Conference  at  Cairo  for  the  promotion  of  spiritual  life  ; 
from  which  Conference  two  letters  were  written,  one  to  "  Fellow 
Moslem  Converts,"  and  the  other  to  "our  Moslem  brethren  in 
all  lands."  Mr.  Gairdner  wrote  in  1914,  "  We  are  trying  all  we 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS.-  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN.       113 

can  to  develop  our  tiny  Native  Church.  Definite  financial  schemes  *ART  u. 
are  put  before  it,  for  which  it  assumes  real  responsibility.  The  chLp_:9- 
subscriptions  (from  Orientals  only)  reached  £45  last  year." 

In  1906  an  important  Conference  of  missionaries  to  Moham 
medans,  and  others  specially  interested,  was  held  at  Cairo 
which  is  further  noticed  in  the  next  chapter.  In  1911  Dr' 
Mott  held  meetings  of  the  Student  Christian  Movement  in 
Cairo,  which  were  attended  by  2000  men— in  itself  a  proof  of 
the  stir  which  recent  years  have  shown  to  be  in  both  Moslem 
and  Coptic  minds.  A  branch  of  the  Student  Movement  was 
formed,  chiefly  of  course  among  the  Copts.  A  training  school 
has  been  established  for  missionaries  preparing  for  work  among 
Mohammedans,  at  which  the  Arabic  language  and  the  Koran  and 
other  Islamic  books  are  scientifically  studied.  Dr.  Zwemer  and 
Mr.  Gairdner  have  been  the  leaders  in  this  movement. 

The   vigorous  and  influential  American   Presbyterian   Mission  other 
continues   its    extensive    operations    in    Egypt ;    and    the    Egypt  Missioiis- 
General  Mission,  of  which  the  late  Mr.  Cleaver  was  the  excellent 
Secretary,  is  also  doing  good  work. 

Egypt  and  the  Eastern  Sudan  are  at  present,  as  already  indi 
cated,  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Anglican  Bishop  at  Jerusalem. 
Bishop  Blyth,  therefore,  exercised  episcopal  authority  over  the 
Mission  nearly  through  our  period,*  with  Bishop  Gwynne  as  his 
Suffragan  for  the  Sudan  from  1908.  His  resignation  and  death 
occurred  in  1914.  The  Society  rejoiced  much  at  the  appointment  Bishop 
as  his  successor  of  Mr.  Maclnnes,  who  was  consecrated  on  Maclnn<*- 
Oct.  28th  of  that  year,  a  ad  whose  fifteen  years  of  service  in  Egypt 
have  fitted  him  in  a  special  degree  for  the  responsibilities  of  one 
of  the  most  important  posts  in  the  Anglican  Communion.  The 
selection  of  Mr.  Maclnnes  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  was 
received  with  general  approval,  and  the  Bishop  of  London  preached 
the  sermon  at  his  consecration.  He  is  the  youngest  son  of  a  late 
well-known  friend  and  Vice-President  of  the  Society,  Mr.  Miles 
Maclnnes,  M.P. ;  his  brother  John  is  an  honorary  assistant 
secretary  in  Salisbury  Square;  and  his  wife  is  a  sister  of  two 
C.M.S.  missionaries,  the  Kev.  E.  S.  Carr  of  Tinnevelly  and  Dr. 
D.  W.  Carr  of  Persia.  One  of  the  new  Bishop's  first  acts  was 
to  confer  on  his  colleague,  Mr.  Gairdner,  the  canonry  of  St. 
George's  Collegiate  Church,  Jerusalem,  which  was  vacated  by 
his  own  consecration  as  bishop. 

It  is  particularly  satisfactory  that  Bishop  Maclnnes  is  on  very  Coptic 
friendly  terms  with  the  Coptic  Church  in  Egypt.     There  is  much  Ci 
that  is  lacking  in  that  representative  of  ancient  Christendom.    The 
Bishop  of  London,  in  his  Diocesan  Magazine,  wrote  of  its  members 
as  having  "a  very  nominal  Christian  life,"  and  as  "  looked  after 
(or  neglected,  as  the  case  may  be)  by  an  often  ignorant  and  ill- 
educated  priesthood."     But  it  never  was  the  C.M.S.  policy,  in  the 
old  Egypt  Mission  ninety  years  ago,  to  encourage  them  to  join  the 
*  See  further,  p.  128. 


ii4      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  EGYPT  AND  THE  SUDAN. 

PAET  ii.  Anglican  Church  ;  rather,  to  help  them  in  their  spiritual  life  by 
Chap.  9.  Scripturai  teaching,  in  the  hope  that  gradually  a  new  spirit  might 
be  manifested  in  their  own  Church.  Bishop  Maclnnes,  in  an  address 
after  his  consecration  to  the  Council  of  the  "  Jerusalem  and  the 
East  Mission "  (which  Bishop  Blyth  had  formed),  said  that  if 
Coptic  Christians  applied  for  admission  to  the  English  Church, 
the  reply  was,  "  No ;  we  will  do  all  we  can  for  you,  but  we  must 
ask  you  officially  to  become  full  members  of  your  own  Church  by 
being  received  as  communicants,  attending  the  services,  and  doing 
all  you  can  to  bring  about  necessary  reforms,  while  at  the  same 
time  getting  whatever  spiritual  strength  and  advice  you  can 
from  us." 

The  purpose  of  the  C.M.S.  Egypt  Mission  is  the  evangelization 
of  the  Moslems ;  and  this  is  another  reason  for  not  seeking 
Coptic  proselytes.  It  is  a  grievous  consequence  of  centuries  of 
oppression  that  converts  from  Islam  and  members  of  the  old 
Churches  do  not  fraternize ;  and  a  Coptic  section  in  the  Mission 
Church  might  tend  to  discourage  Mohammedan  inquirers. 

But  the  "policy  thus  indicated  makes  it  easier  to  work  for  the 
spiritual  uplift  of  the  Copts;  and  Bishop  Maclnnes  has  been 
warmly  welcomed  by  their  Patriarch,  and  also  by  the  Armenian 
Archbishop  in  Egypt.  Douglas  Thornton  would  have  rejoiced  at 
AtD.M.  this.  When  dying  he  expressed  a  wish  to  be  as  much  identified 
'"  with  the  Egyptian  Christians  in  his  burial  as  possible.  At  his 
funeral,  "his  oldest  fellow-worker  in  Egypt,  Nikola  Effendi 
Gabriel,  read  the  Psalm  ;  and  the  Lesson  was  read  by  Bulus 
Effendi  Gabriel,  his  Coptic  friend,  and  the  delegate  of  the  Coptic 
Society  of  Eaith,  in  which  he  had  taken  an  exceptional  interest. 
At  the  grave,  Sheikh  Skandar  Abd-el-Masih,  the  first  convert 
from  Islam  baptized  by  Mr.  Thornton,  read  the  prayers  before  the 
committal ;  and  Khaleel  Effendi  Tadrus,  catechist  in  Old  Cairo, 
read  the  closing  prayers.  Then  four  of  his  friends  gave  touching 
tributes  at  the  grave-side;  one,  the  Eight  Eev.  the  Metran  of 
Keneh,  who  specially  represented  the  Patriarch.  In  the  waning 
light  of  the  evening,  his  friend  and  companion,  the  Eev.  W.  H.  T. 
Gairdner,  gave  the  blessing." 

On  the  effect  of  the  War  on  the  Mission,  see  the  Appendix, 


CHAPTEK  x. 
ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS. 

Books  on  Islam— Cairo  and  Lucknow  Conferences— S.C.M.  at  Constan 
tinople—Moslem  Population  of  the  World— Raymund  Lull,  Henry 
Martyn,  &c.— C.M.S.  and  other  Missions— Keith  Falconer,  Bishop 
French,  the  Zwemers,  Pfander  -Malays  and  Afghans -Moslem 
Efforts  in  England. 

]T  is  not  within  the  plan  of  this  book  to  enlarge  upon    PART  it. 
non-Christian  religions;  not,  therefore,  necessary  to    ch^- 10- 
introduce  a  chapter  on  Mohammedanism  before  giving 
a  brief  notice  of    Missions  to    Mohammedans.     The 
books    for   students  rightly  do  this,  and  all    that  is  Books  on 
needed  here  is  to  mention  a  few  of  them  to  which  the  ordinary  Islam' 
reader  may  be  referred.     The  two  recent  works  most  convenient 
and  suitable  for  that  purpose  are  Islam  :  A  Challenge  to  Faith,  by 
Dr.  Zwemer,  and  The  Reproach  of  Islam,  by  the  Eev.  W.  H.  T. 
Gairdner ;  the  former  published  by  the  Student  Volunteer  Move 
ment  in  America,  but  easily  obtainable  in  England  ;  and  the  latter 
by  the  British  Missionary  Societies  jointly,  including  the  C.M.S. 
Both  writers  are  experts  on  the  subject.     Dr.  Zwemer  has  been  a 
missionary  at  Muscat  in  Arabia,  and  is  well  known  as  one  of  our 
highest  authorities  on  all  subjects  connected  with  Mohammedanism. 
Mr.  Gairdner  is  the  C.M.S.  missionary  in  Egypt  before  mentioned, 
and   the  author  of  Edinburgh,  1920,  the  brilliant  account  of  the 
World    Missionary   Conference.     Both   books   are  excellent :  Dr. 
Z  wemer's  the  fuller  and  more  complete ;  Mr.  Gairdner's  marked 
by  rare  eloquence  and  "the  art  of  putting  things."     In  the  former, 
the  chapters  are  on  (1)  The  Origin  and  Sources  of  Islam,  (2)  Its 
Prophet,  (3)  Its  Spread,  (4)  Its  Creed,  (5)  Its  Practice,  (6)  Its 
Ethics,  (7)  Its    Divisions,  (8)  Present  Condition  of  the  Moslem 
World,  (9-12),  the  Missions,  &c.     In  the  latter  the  chapters  are 
(1)  Extent  of  Islam,  (2)  Whence  came  it  ?     (3)  How  came  it  ? 
(4)  What  is  it  ?     (5)  How  works  it  ?     (6-8)  How  save  it  ?    Men 
tion  should  also  be  made  of  The  Faith  of  Islam,  by  Canon  Sell, 
C.M.S.,   Madras,  a  standard  and  valuable   book;*   Dr.  St.  Clair 
Tisdall's   Religion  of  the  Crescent ;    Sir  W.  Muir's  (short)  Life  of 
Mohammed;  Dr.  Zwemer's  Arabia,  the  Cradle  of  Islam ;  and  the 

*  Also  Canon  Sell's  Religious  Orders  of  Islam,  and  Outlines  of  Islam. 


ii6  ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS. 

PART  ii  Rev.  W.  A.  Bice's  Crusaders  of  the  Twentieth  Century.  But  those 
chap.  10.  who  desire  to  keep  in  touch  with  the  whole  Mohammedan  ques 
tion,  and  with  the  current  history  of  Missions  to  Mohammedans 
should  by  all  means  read  The  Moslem  World,  a  quarterly  periodical 
edited  by  Dr.  Zwemer.  In  the  principal  missionary  periodicals 
also  there  are  from  time  to  time  valuable  articles  on  various 
branches  of  the  subject.  In  the  International  Review  of  Missions, 
for  instance,  there  was  in  1912-13  an  important  series  on  the 
Vital  Forces  of  Christianity  and  Islam,  by  seven  high  authorities, 
viz.,  Mr.  Gairdner,  of  Egypt;  Dr.  Shedd,  of  the  American 
Presbyterian  Mission  in  Persia;  Professor  Stewart  Crawford,  of 
the  Syrian  Protestant  College,  Beirut;  Pastor  Gottfried  Simon, 
missionary  in  Sumatra;  Professor  Siraj-ud-Din,  of  the  Forman 
College,  Lahore,  himself  a  convert  from  Islam  ;  Canon  Dale,  of  the 
U.M.O.A.,  Zanzibar;  and  Dr.  Duncan  Macdonald,  Professor  at 
Hartford  Theological  Seminary.  These  have  since  been  published 
in  a  small  volume.*  Some  other  articles  in  periodicals  are 
mentioned  in  a  note  below.t 

Edinburgh        The    Chapters   on    Islam    in   Vol.    IV.    of    the    '  Edinburgh 
Siam.tC      Reports,  prepared  for  the  Commission  on  "the  Missionary  Mes 
sage  in  Eolation  to  non-Christian  Religions,"  by  Professor  Cairns, 
are   among   the  ablest   in  that  remarkable  volume.     Presenting 

*  Edited  by  Dr.  Zwemer.  Oxford  Univ.  Press.  It  was  reviewed  by  Bishop 
Lefroy  of  Calcutta  in  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  April,  1915. 

f  In  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss.  .-—Islam  in  the  Sudan,  by  Prof.  Westermann  of 
Berlin  Oct.,  1912  and  July,  1913.  The  Balkan  War  and  Christian  Work 
among  Moslems,  by  Dr.  Bliss  of  Beirut,  Oct.,  1913.  The  Present  Attitude  of 
Educated  Moslems  towards  Christ  and  the  Scriptures,  by  Dr.  Zwemer, 

In  The  'East  and  The  West : — The  Cross  and  the  Crescent  in  the  Balkans, 
by  Dr.  C.  R.  D.  Biggs,  Jan.,  1913.  New  Light  on  Islam,  by  Prof.  D.  S. 
Margoliouth,  April,  1913.  Mohammedanism  in  Malaya,  by  a  doctor  there. 

In  the  CM.  Review.  Moslem  and  Christian  Views  of  God  :  An  Imaginary 
Dialogue,  by  W.  H.  T.  Gairdner,  March  and  May,  1909.  (Most  interesting.) 
The  Social  Condition  of  Women  in  Moslem  Lands,  by  Dr.  Emmeline  Stuart, 
Auo-.,  1909.  The  Moral  Condition  of  Moslem  Lands,  by  Dr.  Walter  Miller, 
Nov.',  1909.  Islam  and  Christianity  in  Relation  to  Missionary  Effort,  by  the 
Rev  C.  T.  Wilson,  June,  1911.  The  Koran  and  the  Scriptures,  by  the  Rev. 
A.  E.  Day,  Sept.,  1914.  Turkey  and  Islam,  by  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  Dec.,  1914. 
The  Church's  Obligation  to  Islam,  by  Missions-Direktor  Axenfeld  of  Berlin, 
Dec.,  1914.  The  Moslem  World,  by  Rev.  J.  H.  Linton,  Feb.,  1915.  Also  in 
this  '  Review  (June,  1910)  was  printed  Bishop  Knox  of  Manchester's  powerful 
C.M.S.  Sermon  at  St.  Bride's  on  the  Crisis  of  Christianity  and  Islam ;  also 
(June,' 1914)  Bishop  Lefroy 's  admirable  speech  on  Missions  to  Moslems  at 
the  C.M.S.  Annual  Meeting. 

In  the  Moslem  World  .-—Islam  not  a  Stepping  Stone  to  Christianity,  by 
Bishop  Peel,  Oct.,  1911.  C.M.S.  Missions  to  Mohammedans,  by  the  Author  of 
this  History,  April,  1912.  Islam  in  the  Sudan,  by  W.  I.  W.  Roome,  April  and 

UALso,  in  Vol.  V.  of  the  Pan-Anglican  Reports  there  are  some  valuable 
papers';  particularly  by  Professor  Margoliouth  (marked  S.D.  4  (g)),  the  Rev.  W. 
H.  T.  Gairdner  (S.D.  4  (h)),  Dr.  Tisdall  (p.  170),  and  the  Rev.  F.  Baylis  (p.  183). 
Mr.  Baylis's  paper  is  particularly  important  on  the  relations  between  Islam 
and  the  Eastern  Churches. 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS.  117 

the  evidence  collected  from  missionaries  in  all  parts  of  the  PARTTT 
Mohammedan  world,  Dr.  Cairns,  in  pp.  122-155,  summarizes  it  chap.  10'. 
in  a  masterly  way,  and  concludes  that  "  it  can  be  only  by  helping 
men  to  realize  the  depth  of  their  need  that  the  missionary  can 
prepare  men  for  a  recognition  of  the  greatness  of  grace."  In 
cidentally  he  remarks  that  "  there  seems  to  be  much  less  theolo 
gical  unrest  among  missionaries  in  Moslem  lands  than  among 
ministers  at  home  ;  and  their  practical  view  of  the  need  of  adapt 
ing  the  Gospel  to  the  mind  of  the  East  is  much  less  drastic  than 
the  theoretical  view  of  scholars  at  home."  Then,  under  "  General 
Conclusions"  (p.  214),  he  points  out  the  parallels  between  the 
work  of  Missions  to-day  and  that  of  the  Apostolic  Age ;  and  as 
regards  Islam,  that  our  conflict  is  much  the  same  as  that  of  the 
Apostolic  period  with  Judaism,  "  which  was  essentially  legalistic 
in  its  whole  conception  of  the  relations  between  God  and  man." 
This  he  draws  out  very  clearly  (pp.  236-244) ;  and  while  paying 
all  due  respect  to  Moslem  monotheism,  he  gathers  from  "  the 
entire  mass  of  evidence  from  all  the  fields  "  the  "  vital  necessity  " 
of  the  great  truth  that  Christ  is  "God  manifest  in  the  flesh." 
"  Everywhere  this  is  what  arouses  opposition,  but  everywhere  it  is 
what  wins  men."" 

But   perhaps  of   all   recent   utterances   on   the   Mohammedan  Dr.  zwemer 
Problem  the  most  impressive  was  Dr.  Zwemer's  address  at  the  at  Keswick- 
last  Keswick  Convention  (1915).    One  may  boldly  say,  not  merely 
that  it  appeals  to  missionary  circles,  but  that  even/  fint/lisbman 
should  read  it* 

Two  important  Conferences  on  Missions  to  Mohammedans  have  cairn  and 
been  held  in  recent  years,  one  at  Cairo  in  1907,  and  the  other  at  con\vr-w 
Lucknow  in  1911.  Sixty-two  missionaries  attended  at  Cairo,  en«i>s- 
representing  twenty-nine  different  Societies,  some  coming  from 
long  distances ;  and  others  sent  papers  to  be  read.  Among  the 
C.M.S.  men  contributing  were  Dr.  Weitbrecht  and  Mr.  Goldsmith 
of  India,  Mr.  Walshe  of  China,  Dr.  Miller  of  Africa,  Dr.  Tisdall 
of  Persia,  and  of  course  the  missionaries  in  Egypt  and  Palestine. 
There  were  180  delegates  (besides  visitors)  at  the  Lucknow  Con 
ference,  which  was  naturally  attended  largely  by  missionaries  in 
India ;  but  it  was  world-wide  in  its  outlook.  Dr.  Zwemer  was 
chairman,  and  among  the  speakers  were  Bishop  G.  H.  Westcott 
of  Lucknow  and  Bishop  Lefroy  of  Lahore.  Important  papers  by 
women  were  a  feature,  among  them  Dr.  Emmeline  Stuart  of 
Persia,  Miss  Cay  of  Egypt,  Miss  Trotter  of  Algiers,  Miss  de 
Sehncourt  (now  Principal  of  Westfield  College),  Miss  A.  Van 
Sommer,  and  several  American  ladies.  A  Eussian  lady  from 
Moscow  was  a  speaker.  There  was  an  Egyptian  delegate,  Mitri 

*  To  be  had  of  Mr.  Oliver,  Secretary,  Nile  Mission  Press,  16,  Southfield 
Road,  Tunbridge  Wells  ;  50  copies  for  2s.  Gd.  Since  the  above  was  written, 
Dr.  Zweraer's  new  work,  Mohammed  or  Christ,  has  appeared,  an  admirable 
book  on  the  activities  of  Islam  all  oyer  the  world  and  the  importance  of 
counter-acting  then;. 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMRDAN  MISSIONS. 


PART  II. 
Chap.  10. 

Student 
Confer 
ence  at 
Constanti 
nople. 


Moslem 
Population 
of  the 
World. 


Christen 
dom  and 
the 
Moslems. 


Raymnnd 


Effendi,  and  several  Indians,  including  Canon  Ali  Bakhsh.     Both 
the  Reports  are  mines  of  valuable  information.* 

Another  Conference  of  great  interest  was  that  of  the  Student 
Movement  held  at  Constantinople  in  1911,  at  a  time  when  it  was 
hoped  that  the  Young  Turk  party,  which  had  gained  chief  power, 
would  prove  to  be  an  instrument  of  reform  and  revival.  That 
hope,  it  is  needless  to  say,  came  to  nothing.  But  the  Report  of 
the  Conference  is  a  valuable  book,f  and  shows  how  great  are  the 
possibilities  of  the  Near  East  whenever  the  Turk  is  out  of  the 
way. 

Various  estimates  have  been  made  of  the  Mohammedan  popu 
lation  of  the  world.  They  vary  from  175  millions  to  300  millions. 
Dr.  Zwemer  and  Mr.  Gairdner  both  accept  (the  former  with  a 
slight  alteration)  an  estimate  made  for  the  Cairo  Conference  of 
1907,  which  was  midway  between  the  two  extremes,  just  under 
223  millions.  Of  these  it  was  estimated  that  no  less  than  161 
millions  were  under  Christian  rule,  Great  Britain  having  63J 
millions  in  Asia  and  nearly  18  millions  in  Africa.  Under  Moslem 
rule,  Turkey,  Persia,  Arabia,  &c.,  38  millions;  and  under  other 
non-Christian  rule,  24  millions,  the  bulk  in  China.  But  Turkey's 
recent  losses  in  Europe  and  Africa  would  alter  some  of  the  figures, 
increasing  the  number  under  Christian  rule.  A  later  estimate  by 
Dr.  Zwemer  and  Prof.  Westermann  gives  a  total  of  201,300,000, 
of  whom  167,000,000  are  under  Christian  rule,  leaving  only  34 
millions  under  Moslem  or  other  non-Christian  rule.  The  one 
great  field  where  Islam  is  advancing  seriously  is  Africa,  as  before 
stated ;  but  it  is  also  extending  in  China,  though  the  Cairo  estimate 
of  20  millions  is  probably  excessive  ;  and  even  in  Japan  there  are 
Moslem  missionaries. 

The  Mohammedan  World  has  been,  until  recent  years,  much 
neglected  by  the  missionary  societies,  indeed  by  the  whole 
Christian  Church.  The  Crusades  were  an  enterprise  of  splendid 
enthusiasm,  but  their  object  was  the  liberation  of  the  Holy  Land 
from  Moslem  domination,  not  the  conversion  of  the  Moslems. 
Raymund  Lull,  the  one  great  missionary  to  them  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  rightly  expressed  the  true  spirit  and  method  in  his  memor 
able  words,  "  The  Holy  Land  can  be  won  in  no  other  way  than 
as  Thou,  O  Lord  Christ,  and  Thy  Apostles  won  it,  by  love,  by 
prayer,  by  shedding  of  tears  and  blood."  J  He  was  martyred  in 

*  The  Cairo  Report  is  entitled  The  Mohammedan  World  of  To-Day,  and  the 
Lucknow  Report  Islam  and  Missions,  both  published  by  Fleming  Revell. 
Accounts  of  both  Conferences  appeared  in  the  CM.  Review,  the  Cairo  one 
by  Dr.  Tisdall  in  April,  1907,  and  the  Lucknow  one  by  Dr.  Weitbrecht  in 
April,  1911. 

t  Published  by  the  World's  Student  Christian  Federation. 

t  Dr.  Zwemer's  book  on  Raymund  Lull  is  the  best  popular  account  of  him. 
See  also  the  same  writer's  article  on  him  in  the  CM.  Review,  June,  1915  ;  Dr, 
Weitbrecht's  in  The  East  and  The  West,  and  Dr.  Barber's  in  the  Int.  Rev. 
Miss  ,  both  in  July,  1915  ;  all  in  commemoration  of  the  sixth  centenary  of  his 
martyrdom.  Dr.  Barber  has  also  published  a  book  entitled  Raymund  Lull 
the  Illuminated  Doctor. 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS. 


119 


1315,  just  600  years  ago,  and  he  bad  no  successor,  though  the    FARTII. 
Franciscans  made  some  efforts  to  carry  the  Gospel  to  the  East.    <;I»M>.  10. 
Francis  Xavier  proclaimed   Christ   at   the   Court  of   the   Mogul  Francis 
Emperors  Akbar  and  Jahangir,  and  wrote  a  book  for  the  Moslems  Xavier- 
there,  entitled,  A  Mirror  for  Showing  the  Truth;  but  his  work  was 
mostly  among  the  Tamils  of  South  India.     And  then  we  have  to 
leap  over  two  centuries  and  a  half,  and  come  to  Henry  Martyn,  Henry 
"  Saint  and  Scholar,  First  Modern  Missionary  to  Mohammedans,"  Mart>yn- 
as  Dr.  George  Smith  well  calls  him  in  the  title  to  his  fascinating 
biography, — the  centenary  of  whose  death  we  commemorated  in 
1912.*     Martyn  was  not  only  the  first  to  witness  for  Christ  in 
modern  times  in  Persia,  but  was  the  instrument  in  India  of  the 
conversion  of  Abdul    Masih,  the  influential  Mohammedan  after 
wards  ordained  by  Bishop  Heber ;  and  Abdul  Masih  was  in  fact  Abdul 
the  first  C.M.S.  missionary  in  India,  for  he  was  supported  at  Agra  Masilu 
by  a  grant  from  the  C.M.S.  before  any  white  missionary  had  been 
sent  by  the  Society.^ 

But  the  C.M.S.  had  thought  of  the  Mohammedans  before  that.  C.M.S.  and 
In  its  very  first  year  the  Committee  reported  inquiries  about 
"  Persia,  and  the  Arabic-speaking  peoples  of  the  East."  And  in 
1815,  the  year  of  Waterloo,  just  a  century  ago,  they  commis 
sioned  a  Fellow  of  St.  John's,  Cambridge,  W.  Jowett,  to  visit  the 
East  and  inquire  into  the  condition  of  the  Oriental  Churches,  with 
the  definite  ulterior  view  of  carrying  the  Divine  Message  to  the 
Moslems.  This  object,  they  thought,  could  be  best  attained 
through  a  revival  of  the  Eastern  Churches,  which  ought  to  have 
done  that  work,  but  had  not  done  it.  Good  influence  was  gained 
in  many  places,  but  the  Churches  as  a  whole  refused  to  awake  to 
their  responsibility.  Mr.  Gairdner,  in  Tlw  Reproach  of  Mam, 
speaks  of  these  Eastern  Churches  as  "  communities  of  Christians 
scattered  like  islands  in  the  sea  of  surrounding  Islam,"  "  eloquent 
only  of  the  coming  in  of  Islam  as  a  flood."  J  In  after  years,  how 
ever,  certain  of  their  members,  attracted  by  the  purer  Gospel 
brought  to  them  from  the  West,  attached  themselves  to  the 
Anglican  Church,  and  from  among  these  most  of  the  native  agents 
now  employed  in  Egypt  and  Palestine  have  been  obtained.  The 
great  Missions  of  the  American  Board  (Congregationalist)  and  the  American 
American  Presbyterians,  in  Turkey,  Syria,  Egypt,  and  Persia, 
have  been  carried  on  with  the  same  general  object,  but  with  more 
definite  efforts  in  forming  Protestant  congregations.  They  have, 
however,  made  a  fair  number  also  of  converts  from  Islam. §  The 
direct  attempts  of  the  C.M.S.  to  reach  the  Moslems  in  the  Near  nopie. 

*  See  Bishop  Stileman's  Sermon  at  Trinity  Church,  Cambridge,  Oct.  IGth, 
1912,  in  C.M.  Rev.,  Dec.,  1912. 

t  See  Hist.  C.M.S.,  Vol.  I.,  p.  183. 

j  An  excellent  brief  account  of  these  Churches,  Greek,  Armenian,  Jacobite, 
Copt,  &c.,  by  the  Rev.  F.  Baylis,  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Ilevicw  of  Jan.  and 
Feb.,  1910. 

§  The  chief  authority  on  these  and  other  Missions  in  the  Near  East  is 
Dr.  Julius  Richter's  able  book. 


120 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS. 


PAKT  II. 
Chap. 10. 


New  C.M.S 
Missions. 


Other 

Missions. 


Ion  Keith- 
Falconer. 


Bishop 
French. 


The 

Zwemers. 


C.M.S.  in 
India. 


Pfander. 


East  began  with  a  Mission  at  Constantinople  in  1856,  after  the 
Crimean  War;  two  remarkable  German  missionaries,  Koelle  (who 
had  been  in  West  Africa)  and  Pfander  (from  India)  being  sent 
there.  Several  Turks  were  brought  to  Christ  and  baptized,  but 
after  eight  years  the  Sultan  suppressed  the  Mission  and  (it  was 
believed)  made  away  with  the  converts.  The  Society's  modern 
Egypt  Mission  dates  from  the  British  occupation  in  1882,  and  the 
Turkish  Arabia  Mission  from  the  same  year.  Persia  had  been 
visited  by  Dr.  Bruce  in  1869,  and  his  mission  adopted  in  1875.* 

Besides  these  C.M.S.  efforts,  the  North  Africa  Mission,  the  Egypt 
General  Mission,  and  several  smaller  associations,  are  working 
also  in  these  countries  on  undenominational  lines ;  and  the  London 
Jews  Society  has  important  and  fruitful  work  of  its  own  in  Pales 
tine,  Persia,  and  North  Africa.  In  Arabia,  the  Free  Church  of 
Scotland  Mission  at  Aden  was  founded  by  that  brilliant  young 
Cambridge  Professor,  Ion  Keith-Falconer,  in  1885,  in  response  to 
a  call  from  General  Haig,  who  had  travelled  about  seeking  for 
openings;  and  the  C.M.S.  left  that  field,  which  it. had  temporarily 
entered  on,  transferring  its  missionary,  Dr.  Harpur,  to  Egypt. 
Keith-Falconer  died  in  less  than  two  years,  but  his  work  is  still 
carried  on.  Then  came  the  heroic  Bishop  French,  who,  having 
resigned  the  bishopric  of  Lahore,  resolved  to  devote  the  rest  of  his 
life  to  evangelizing  the  Moslems  of  Western  Asia  ;  but  within  a 
few  months  he  died  at  Muscat  in  Arabia. f  The  mantle  dropped 
by  him  was  taken  up  by  the  two  Zwemers  and  other  missionaries 
of  the  American  (Dutch)  Reformed  Church,  and  their  Mission  is 
carried  on  to  this  day.  Peter  Zwemer  died  early,  but  Samuel  may 
now  be  regarded  as  the  most  prominent  leader  in  Christian  effort 
among  the  Moslems.  His  wife  was  an  Australian  missionary  of 
the  C.M.S.  at  Baghdad.  Eaymund  Lull,  Henry  Martyn,  Pfander, 
Bruce,  French,  Keith-Falconer,  Zwemer,  are  a  noble  succession 
indeed.  Two  only  of  them  came  home  to  die.  Lull,  Martyn, 
French,  Keith-Falconer,  P.  Zwemer,  passed  to  their  reward  from 
the  midst  of  the  people  they  sought  to  save. 

In  India  also  the  C.M.S.  Missions  to  Mohammedans  have  been 
the  most  conspicuous,  especially  along  the  Afghan  Frontier.  In 
the  Punjab,  which  is  largely  Moslem,  the  American  Presbyterian 
Mission  at  Lahore  was  first,  and  it  joined  in  the  original  invitations 
from  the  great  Christian  representatives  of  British  rule,  Henry 
and  John  Lawrence  and  others,  to  the  C.M.S.  to  join  in  the 
enterprise  (1852).  At  Agra,  as  already  mentioned,  Abdul  Masih 
had  been  preaching  forty  years  earlier;  also  Pfander  (originally 
sent  by  the  P>asle  Mission  to  Persia,  and  thence  expelled  when 


*  Full  accounts  of  these  and  other  enterprises  in  the  Mohammedan  East 
will  be  found  in  the  History  of  C.M.S.,  chaps.  17,  24,  41,  75,  94,  104. 

t  The  Biography  of  Bishop  French,  by  the  Rev.  H.  A.  Birks,  is  a  valuable 
work,  now  out  of  print,  but  to  be  found  in  many  libraries.  A  short  sketch  of 
his  career,  entitled  An  Heroic  Bishop,  by  the  present  writer,  is  published  by 
Hodder  and  Stoughtou. 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS.  \  2 1 

Eussia  conquered   the  north-western   province),   who   joined  the    PARTII. 
C.M.S.  in  India,  and  proved  to  be  indisputably  one  of  the  greatest   ChaP- 1Q' 
of  missionaries  to  Mohammedans.     He  preached  in  Delhi,  which 
afterwards  became  an  S.P.G.  station,  and  is  now  the  centre  of  the 
important    Cambridge   and    S.P.G.    Delhi    Mission,   which   works 
largely  among  Mohammedans  as  well  as  Hindus.     At  Lucknow, 
too,  and  at  Calcutta  and  Bombay  and  Madras  and  Haidarabad,  the 
C.M.S.  seeks  the  evangelization  of  the  Moslems ;  and  in  Ceylon. 
But  all  these  Missions  will  come  further  under  our  notice  in  the 
chapters  on  India. 

In  Africa  the  C.M.S.  and  many  other  Societies  are  face  to  face 
with  advancing  Islam.  This  work  has  already  been  enlarged 
upon. 

But  perhaps  the  most  successful  of  all  Missions  to  Moslems  are  other 
those  in  the  Malay  Islands,  Sumatra  and  Java,'""  chiefly  of  the  Missions- 
Ehenish  Missionary  Society,  which  has  there  200  missionaries  and 
about  100,000  converts.  Some  of  the^se  have  been  won  from 
Paganism,  but  the  majority  from  Islam.  In  the  north-western 
provinces  of  China,  also,  the  China  Inland  Mission  and  other 
Societies  have  enrolled  Moslem  converts  ;  and  in  Central  Asia, 
under  both  Chinese  and  Eussian  governments,  German  and 
Swedish  missionaries  are  at  work.  The  Eusso-Greek  Church,  too, 
is  stated  to  have  worked  zealously  for  the  conversion  of  the 
Mohammedans  of  Turkestan. 

Afghanistan  is  the  most  wholly  closed  of  Moslem  lands.     Per-  The 
haps  the  Providence  of  God  will  open  the  door  when  we  are  ready  Af*hans- 
to  enter  in.      Meanwhile   the   C.M.S.  Missions   on   the    Frontier 
have    baptized  noble   Afghans,   the  firstfruits  of  a  vigorous  race 
which    should    give    a   worthy   and  welcome    contingent    to   the 
Church  of  God.     Even  where  the  living  preacher  cannot  enter, 
the  written  Word  of  God  finds  its  way ;  and  the  Christian  hospital 
on    the    borders  receives  its   patients  from   the  closed  territories 
beyond,  and  sends  them  back  with  healed  bodies  and  with  hearts 
at  least  touched  by  the  sympathy  of  the  servants  of  Jesus  Christ. 

But  "  Mohammedan  Missions  "  may  mean  Missions  of  as  well  Moslem 
as^  lo   Mohammedans.      We    have   seen  the  activity   of    Moslem  cSrlsten-" 
missionaries  in  Africa.    They  are  to  be  met  with  in  many  countries  dom. 
in  Asia.    They  have  even  come  to  Europe,  and  boast  of  their  success 
in  England  itself.     A  word  or  two  must  be  added  on  this  point,  as 
very  curious  mis-statements  are  current  among  Mohammedans  in 
India  and  elsewhere. 

Some  five  and  twenty  years  ago  it  was  reported  by  native  news 
papers  in  the  Punjab  that  several  hundred  Englishmen,  with  a 
bishop  at  their  head,  had  embraced  Islam  at  Liverpool.     In  1891 
Dr.  Weitbrecht  went  to  Liverpool  to  inquire  about  it,  and  Dr.  At 
Martyn  Clark  made  further  inquiries.     The  results  were  published  L; 
at  Calcutta,  and  their  appearance  led  the  principal  Mohammedan 
leaders  to  disavow  the  transactions  reported.     It  appears  that  a 
*  See  article  on  "  Islam  and  Animism,"  C.  M.  Rev.,  May,  1913. 


PATITTI. 
Chap. 10. 


At  Wofcing 


Bishop 

Lefroy's 

Argument 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS. 

solicitor  named  Quilliam,  who  professed  to  have  embraced  Islam, 
had  taken  a  small  house  in  Liverpool,  held  services  in  it  on 
Fridays,  and  claimed  to  have  thirty  adherents.  Some  time  after 
wards  Mr.  Quilliam  disappeared,  and  nothing  more  was  heard  of 
the  matter.  But  in  1911,  an  American  missionary  magazine  stated 
that  there  was  "  a  beautiful  mosque"  at  Liverpool,  with  «•  schools, 
library,  museum,  book  store,  hall  for  lectures,  and  hospital,"  and 
that  1000  persons  had  joined,  who  were  now  giving  their  children 
Turkish  or  Arabic  names.  The  Eev.  J.  R  Hewitt,  of  the  C.M.S. 
Bengal  Mission,  went  to  see  the  "mosque,"  and  with  great 
difficulty  found  the  place.  "  I  don't  know  about  a  mosque,"  said 
a  policeman,  "  but  there  is  a  house  where  Quilliam  used  to  hold 
meetings  before  he  went  away.  I  used  to  see  the  old  man  go  in 
and  out.  I  never  saw  more  than  eight  people  go  in  for  a  meeting." 
He  showed  Mr.  Hewitt  the  house,  "  empty  and  dirty,  with  broken 
windows,"  "  rateable  value  £30  at  the  most."  There  was  a  small 
notice-board,  "  with  a  tin^  crescent  affixed  to  each  corner."  So 
much  for  Islam  at  Liverpool ! 

.  But  there  is  one  real  mosque  in  England,  near  Woking,  built  by 
Dr.  Leitner,  formerly  Principal  of  the  Oriental  College  at  Lahore, 
for  the  use  of  Moslem  students  in  London,  but  now  used,  with  the 
house  adjoining,  as  the  headquarters  of  a  new  Moslem  Mission  to 
the  English,  headed  by  an  Indian  pleader,  Khwaja  Kamal-ud-Din. 
There  is  a  monthly  periodical,  Muslim,  India  and  Islamic  Review, 
and  meetings  are  held  at  various  places  from  time  to  time.  Much 
is  naturally  made  of  the  recent  profession  of  Islam  by  an  Irish 
Peer,  Lord  Headley,  who  was  previously  a  Deist.  It  is  quite 
possible  that  some  of  the  maoy  people  who  want  a  religion  but 
will  do  anything  rather  than  submit  to  the  just  claims  of  Him  Who 
died  for  them,  will  be  beguiled  into  Mohammedanism.  But  will 
they  find  holiness  in  it  ?  or  purity  ?  or  peace  ?  * 

This  chapter  cannot  be  closed  more  significantly  than  by 
extracting  from  Bishop  Lefroy's  speech  at  the  C.M.S.  Annual 
Meeting  in  1914  the  following  story  :— 

"  I  was  visiting  an  outlying  part  of  the  Lahore  diocese  which 
can  only  be  reached  after  five  days'  riding,  while  the  best  means 
of  transport  was  on  camels,  and  as  I  rode  along  I  had  a  good  deal 
of  conversation  with  the  Mohammedan  driver  of  the  camel,  who 
was  seated  in  front  of  me.  One  day  he  turned  round  and  quite 
spontaneously  said  to  me  :  '  Sahib,  why  do  our  teachers  call  the 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  the  living  Apostle  ?  '  I  said,  <  Why,  they  call 
Him  that  because  in  that  particular  respect  they  have  got  hold  of 
the  real  truth  and  are  bound  to  teach  it.'  Then  I  spoke  of  the 
crucifixion  of  our  Lord,  His  resurrection,  and  His  ever-living 
presence  in  heaven.  After  that  I  said,  '  What  about  your  prophet 
Mohammed  ?  Is  he  alive  or  dead  ?  '  Of  course  the  man  replied  he 
was  dead.  '  Do  you  know  where  his  grave  is?'  I  asked,  and  he 

*  The  above  particulars  are  from  the  Moslem  World,  July,  1911,  and  April, 
1914.  In  the  latter  number  Dr.  Weitbrecht  tells  much  about  the  new  Mission. 


ISLAM  AND  MOHAMMEDAN  MISSIONS.  123 

answered,  '  Yes,  it  is  in  Medina.'  I  asked  him  also  whether  PART  IT. 
he  knew  a  further  fact,  and  found  that  he  did  not,  namely,  that  Chapj.o". 
alongside  that  tomb  of  Mohammed  there  is  reserved  to  this  day  an 
empty  space, — that  space  is  for  another  grave,  and  according  to 
Mohammedan  legend  that  grave  will  be  occupied  by  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  when  He  comes  again  to  the  world,  as  they  them 
selves  believe  He  will,  in  preparation  for  the  last  Judgment.  We 
are  not  concerned  with  that  futile  legend  that  Christ  will  be  buried 
there,  but  surely  the  continued  existence  of  that  empty  grave 
space  speaks  with  wonderful  force  of  the  present  life  of  our  Lord 
and  Master.  Then  I  went  on  to  say  to  my  driver  :  <  If  you  want 
help  to  conquer  your  sin,  to  fight  against  temptation,  or  help  of 
any  kind,  do  you  think  it  would  be  better  to  turn  to  the  dead 
Mohammed  or  to  the  living  Christ  ?  '  He  did  not  like  this 
question,  so  I  said  :  '  Supposing  you  wanted  any  help  to-day  for 
feeding  your  camel  or  cleaning  it,  would  you  rather  turn  to  a  dead 


man  or  to  a  living  one  ? 


CHAPTEE  XI. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS.-  PALESTINE. 

The  Kaiser  in  Palestine— Young  Turk  Party— C.M.S.  Staff— Women's 
Work,  Medical  Work,  &c.— Bishops  Blyth  and  Maclnnes. 

PART  IT.  EKSnWfT  is  interesting,  and  indeed  suggestive,  to  find,  on 
chap.j.1.  |^|  g»|||  i00king  back  to  the  Eeports  at  the  time  of  the 
Centenary,  that  the  great  event  in  Palestine  in  the 
year  reviewed  in  1899  was  the  visit  of  the  German 
Kaiser,  and  that  the  Sultan  of  Turkey  presented  to 
him  the  plot  of  holy  ground  on  which  the  Virgin  Mary  is  said 
to  have  slept  the  night  before  her  "  Assumption,"  which  property 
the  Kaiser  handed  over  to  his  Boman  Catholic  subjects.  It  was 
during  that  journey,  no  doubt,  that  the  foundations  were  laid  of 
the  dominant  influence  in  Turkey  which  has  drawn  the  Porte  into 
the  present  War.  What  may  be  the  issue  for  the  Land  of  Israel 
is  so  far  known  only  to  Him  Who  appointed  that  land  to  be  the 
scene  of  the  Incarnation. 

Young  The   Turkish   Eevolution    in    1908,    and   the  proclamation   of 

Turk  Party.  rejigious  liberty  by  the  Young  Turk  party  which  then  gained  the 
upper  hand  at  Constantinople,  gave  hopes  of  a  real  change  in  the 
environment  of  the  Palestine  Mission.  The  immediate  results 
seemed  to  warrant  this  hope.  At  Jerusalem,  before  immense 
crowds,  Jewish  rabbis,  Moslem  sheikhs,  and  Christian  priests, 
made  impassioned  speeches  expressing  their  fraternization.  At 
Nazareth,  the  Syrian  pastor  of  the  C.M.S.  congregation  was 
invited  to  address  the  Mohammedans  from  the  pulpit  of  the 
mosque.  But  Islam  proved  true  to  its  real  nature,  and  speedily 
all  things  returned  into  their  old  condition.  The  war  of  19] 
between  Turkey  and  Italy  aroused  all  the  ancient  bigotry,  and 
one  Effendi,  "  a  perfect  gentleman,"  said,  "  If  Christ  does  not 
worship  as  a  Moslem  when  He  comes  again,  we  will  kill  Him." 
C.M.S.  Eeverting  to  the  commencement  of  our  fifteen-year  period,  the 

staff  in  1899  comprised  12  clergymen,  G  laymen,  14  wives,  and%29 
other  women  ;  total  61.  Within  the  period  58  have  been  added  to 
the  list;  but  the  total  in  1914  was  only  52,  viz.,  clergymen  6,  lay 
men  7,  wives  10,  other  women  29.  In  1904  the  total  was  68,  but 
Palestine  has  since  suffered  by  retrenchment. 

In  1899  the  faithful  old  German  missionaries,  who  had  long 
been  the  chief  agents  of  the  Society  in  the  Mohammedan  East, 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PALESTINE.  125 

were  still  alive.  Fallscheer,  Zeller,  and  Welters,  who  were  then  PART  n. 
at  wrork,  died  respectively  in  1901  after  36  years'  labour,  in  GhaP- 11'- 
1902  after  46  years,  in  1910  after  50  years ;  and  Klein,  who  had 
retired  in  1903,  after  52  years  ;  all  four  much  respected,  and  Klein 
famous  as  the  discoverer  of  the  Moabite  Stone.*  Of  the  English 
missionaries,  the  two  leaders,  the  Kevs.  J.  E.  Longley  Hall  and 
C.  T.  Wilson,  were  the  seniors,  and  both  presently  retired  after 
30  and  27  years'  service  respectively.  Mr.  Wilson,  it  will  be 
remembered,  was  one  of  the  first  two  missionaries  in  Uganda. 
His  brother,  the  Rev.  D.  M.  Wilson,  and  the  Eev.  C.  A.  Manley, 
rendered  ten  years'  service  before  retiring.  The  Eev.  H.  Sykes, 
who  succeeded  Mr.  Hall  as  Secretary,  happily  still  holds  that 
position,  and  is  now  not  far  short  of  30  years'  service  ;  and  Mr. 
Ellis  has  only  two  years  fewer.  The  Eevs.  F.  Carpenter  and  S.  C. 
Webb  joined  in  1901,  and  are  still  on  the  staff. 

But  the  special  feature  of  the  Palestine  Mission  for  more  than  Women 
five  and  twenty  years  has  been  the  number  of  women  mis- 
sionaries.  It  had  risen  from  one  in  1887  to  twenty-nine  in  1899  ; 
then  came  the  winding-up  of  the  Female  Education  Society,  and 
the  transfer  of  nine  of  its  ladies  in  Palestine  (besides  others  else 
where)  to  C.M.S.;  and  in  1904  the  number  was  40,  besides 
15  wives.  It  has  since  receded  to  29  and  10  wives,  as  above 
stated.  Several  of  these  have  given  twenty  years'  service.  The 
senior  F.E.S.  lady,  Miss  Jacomb,  had  been  thirty  years  in  the 
Palestine  Mission  before  joining  the  C.M.S.  She  died,  deeply 
respected,  in  1902.  Another  lady,  who  had  for  thirty  years 
worked  on  her  own  account  at  Jaffa,  Miss  C.  A.  Newton,  on  her 
death  in  1908  left  her  well-known  hospital  there  to  the  Society, 
with  a  fund  for  its  maintenance.  Two  of  her  sisters  have  been 
zealous  workers  on  the  C.M.S.  staff.  Two  Scottish  sisters,  the 
Misses  E.  C.  and  A.  Wardlaw-Eamsay,  who  had  worked  together 
at  St.  Paul's,  Onslow  Square,  went  to  Palestine  as  honorary  mis 
sionaries,  the  one  in  1889  and  the  other  a  few  years  later  after  a 
time  in  East  Africa.  The  elder  died  at  Jaffa  in  1913,  deeply 
lamented.  Another  woman  who  died  after  fourteen  years'  service 
was  Miss  Esther  Cooke ;  and  another,  Miss  Bedells,  in  1915, 
after  twenty-three  years  ;  \  and  equal  periods  (or  more)  stand  to 
the  credit  of  some  who  have  retired,  Misses  Welch,  M.  Brown, 
Jarvis,  Tindall,  Brodie,  Eeeve,  Lewis,  Nuttall,  F.  E.  Newton,  Scott. 
But  the  following  have  laboured  all  through  our  period  and  are 
still  on  the  staff :  Miss  Elverson,  27  years ;  Misses  Wenham, 
Brownlow,  Eoberts,  each  20  years;  and  Misses  Watney,  Tiffin, 
Hassall  (from  Sydney,  great  grand-daughter  of  Samuel  Marsden), 
Newey,  Hicks,  Eosenhayn,  McConaghy,  Lawford.  Mrs.  Ellis, 
too,  has  been  in  the  Mission  24  years,  having  (as  Miss  Low) 
joined  in  1891. 

*  There  was  a  worthy  In  Memoriam  of  Mr.  Welters,  by  two  of  his  fellow 
missionaries,  in  the  C.M.  Review,  April,  1910. 
t  Sec  Dr.  Wright's  notice  of  Miss  Bedells,  C.M.  Review,  August,  1915. 


126 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PALESTINE. 


PART  ii 

' 


Women's 
Work. 


Medical 
Work. 


pastoral 
Work. 


vs 


The  work  of  these  women  missionaries  has  consisted  mainly  of 
.  ..siting  the  women  of  the  country  in  towns  and  villages,  and  also 
in  girls'  schools,  and  nursing  in  the  hospitals.  The  transfer  to 
C.M.S.  ranks  of  the  F.E.S.  ladies  gave  to  the  Society  the  Orphanage 
at  Nazareth,  of  which  Miss  Newey  has  been  Superintendent,  and 
in  which  many  tourists  in  Palestine  have  taken  so  much  interest ; 
and  also  added  Bethlehem  to  the  list  of  stations,  where  a  girls' 
boarding  school  has  been  worked  (since  Miss  Brown  left)  by  a 
sister  of  Mr.  McNeile  of  Cairo.  In  1913,  Bethlehem  was  the 
scene  of  a  Conference  of  Women,  native  and  foreign,  belonging 
to  various  Missions,  at  which  all  the  addresses  were  in  Arabic. 
No  one  who  reads  the  Eeports  can  doubt  that  multitudes  of 
native  women  have  learnt  to  know  that  Christ  is  the  one  Saviour, 
although  in  the  case  of  Moslems,  baptism  is  scarcely,  if  ever, 
possible.  Nor  can  it  be  doubted  that  the  boys'  schools  have  done 
really  good  missionary  work;  particularly  the  Bishop  Gobat 
School,  under  Mr.  Ellis  and  the  Eev.  S.  C.  Webb ;  also  the  English 
College  for  young  men,  under  the  Eev.  W.  Stanley  and  the  late 
Mr.  J.  E.  Eobinson.  Both  of  these  institutions  are  at  Jerusalem. 
At  Kefr  Yasif  there  has  been  a  Training  Colony  for  teachers. 
Village  schools  are  only  allowed  in  villages  solely  or  partly 
inhabited  by  Christians,  not  where  there  are  only  Moslems. 

The  medical  work  of  the  Mission  has  been  important.  During 
the  whole  of  our  period,  and  for  some  years  before  that,  Dr. 
Sterling,  who  is  also  a  clergyman  and  a  Canon  of  St.  George's, 
Jerusalem,  has  been  doing  remarkable  work  at  Gaza ;  and  similar 
service  for  the  same  time  has  been  rendered  by  Dr.  Gaskoin 
Wright  at  Nablus,  who  has  lately  had  with  him  Dr.  Ethel  E. 
Griffiths.  There  are  also  the  late  Miss  Newton's  Hospital  at 
Jaffa,  already  mentioned,  worked  for  a  time  by  Dr.  Keith,  and  a 
smaller  one  at  Salt,  where  have  been  Drs.  Brigstocke  and  Charlotte 
Purnell.  These  four  hospitals  have  180  beds  between  them,  and 
many  patients  have  learnt  that  Christ  is  the  Saviour  of  the  soul,  as 
well  as  Healer  of  the  body.  For  some  years  there  was  also  a 
medical  mission  at  Kerak  in  the  land  of  Moab,  but  it  has  not  been 
continued.  The  Eev.  H.  G.  Harding,  now  Organizing  Secretary  of 
the  C.M.S.  Medical  Mission  Auxiliary  at  home,  and  the  Eev.  Sydney 
Gould,  a  Canadian  doctor  and  clergyman,  who  is  now  secretary 
of  the  Missionary  Society  of  the  Canadian  Church,  have  taken 
part  in  this  work.  A  medical  woman,  Dr.  Eachel  Apps,  who 
promised  to  be  a  real  power,  died  after  a  year's  service  in  1909. 
The  Bishop  of  London,  who  saw  some  of  the  C.M.S.  work  in 
Palestine  in  1912,  and  whose  genial  presence  was  highly  appre 
ciated  by  the  missionaries,  wrote,  "  The  fact  which  emerges  from 
a  visit  to  the  Near  East  is  the  wonderful  influence  of  Medical 
Missions." 

The  Anglican  congregations,  numbering  2350  souls,  are  minis 
tered  to  by  some  nine  pastors,  and  are  under  a  Church  Council, 
formed  in  1905.  Of  one  of  these  clergymen,  the  late  Eev.  Chalil 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PALESTINE.  127 

Jamal,  who  died  in  1907,  Bishop  French,  who  visited  him  at  Salt    PART  n. 
in  1889,  wrote  :  "  Mr.  Jamal  is  something  like  Bishop  Dupanloup   uhai>._ii. 
in  his  excellence  and  in  catechizing ;    a  real  lamp  burning  and 
shining  in  the  midst  of  the  wild  Bedouin.     He  is  a  little  Elisha 
there,  minus   the  she-bears,   though   his   rough   hair   and   dress 
almost  call  Elijah  to  mind." 

Baptism  of  Moslems  is  not  unknown  in  Palestine,  though  the 
converts  are  relatively  few.  In  some  cases  they  have  been  sent 
to  Egypt  for  safety.  Bishop  Kidley,  who  visited  the  Mission  in 
1908,  said,  "  The  baptism  of  a  convert  under  the  Turk  is  a  signal 
for  imprisonment,  and  probably  his  martyrdom  will  follow. 
Despite  treaties  freedom  of  conscience  is  not  tolerated.  .  .  . 
Not  long  since  a  sheikh  entered  a  mission  school,  dragged  out 
one  of  the  pupils  and  beat  her  almost  to  death."  Among  those 
who  found  Christ  in  the  Jaffa  Hospital  was  an  Afghan,  but  he  was 
shot  afterwards  by  a  Moslem,  whom  he  declined  to  prosecute,  and 
he  was  brought  back  to  the  hospital,  where  he  was  baptized  at 
his  own  request  before  he  died. 

Indirect  results,  however,  are  by  no  means  small.  Dr.  Sterling 
in  1910  declared  that  he  saw  a  considerable  change  in  the  condi 
tion  of  the  people,  the  result  in  his  opinion  of  the  influence  of  the 
mission  schools  and  hospitals,  even  upon  the  Moslems,  and  of 
a  distinct  awakening  in  the  Greek  Church  due  to  the  same 
influence. 

There  have  often  been  suggestions  that  the  Society  should  with-  .should 
draw  from  Palestine  as  unfruitful  soil,  and  when  retrenchments  withdraw? 
became  inevitable  this  Mission  was  marked  out  for  such  treatment, 
in  order  to  save  the  larger  fields,  but  it  is  quite  certain  that  the 
public  opinion  of  the  C.M.S.  constituency  would  not  tolerate  with 
drawal  ;  and  while  we  rejoice  at  the  large  ingatherings  of  other 
Missions,  we  may  equally  rejoice  at  the  testimony  which  has  been 
borne  in  the  land  in  which  the  early  triumphs  of  the  Gospel  were 
followed  by  such  sad  failures  on  the  part  of  the  Christian  Church. 

When  the  period  under  our  review  began,  the  Anglican  Bishopric  Bishop 
at  Jerusalem  had  been  held  for  twelve  years  by  Dr.  Popham  I$lyth- 
Blyth,  who  had  been  appointed  in  1887  by  the  two  Archbishops 
and  the  Bishop  of  London  in  accordance  with  the  trust  deed 
made  when  the  bishopric  was  founded  in  1841.  Bishop  Blyth 
continued  in  the  see  fifteen  years  more,  but  resigned  in  1914,  and 
died  on  Nov.  5th,  at  the  age  of  eighty-two.  He  had  earnestly 
upheld  and  acted  on  the  principles  laid  down  from  the  first,  which 
included  friendliness  with  the  Greek  and  other  Oriental  Churches 
already  represented  in  the  Holy  City,  and  episcopal  supervision  of 
Anglican  congregations  and  Missions  not  in  Palestine  only,  but  in 
other  Eastern  lands,  Syria,  Cyprus,  Egypt,  &c.  The  whole  work 
of  the  Church  of  England  in  those  countries  has  prospered  during 
his  episcopate,  his  own  "  Jerusalem  and  the  East  Mission  "  being 
an  important  addition  to  the  Societies,  particularly  the  C.M.S.  and 
the  L.J.S.,  previously  at  work.  These  two  Societies  had  from  the 


128  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PALESTINE. 

inted  £300  a  year  each  to  supplement  the  episcopal  income 
PART  11.    nret  giantta _±oi  nrilriTial  endowment,  and  it  is  well  known 


I'ARiii.    i  -"~"  f""thp  oriainal  endowment,  and  it  is  well  Known 

a*M..         «y ^ded 9from .to*  or 8"^  ^  s  in£m  Con- 

™v      Moreover  Bishop  Blyth  found  himself  unable  to  approve 
nf   the   C  M  S    work,   and  his  criticisms   had  to    be 
referred   to   the  Archbishop   of   Canterbury   and   other  Bishops. 
These  matters  are  fully  explained  in  the  History  of  the  G.M.h., 
nd  need  no  further  reference  here.     But  throughout  our  present 
Period    friendly    relations   were    cordially   maintained    and    the 
Bishop's  personal  interest  in  the  work  and  kindness  to  the  mission 
aries  were  much  appreciated.     St.  George's  Collegiate  Church  at 
Jerusalem,  with  its  schools,  &c.,  remains  a  visible  and  very  I 
memorial  of  his  episcopate.  -Ri'chrm 

Bishop  On  Bishop  Blyth's  retirement,  the  Archbishops  and  the  .Bib 

Madnnes.  f  London  appointed  as  his  successor  the  Rev  Benme  Maclnnes, 
Secretary  oPthe  O.M.S.  Egypt  Mission  0  him  personally  a 
previous  chapter  has  spoken.  He  may  be  fully  trusted  to  man- 
LTn  the  traditions  of  the  see,  and  to  show  the  utmost  sympathy 
with  all  the  good  work  for  Christ  done  by  many  varied  agencies  in 
the  immense  area  within  his  jurisdiction.  The  importance  of  the 
bishopric  has  greatly  increased  in  recent  years  British  dominance 
in  Egypt  and  Cyprus  has  created  a  demand  for  more  chaplains 
for  the  English  communities.  The  Missions  to  Jews  and  Moham 
medans  have  grown.  The  educational  and  medical  agencies 
benetit  the  Eastern  Christians.  And  the  extension  of  British  rule 
over  the  Eastern  Sudan  has  made  effective  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
bishopric  2000  miles  into  the  heart  of  Africa,  the  vast  field  tor 
which  Dr.  Gwynne  is  Suffragan  Bishop.  He  acts  also  as  Arch 
deacon  ;  and  there  are  three  other  Archdeacons,  for  Egypt,  byna, 

^^n  IheUeffects  of  the  War  upon  the  Palestine  Mission,  see  the 
Appendix. 

*  One  of  Bishop  Blyth's  missionaries  should  be  specially  mentioned  hero, 
Miss  M.  A.  H.  Allen,  one  of  the  daughters  of  Archdeacon  Allen  of  Lichheld 
who  had  worked  some  years  at  Zanzibar  as  a  member  of  the  U.M.U.A.,  ana 
while  there  showed  kindness  to  the  earliest  C.M.S.  women  missionaries  m 
East  -\frica  She  was  an  Arabic  scholar,  and  did  good  work  afterwards  m 
Palestine  and  Egypt.  Miss  B.  J.  Allen  of  the  G.M.S.  Japan  Mission  was  her 
sister  and  Miss  A.  E.  Allen  of  Uganda  is  her  cousin. 

t  \n  excellent  summary  of  the  history  and  work  of  the  Jerusalem  Bishopric 
appeared  in  The  East  and  The  West  for  Oct.,  1914,  written  by  Dr.  E.  W.  Or. 
Masterman,  a  medical  missionary  under  the  L.J.S.,  and  now  one  of  the 
recognized  authorities  on  Palestine.  There  is  a  quarterly  magazine  called 
Bible  Lands,  the  organ  of  the  Bishop's  Mission,  edited  by  Canon  Parnt  (a 
former  C  M.S.  missionary  at  Baghdad),  and  to  be  had  at  the  Church  House, 


Westminster. 


CHAPTER  XII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   TURKISH  ARABIA. 

Baghdad  and  Mosul— The  Staff-A  Work  of  Faith. 

[iAGHDAD  was  originally  occupied  as  an  outpost  of  the    PART  H. 
Persia   Mission   in    1883,   with   a   view   to   reaching   ch^12- 
Persian  pilgrims  to  the  Shiah  shrines  at  Kerbela  and  Baghdad, 
other  neighbouring  places.     But  it  has  since  proved 
to  be  an  important  centre  of  general  work.     "  Turkish 
Arabia,"  as  Mesopotamia  has  been  officially  called,  appeared  for 
the  first  time  as  an  independent  Mission  in  the  Centenary  year. 
Another  of  its  cities,  Mosul  on;  the  Tigris,  near  the  site  of  ancient  Mosul. 
Nineveh,  from  which  an  American  Mission  had  lately  retired,  was 
to  be  occupied  as  soon  as  possible,  also,  like  Baghdad,  for  medical 
work;  and  this  plan  was  carried  out  in  1901. 

The  medical  missionary  at  Baghdad  had  been  Dr.  Henry 
Martyn  Button,  one  of  the  three  brothers  Button  of  Eeading  who 
gave  themselves  to  foreign  mission  service  (two  to  C.M.S.  and  one 
to  S.P.G.) ;  but  he  retired  in  1903.  Drs.  Sturrock,  Brigstocke, 
Griffith,*  Johnson,|  and  Stanley,  have  been  in  charge  at  various 
times  of  one  or  both  of  the  two  stations ;  Dr.  Johnson,  who  had 
previously  worked  at  Kerak  for  ten  years,  having  the  longest 
period,  from  1908  until  now.  Another,  Dr.  Kadcliffe,  was  drowned 
in  the  Euphrates  while  bathing.  For  the  last  six  years  Baghdad 
has  had  a  woman  doctor,  Miss  S.  E.  Hill,  M.B.,  B.S.,  Lond.,  a 
daughter  of  the  late  Bishop  Hill  of  West  Africa.  One  of  the 
clerical  missionaries  there  for  a  time,  Mr.  Parfit,  claimed  to  have 
ridden  the  first  bicycle  ever  seen  in  Mesopotamia  (1901),  which 
he  thought  "  deserved  to  be  put  on  the  roll  of  C.M.S.  agents  for 
the  service  it  had  rendered  to  the  missionary  cause."  J  Other 
missionaries,  men  and  women,  have  served  for  a  time,  but  the 
climate  has  again  and  again  shortened  their  periods  of  work. 

*  Mrs.  Griffith's  book,  Behind  the  Veil  in  Persia  and  Turkish  Arabia,  will 
interest  all  readers. 

t  An  article  on  Baghdad,  by  Dr.  Johnson,  appeared  in  the  Moslem  World, 
July,  1912. 

t  It  was  Mr.  Parfit  who,  fifteen  years  ago,  obtained  a  house,  interpreter, 
&c.,  for  the  English  engineer  who  brought  the  machinery  for  the  oil-fields  in 
South  Persia,  now  so  valuable  to  the  British  Admiralty.  He  told  this  at  a 
meeting  of  the  Jerusalem  and  the  East  Mission  Fund,  of  which  he  is  now 
Secretary,  in  June,  1914. 

K 


130  C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  TURKISH  ARABIA. 

PAKTII.  The  first  lady  sent  out,  Miss  Valpy,  had  died  before  our  sixteen 
Chap._i2.  rg  be  and  so  had  the  wife  of  Mr.  Parfit.  Miss  Kelsey  also 
DeathB.  died  of  cholera  in  1904.  Miss  Lavy,  a  trained  nurse,  was  drowned 
on  her  voyage  out  after  furlough,  in  1910,  through  the  ship 
foundering  off  the  Scilly  Isles.  An  Australian  lady  had  to  be  sent 
home  seriously  ill ;  but  another  lady  sent  from  Australia  in  1  K>, 
Miss  Martin,  who  had  previously  worked  some  years  in  Palestine 
under  the  F.E.S.,  has  continued  to  this  day,*  and  so  has  Miss 
Butlin,  who  went  out  in  1900.  Indeed  it  may  be  said  that  upon 
these  two  ladies  has  fallen  a  large  part  of  the  burdens  of  both 
stations  during  the  whole  of  our  period,  they  being  the  only  two 
missionaries  on  the  staff  all  the  time.  The  staff  now  comprises 
two  clergymen,  the  Eev.  E.  E.  Lavy,  who  retired  for  a  time  to 
qualify  as  a  doctor,  and  the  Eev.  P.  V.  Boyes ;  Drs.  Johnson 
and  Stanley ;  three  wives,  and  five  other  women. 

A  work  of  This  Mission,  like  others  in  Mohammedan  countries,  is  empnati- 
raith-  cally  one  of  faith.  Its  good  influence  upon  the  people  is  unmis 
takable,  and  its  beneficent  treatment  of  bodily  ills  is  highly 
appreciated,  but  conversions  are  few.  The  courage  and  zeal  of 
some  however,  have  cheered  the  missionaries,  as  in  the  case  ot 
a  man  baptized  as  far  back  as  1891,  to  whom  the  Turks,  having 
failed  to  shake  his  faith  by  imprisonment,  gave  a  military  appoint 
ment  with  a  good  salary,  in  the  vain  hope  of  succeeding  that  way. 
Meanwhile,  the  bookshop  has  put  forth  the  Scriptures  and  other 
Christian  books,  so  in  one  form  or  another  Christ  is  preached, 
and  therein  we  may  rejoice.  Of  one  of  the  Christian  catechists, 
Abbo  Hasso,  who  died  early  in  1915,  Miss  Martin  wrote,  "  He  was 
universally  respected  for  his  absolute  faithfulness,  not  only  by  the 
Christians  of  all  sects,  but  by  the  Moslems  and  Jews.  His  name 
will  always  be  honoured  for  his  sincere  devotion  to  his  Lord  and 
Saviour." 

The  War  has  shown  us  the  immense  importance  ol  this  ^IVleso- 
potamian  region  ;  and  it  is  encouraging  to  know  that  Sir  W. 
Willcocks  and  <  other  high  government  officials  have  expressed 
their  appreciation  of  the  Society's  work  there. 

Arabia  still  remains  closed  to  the  Gospel,  but  at  its  four  corners 
is  waved  the  banner  of  Christ :  at  these  Mesopotamian  stations 
on  the  north-east ;  at  Muscat  on  the  south-east,  where  Bishop 
French  in  spirit  took  possession  of  the  land,  and  laid  his  bones 
upon  the  rocky  shore,  and  where  Dr.  Zwemer  established  an 
important  American  Mission  ;  at  Aden  on  the  south-west,  where 
the  Scottish  Presbyterian  Mission  was  founded  by  Ion  Keith- 
Falconer  ;  and  in  Gilead  on  the  north-west,  at  the  C.M.S.  station 
at  Salt  (and  for  a  time  in  Kerak  in  Moab).  Surely  the  time  will 
come  when  "  Arabia's  desert  ranger  to  Him  shall  bow  the  knee. 
On  the  effect  of  the  War  upon  this  Mission,  see  the  Appendix. 

*  A  remarkable  narrative  of  Miss  Martin's  eleven  days'  ride  across  the 
desert,  with  a  party  of  Turkish  soldiers  as  her  only  companions,  appeared  in 
the  CM.  Intell.  of  Dec.,  1904. 


CHAPTEE   XIII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PERSIA. 

Persia  in   Recent  Years-C.M.S.   Staff-Julfa,   Ispahan,   Shiraz,  Yezd 

Kerman— Bahaism The   Bakhtiari- Bishops  Stuart  and  Stileman 

—Death  of  Dr.  Bruce— Other  Missions. 

1ESIA  has  been  one  of  the  storm-centres  of  the  world 
during  the  greater  part  of  the  period  under  review,  ^i~i 
Without  laying  stress  upon  the  internal  troubles,'  *ersia  iu 
including  the  assassination  (a  little  earlier)  of  one  Years. 
Shah,  the  dethronement  of  another,  and  the  attempt 
—only  partially  successful— to  establish  some  kind  of  Parliamentary 
Government,  we  cannot  forget  that  the  growing  influence  of  Eussia 
was  for  years  a  cause  of  anxiety  to  Englishmen,  in  view  of  the 
important  British  interests  in  the  Persian  Gulf.  It  was  a  relief 
when  the ^ Agreement  of  1907  defined  the  respective  "spheres  of 
influence  "  of  the  two  protecting  Powers,  and  reduced  to  a  minimum 
the  chances  of  friction ;  and  one  good  result  of  the  present  War  is 
the  alliance  of  Great  Britain  and  Eussia,  following  on  the  Triple 
Entente.  The  Indo-European  telegraph,  which  passes  through 
Persia  and  employs  a  good  many  English  there,  is  an  important 
British  interest ;  and  so  are  the  valuable  oil-fields  of  the  Anglo- 
Persian  Oil  Company,  upon  which  our  Admiralty  largely  depend 
for  the  motive-power  of  many  of  our  modern  war-ships.  The 
peace  and  prosperity  of  Persia  are  much  to  be  desired  on  imperial 
grounds. 

Notwithstanding  the  internal  misgovernment  of  the  country, 
the  brigandage  that  renders  travelling  dangerous,  the  defective 

means  of  communication — bad  roads  and  no  railways, there  has 

appeared  to  be  some  improvement  even  in  Persia.  Bishop  Stileman, 
whose  admirable  account  of  the  present  position,  in  The  East  and 
The  West,  of  April,  1915  no  student  can  afford  to  miss,  expresses 
the  opinion  that  liberty  of  thought  and  intelligent  interest  in  the 
welfare  of  the  State  have  been  increasing.  This  has  not  been  due 
to  the  "  dead  hand  "  of  Mohammedanism,  which  has  in  fact  brought 
nearly  to  ruin  one  of  the  fairest  lands  in  Asia,  but  to  the  freedom 
of  intercourse  with  the  outside  world,  and  particularly  with 
Christian  Powers;  and  if  the  Christianity  of  the  Powers  is  not 
very  conspicuous,  it  at  least  does  not  suppress  material  and 
social  progress  as  Islam,  does.  Even  the  motor-cars  and  bicycles 


132 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PERSIA. 


C.M.S. 

Staff. 


Bishop 
Stuart. 


PAKTII.  now  to  be  seen  in  Persia  are  the  small  outward  tokens  of  a 
chap.  13.  freshening  air  in  an  atmosphere  of  long-continued  dulness  and 
gloom.  And  there  is  always  "  the  Charm  of  the  Bast,"  as 
Mr.  Eice  expressed  it  in  a  delightful  article  in  the  G.M.  Review 
of  March,  1909.  Not  a  little  of  reviving  breeze  has  come  through 
the  influence  of  the  Christian  Missions. 

The  C.M.S.  Persia  Mission,  like  other  missions  in  Mohammedan 
lands,  is  conspicuous  for  the  importance  of  the  medical  missions 
and  women's  work.  Both  have  exercised  a  distinct  civilizing  and 
humanizing  as  well  as  spiritual  influence.  But  in  briefly  noticing 
the  members  of  the  Society's  staff,  we  must  first  make  mention  of 
the  leading  ordained  missionaries  of  the  period.  Going  back  as 
usual  to  1899,  we  find  that  Bishop  Stuart,  the  veteran  of  India  and 
New  Zealand,  who  had  resigned  his  see  of  Waiapu  to  give  himself, 
like  his  old  comrade  French,  to  missionary  work  among  the 
Mohammedans,  was  in  his  fiftieth  year  of  active  service,  and  had 
ten  more  years  before  him.  All  who  bore  Persia  on  their  hearts 
were  mourning  the  death  of  Henry  Carless,  concerning  whom 
Bishop  Stuart  wrote,  "  Henry  Martyn's  solitary  grave  at  Tokat  in 
the  north-west,  and  now  Henry  Caiiess's  lonely  grave  on  the 
south-east,  seem  between  them  to  claim  all  Persia  for  Christ." 
Another  clergyman,  from  Australia,  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Blackett,  of 
Melbourne,  was  at  Kerman  ;  Dr.  Tisdall,  now  so  well  known  as 
one  of  the  most  accomplished  scholars  in  the  Church,  was  engaged 
in  his  important  literary  work ;  Mr.  Eice  was  just  about  to  occupy 
Shiraz ;  Mr.  Malcolm  was  at  Yezd,  and  Mr.  Stileman  was 
Secretary.  The  figures  then  were,  clergymen  6,  laymen  2,  wives 
5,  other  women  10  (including  Bishop  Stuart's  daughter,  not  then 
on  the  official  list),  total  23.  In  1914  they  were,  clergymen  7, 
laymen  8,  wives  11,  other  women  22,  total  48. 

Mr.  Stileman  and  Mr.  Eice  have  continued  in  the  Mission,"" 
and  so  have  the  two  medical  men  of  1899,  Drs.  Carr  and  White. 
Among  the  fifteen  women  (married  and  unmarried),  only  six  are 
still  in  the  Mission,  including  the  daughter  and  two  nieces  of 
Bishop  Stuart  (and  another  daughter  has  joined  since).  The 
others  are  Mrs.  Carr,  and  Misses  Braine-Hartnell  and  Stirling. 
In  the  last  year  of  our  period  two  women  have  died,  namely 
Mrs.  White,  who  went  out  as  Miss  Davies-Colley  in  1893,  and 
Miss  Mary  Bird,  wrho  was  the  first  woman  missionary  sent  to 
Persia  in  189  l.j  Both  deaths  have  been  a  great  sorrow  to  the 
Mission.  Some  who  have  been  added  to  the  staff  in  our  period 
are  already  almost  veterans,  as  the  Eev.  A.  K.  Boyland,  who  joined 
in  the  Centenary  year  itself,  and  has  married  one  of  Bishop  Stuart's 
nieces,  who  was  in  Persia  before  him ;  also  Mrs.  Eice  and  Miss 

*  But  Bishop  Stileman  has  been  obliged  by  ill-health  to  retire,  since  this 
was  written.  See  p.  136. 

t  Mrs.  Rice  has  written  a  memoir  of  Miss  Bird,  which  has  been  published 
by  the  C.M.S.  It  is  a  striking  picture  of  a  most  attractive  personality.  Miss 
Bird  was  a  grand-daughter  of  R.  M.  Bird,  a  distinguished  Indian  civilian,  and 
a  cousin  of  Mrs.  Isabella  (Bird)  Bishop,  the  famous  traveller. 


Women 
Mission 
aries. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PERSIA.  133 

Brighty,  dating  from  the  same  year ;  and  the  Eev.  W.  H.  Walker,  PART  n. 
who  dates  from  the  next  year,  1900.  Others  who  have  joined  Qhap.^is 
later  and  are  still  on  the  list,  are  the  Eevs.  H.  B.  Liddell  and  J.  H. 
Linton  (the  latter  having  previously  been  in  West  Africa) ; 
Drs.  Dodson,  Marrable,  and  Schaffter  (a  son  of  the  Eev.  H.  J. 
Schaffter  of  Tinnevelly),  Messrs.  Biddlecombe  (since  ordained) 
and  Allinson.  Of  the  women  who  have  joined  since,  and  are 
still  with  us,  four  are  medical,  Dr.  Winifred  Westlake,  Dr.  Lucy 
Molony,  Dr.  Catherine  Ironside,  and  Dr.  Alicia  Aldous  (now  Mrs. 
Linton).  Others,  with  ten  years'  service,  are  Misses  Biggs,  Ward, 
Macklin,  and  Thomas  ;  Miss  Skirrow  had  that  term  of  service  also, 
but  then  retired. 

The  pastoral  and  educational  work  at  Julfa,  the  Armenian  work  at 
suburb  of  Ispahan,  has  gone  on  regularly,  but  an  important Julfa- 
advance  was  achieved  when  some  of  it  could  be  moved  across  the 
river  into  the  city  itself,  four  miles  off.  For  only  four  or  five 
years  before  the  Centenary  had  the  residence  of  any  European  in 
Ispahan  been  permitted,  but  Miss  Bird  had  before  that  courage-  Access  to 
ously  ridden  in  weekly  on  her  mule  from  Julfa  and  carried  on  her  ISPallan- 
simple  dispensary  work  (she  was  not  a  qualified  doctor),  despite 
the  threat  of  the  mullahs  to  kill  her.  Just  before  the  Centenary, 
however,  Dr.  Carr  ventured  to  hire  a  house  and  live  in  it,  using 
it  for  a  mission  dispensary;  and  a  few  months  later,  when  he 
came  away  ill,  Bishop  Stuart  moved  into  it.  His  niece,  Dr. 
Emmeline  Stuart,  had  already  begun  a  regular  dispensary  for 
women.  The  British  Minister,  Sir  H.  M.  Durand,  being  on  a 
visit  to  Ispahan,  inspected  it,  and  expressed  his  admiration  for  the 
"  brave  ladies  "  who  were  "  devoting  themselves  to  the  relief  of 
suffering."  Subsequently  a  new  hospital  was  built,  through  the 
liberality  of  friends  in  New  Zealand,  particularly  the  late  Arch 
deacon  S.  Williams.  There  are  now  two  hospitals,  for  men  and 
women  respectively,  with  188  beds  between  them,  which  were 
occupied  in  1914  by  2012  patients,  while  there  were  41,580  visits 
of  out-patients.  In  1910  the  first  Christian  church  in  Ispahan  in 
modern  times  was  built,  at  the  cost  also  of  the  Williams  family, 
and  was  dedicated  by  Bishop  Stuart  shortly  before  he  finally  left 
Persia.  It  stands  between  the  two  hospitals,  with  a  door  on  each 
side  for  patients  and  their  friends,  and  a  curtain  divides  the  men 
from  the  women,  in  deference  to  Persian  feeling ;  while  a  third 
door  admits  outsiders  from  the  street.  The  boys'  and  girls'  high 
schools,  each  with  a  hundred  pupils,  are  also  now  in  the  city  ;  and 
the  boys'  school,  which  is  attended  by  many  sons  of  high  officials 
and  other  Persian  gentlemen,  is  actually  under  the  shadow  of  the 
great  mosque.  A  new  building  for  it,  erected  as  a  memorial  to 
Bishop  Stuart,  was  opened  in  April,  1915,  in  the  presence  of  the 
Persian  Deputy  Governor  of  Ispahan,  the  British  Consul  General 
presiding. 

Another   advance   during   the   period   was   the   occupation    of  shiraz 
Shiraz,  the  city  with  sacred   memories  for   us  all,  as  the  place 


134 


C.M.S. 


PERSIA. 


PART  ii.  where  Henry  Martyn  had  his  painful  discussions  with  the 
chapel 3.  mullahs.*  Special  interest  is  attached  to  the  reports  from  Mr. 
Eice  and  others  who  have  been  there  for  a  few  years. f  At 
first  there  was  much  readiness  to  hear  the  Word  of  God,  the 
mullahs  being  afraid  to  oppose  because  the  Persian  Prince  who 
was  Governor  was  a  strong  man,  and  had  actually  joined  Bishop 
Stuart  in  the  church  at  Ispahan  to  pray  for  the  Shah.  When  this 
Governor  left,  their  opposition  revived,  but  the  Persian  school  and 
services  were  carried  on  ;  and  while  Mr.  Napier  Malcolm  was 
there,  Mrs.  Malcolm,  who  was  a  qualified  doctor,  did  useful 
medical  work,  .which  at  one  time  saved  them  from  expulsion.  J 
Unhappily  the  lack  of  reinforcements  has  left  Shiraz  without  a 
resident  missionary  during  the  last  five  years. 

Yezd  ami  From  Yezd  and  Kerman,  200  and  400  miles  from  Ispahan 
an'  respectively,  to  the  south-east,  the  results  have  often  been  much 
more  encouraging,  and  often  very  interesting.  In  1902,  Major 
Sykes  told  the  Eoyal  Geographical  Society  that  "  thanks  to  the 
unwearying  devotion  of  Dr.  White  of  the  C.M.S.,  the  tone  of  the 
people  of  Yezd  had  been  changed  from  fanatical  opposition  ^  to 
Europeans  into  adopting  a  friendly  attitude."  On  one  occasion 
the  Governor  of  Yezd  sent  Dr.  White  in  his  own  carriage,  with 
four  horses  and  six  armed  out-riders,  250  miles,  to  attend  the  wife 
of  another  Governor,  the  journey  taking  eight  days  each  way.  In 
three  separate  years  riots  led  to  the  Governor's  flight,  and  all 
Europeans  miglit  each  time  have  been  murdered,  but  for  the  fact 
that  the  ringleaders  had  been  patients  in  the  hospital,  and  out  of 
gratitude  protected  them.  Yezd  is  the  chief  centre  in  Persia 
of  the  Parsi  community,  the  remnant  of  the  old  followers  of 
Zoroaster,  some  8000  in  number ;  and  it  was  a  Parsi  merchant 
who  provided  the  first  building  for  the  hospital,  which  is  now  used 
for  women,  while  a  new  one  for  men  has  been  erected  recently. 

As  in  other  Mohammedan  lands,  the  converts  only  come  out  one 
by  one,  but  they  have  been  more  numerous  in  Persia  than  else 
where.  Year  by  year  deeply  interesting  cases  have  been  reported 
of  both  men  and  women.  The  Persian  congregation  at  Ispahan 
has  gradually  grown  to  200  or  300,  and  there  have  been  many 
Mohammedan  converts  at  the  Easter  Communion. § 

*  In  1905  Mr.  Stileman  was  in  the  very  house  occupied  by  Martyn  in  1812, 
and  conversed  with  the  grandson  of  the  Persian  gentleman  who  received 
Martyn  there.  The  centenary  of  Martyn's  death  was  celebrated  at  Yezd  on 
Oct.  16th,  1912,  by  a  special  service,  at  which  the  British  Consul  and  all  the 
Europeans  were  present.  Bishop  Stileman  was  in  England  at  the  time,  and 
preached  on  Henry  Martyn's  career  on  the  same  day  at  Holy  Trinity  Church, 
Cambridge.  The  sermon  was  printed  in  the  CM.  Review,  Dec.,  1912. 

f  And  particularly  from  Mrs.  Kice.  See,  for  instance,  her  article  on  the 
Women  of  Persia,  in  the  CM.  Review,  Oct.,  1910. 

I  Mr.  Malcolm  wrote  his  experiences  in  his  interesting  book,  Five  Years 
in  a  Persian  Town,  published  by  Murray. 

§  On  Christmas  Day,  1914,  nearly  800  people  crowded  the  church,  and  an 
overflow  service  was  arranged  elsewhere  for  180  women  for  whom  there  was 
no  room ;  but  of  course  these  were  not  all  converts. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  PERSIA.  135 

As  is  well  known,  Persia  is  the  home  of  what  is  now  called  PAJITII. 
Bahaism,  the  strange  offshoot  from  Mohammedanism  which  has  chap.  is. 
lately  put  forward  pretensions  to  be  the  best  religion  for  the  world,  Bahaism. 
and  has  enlisted  adherents,  not  only  in  Asiatic  countries,  but  even 
in  Europe  and  America  among  those  many  persons  who  are  ready 
for  any  kind  of  religion  provided  it  is  not  Christianity.  The 
original  Babi  movement  has  developed  into  the  Bahai  movement, 
so  named  from  the  second  leader  (after  the  original  Bab  was 
executed  in  1850),  Baha  Ullah  ;  and  Baha  Ullah's  son,  Abdul  Baha, 
has  visited  England  and  other  Western  lands  and  proclaimed  the 
new  faith.  This  is  not  the  place  to  enlarge  upon  Bahaism,  but 
readers  may  be  referred  to  the  important  article  on  it,  by  Mr.  Bice, 
in  The  East  and  The  West,  Jan.,  1913  ;  and  Dr.  S.  G.  Wilson  of  the 
American  Presbyterian  Mission  in  Persia,  described  it  both  in  the 
same  periodical  in  July,  1914,  and  in  the  C.M.  Review  of  Jan., 
1915.* 

In  recent  years  the  condition  of  the  country  has  been  very  bad.  Condition 
"  With  every  branch  of  the  Government  full  of  bribery  and  corrup-  ° 
tion  ;  commercially  bankrupt ;  with  facilities  for  divorce,  plurality 
of  wives,  and  the  abomination  of  temporary  marriages,  and  the 
growing  use  of  opium,  Persia  is  a  standing  illustration  of  the 
powerlessness  of  Islam  to  regenerate  the  people."  The  grant  of  a 
constitution  in  1906  seemed  to  make  things  worse,  for  every  town 
asserted  its  own  independence.  Travelling  has  been  dangerous, 
and  robberies  frequent. f  Again  and  again  the  missionaries  were 
attacked  by  brigands  when  travelling,  and  relieved  of  their  posses 
sions.  Dr.  Emmeline  Stuart,  being  much  respected  for  her 
medical  work,  was  offered  a  military  escort  when  she  was  leaving 
Ispahan  for  her  furlough  in  1908,  which  involved  her  riding  on  a 
gun  carriage  by  day  and  sleeping  under  its  shelter  by  night  for 
ten  days  ;  but  two  years  later  she  was  assailed  by  robbers  in  the 
city  itself  and  searched  for  money,  while  a  dagger  was  held  at  her 
throat. 

The  missionaries  regard  themselves  as  safe  enough  with  some 
of  the  troublesome  wild  tribes,  the  Bakhtiari  for  instance,  for  they 
have  visited  them  and  won  their  respect.  Dr.  Carr,  Dr.  Emmeline 
Stuart,  Dr.  Lucy  Molony,  and  Dr.  Catherine  Ironside,  have  spent 
weeks  with  them  at  different  times,  giving  medical  treatment  to 
their  sick.  On  one  occasion  Dr.  Carr  found  a  Bakhtiari  chief 
dying,  and  by  his  bedside  a  copy  of  Sweet  Firstfruits,  the  story  of 
a  Christian  Arab  martyr,  originally  written  in  Arabic  by  a  Chris 
tian  Arab. 

The  venerable  Bishop  Stuart  continued  to  the  last  an  intrepid  ^J 
traveller.     In  the  early  years  of  our  period   he  made  frequent 

*  See  also  C.M.  Rev.,  Dec.,  1912,  p.  709;  Feb.,  1913,  p.  G8;  Aug.,  1913, 
p.  513.  A  book  on  Bahaism  is  included  in  the  Islam  Series  published  by  the 
Christian  Literature  Society  for  India. 

t  See,  for  example,  the  letters  of  Mr.  Biddlecombe  and  Mr.  Eice  in  the 
C.M.  Review,  April,  1912. 


1 36 


C.M.S.   MISSIONS:   PERSIA. 


PAUT  II. 

Chap. 13. 


Bishop 
Stileman. 


Death  of 
Dr.  Bruce. 


journeys  with  his  daughter  to  outlying  cities  and  villages.  In 
1901  he  went  to  New  Zealand  to  see  his  relatives  and  friends 
there.  From  there  he  came  to  England,  and  returned  to  Persia 
at  the  close  of  1902.  In  1905  he  again  went  to  New  Zealand, 
again  came  back  to  England,  and  again  returned  to  Persia  in 
1907.  In  1910  he  at  last  came  home  finally,  in  the  sixtieth  year 
of  his  missionary  career ;  and  on  March  15th,  1911,  he  entered  into 
rest.  Is  there  any  quite  parallel  case  to  such  a  life?  Surely 
Edward  Craig  Stuart  deserves  a  very  high  place  on  the  roll  of 
Christian  Missionary  Bishops. 

Bishop  Stuart's  status  in  Persia  was  not  that  of  a  bishop  with 
territorial  jurisdiction.  He  was  only  a  missionary  in  episcopal 
orders.  But  on  his  death,  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  arranged 
that  Persia  should  be  the  recognized  sphere  of  an  Anglican  Bishop  ; 
and  Mr.  Stileman,  who  was  a  missionary  of  more  than  twenty 
years'  standing,  was  chosen  to  be  its  first  occupant.  He  was  con 
secrated  on  July  26th,  1912.  It  is  a  sad  disappointment  that  his 
health  proves  not  to  be  equal  to  his  continuance  in  the  office. 
His  loss  to  the  Mission  will  be  great  indeed.  There  is  an  interest 
ing  account  by  him  of  certain  confirmation  candidates  in  Persia, 
in  the  C.M.  Review  of  August,  1915. 

Persia  has  been  a  recognized  C.M.S.  mission  field  for  just  forty 
years.  But  its  founder  had  been  in  the  country  as  a  pioneer  five  or 
six  years  before  ;  and  that  pioneer  has  passed  away  in  this  present 
year  1915.  Dr.  Robert  Bruce  was  called  into  the  presence  of  his 
Lord  on  March  6th.  To  his  devotion  and  (one  may  say)  persist 
ence  the  whole  enterprise,  under  God,  is  due.  He  went  to  Persia 
to  revise  Henry  Martyn's  Persian  New  Testament.  He  laboured 
there  twenty-four  years,  and  eventually  gave  the  nation  the  whole 
Bible,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  Prayer  Book,  the  Bible  Society 
and  the  S.P.C.K.  co-operating  respectively.  His  memory  should 
be  honoured  indeed.*  He  invited  the  London  Jews'  Society  to 
undertake  regular  Jewish  mission  work,  which  has '  been  by  no 
means  fruitless.  Bishop  Stileman  tells  us  that  he  has  confirmed 
nineteen  Jewish  converts,  ten  rnen  and  nine  women,  in  the  past 
two  years. 

There  have  been  two  other  Missions  in  Persia.  The  American 
Board  (Congregationalist)  began  its  work  in  the  northern  provinces 
in  1833,  but  transferred  it  to  the  Presbyterians  in  1871.  Their 
centre  is  the  capital,  Teheran,  and  they  have  fine  medical  and  edu 
cational  agencies.  The  Archbishop's  Mission  to  the  Assyrian 
Christians,  lately  abandoned,  was  mainly  in  Turkish  territory,  but 
that  mission  had  congregations  within  the  Persian  borders,  and 
its  revived  life  was  due  to  the  influence  of  the  Mission. 

On  the;  effect  of  the  War  upon  the  Persia  Mission,  see  Appendix. 

*  See  the  In  Memoriam  articles  in  the  CM.  Eeview  of  April  and  May,  1915, 
by  Archdeacon  A.  E.  Moule  and  Bishop  Stileman. 


Viceroy 
.1899. 


CHAPTER  XIV. 
INDIA:    ITS    RULERS   AND    ITS    RELIGIONS. 

Lord  Curzon  and  other  Rulers— Soldiers'  Gifts  to  Missions— Royal 
Interest— King  George's  Visit:  His  Public  Profession  of  Religion— 
The  Unrest,  its  Causes  and  Limitations— The  Renaissance— Opinions 
of  Sir  J.  Bourdillon,  Sir  Mackworth  Young,  &c.— The  Education 
Question:  Failure  of  Secular  Education— Power  of  Idolatry  and 
Caste— The  Dark  Side  of  Hinduism— Modern  Movements  :  Arya 
Samaj,  &c.— Mrs.  Besant's  College— The  Moslems:  Aligarh  College 
—The  Population  of  India — The  Prospect. 

BRITISH  RULE  AND  RULERS. 

N  the  year  of  the  C.M.S.  Centenary  India  received  a    PART  IT. 
new  Viceroy.    On  Jan.  6th,  1899,  Lord  Curzon  took  over   Chap.ju'. 
the  reins  of  government.     Of  the  brilliant  Viceroyalty  The 
of  the  next  few  years  this  is  not  the  place  to  speak  ;     "a 
but  we  may  gladly  remember  that  when  it  came  to  an 
end  the  Church  Missionary  Review  felt  able  to  set  before  its  readers 
a  fine  though  discriminating  appreciation  of  it.    Mr.  R.  Maconachie, 
to  whose  ^interesting   "  Indian   Notes  "  from   time  to  time  that 
periodical  is  much  indebted,  contributed  that  appreciation  in  Sep 
tember,   1907.     The  Review    had   even    before    that   quoted    from 
Lord  Curzon's  farewell  speech  at  Bombay  his  noble  words,  "  Oh 
that  to  every  Englishman  in  this  country  as  he  ends  his  work 
might  be  truthfully  applied   the  phrase,  '  Thou   hast  loved  right 
eousness  and  hated  iniquity.'     No  man  has,  I  believe,  ever  served 
India  faithfully  of  whom  that  could  not  be  said." 

Before  Lord  Curzon  had  entered  on  his  high  office,  his  book  on 
the  Far  East  had  revealed  an  imperfect  recognition  of  the  objects 
and  principles  of  Missions ;  and  in  India  he  was  never  regarded 
as  their  friend  and  supporter.  And  Mr.  Maconachie  was  con 
strained  to  point  out  in  the  Viceregal  speeches  many  passages  to 
which  no  representative  of  an  Empire  which  professes  to  be 
Christian  ought  to  have  given  utterance.  The  extracts  given  are 
very  remarkable.  Lord  Curzon  expressed  to  Hindus  a  hope  that 
they  would  "  remain  true  to  their  religion."  To  Moslems  he  said, 
"  Adhere  to  your  own  religion,  which  has  in  it  the  ingredients 
of  great  nobility  and  of  profound  truth."  And  to  Buddhists,  "  I 
beg  of  you  not  to  be  diverted  from  the  old  practices  of  your 
venerable  and  famous  religion."  Such  utterances  as  these  go  far 


PATIT  II. 

dhap. 14. 


Lords 
Minto  and 
HardiBge. 


Other 
(governors, 
<fec., 
irieudly  to 

Missions. 


Soldiers' 
Gifts  to 

Missions. 


138        INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS, 

beyond  the  rightful  official  neutrality,  and  the  strict  personal 
impartiality,  which  have  been  maintained  by  other  British  rulers 
in  India  who  nevertheless  have  avowed  not  only  their  faith  in 
Christ  but  their  longing  desire  that  all  India  should  enjoy  the 
blessings  of  Christianity. 

In  England,  however,  since  his  return,  Lord  Gur/on  lias 
repeatedly  given  important  testimony  to  the  character  and  work  of 
the  missionaries.  Of  their  devotion  in  times  of  plague  and  famine, 
he  said  in  1908,  "  They  stood  literally  between  the  dead  and  the 
living,  and  set  a  noble  example  of  the  creed  of  their  Master  " 
When  Dr.  Arthur  Neve  read  a  paper  on  his  Himalayan  travels 
before  the  Eoyal  Geographical  Society,  Lord  Curzon,  who  pre 
sided,  spoke  of  him  in  the  warmest  terms  ;  and  he  wrote  strongly 
to  Mr.  Holland  of  the  value  of  the  Hostel  system  as  worked  by  him 
at  Allahabad. 

Not  less  appreciative  was  his  successor,  Lord  Minto,  to  wn< 
wisdom  and  courage  India  owes  in  no  small  measure  the  reforms, 
or  rather  developments,  of  administration  which  have  so  gratified 
the  people  and  done  so  much  to  allay  the  growing  unrest.  And 
Lord  Hardinge,  himself  a  severe  sufferer  from  that  unrest— having 
been  wounded  by  a  bomb  at  Delhi  on  Dec.  23rd,  1912— has  again 
and  again  shown  cordial  sympathy  with  the  mission  agencies ;  as 
also  did  his  lamented  wife,  who,  her  husband  having  laid  the  first 
stone  of  the  new  C.M.S.  church  at  Simla,  paved  its  chancel  with 
marble  and  presented  it  with  a  new  Holy  Table.* 

Other  Governors,  Lieut.-Governors,  Chief  Commissioners,  &c., 
&c  ,  have  been  kind  friends  of  Missions,  and  some  of  them  whole 
hearted  fellow-workers.     Without   distinguishing    between   these 
two   circles,  outer   and   inner,   some   names   gathered   almost  at 
random  from  the  Eeports  may  be  mentioned.    Sir  Charles  Elliott, 
Sir  F  Cunningham,  Sir  W.  Mackworth  Young,  Sir  Andrew  Fraser, 
Sir  II  Deane,  Sir  F.  Younghusband,  Sir  J.  Digges  La  Touche,  Sir 
.1  A  Bourdillon,  Sir  A.  Havelock,  Lord  Ampthill,  Sir  F.  P.  Lely, 
Sir  A.  Lawley,  Sir  J.  Hewitt,  Sir  J.  Meston,  Sir  C.  Eivaz,  are  only 
a  few  of  those  named  as  visiting  colleges  and  hospitals,  presiding 
at   prize    distributions   and   other   gatherings,  expressing   hearty 
appreciation  of  the  work,  and  assisting   it  in  many  other  ^  ways. 
Lord  Kitchener's  name  appears  once  ;    and  Lord  Eoberts's  two 
prefaces  to  Dr.  Pennell's  own  book  and  the  biography  of  him  will 
not  be  forgotten.     Some  of  those  just  mentioned,  and  many  others, 
have  served  on  the  Corresponding  Committees  which  have  adminis 
tered  the  Society's  work  in  the  different  provinces.     Eegular^  sub 
scriptions  and  anonymous  donations  are    received  from    officials 
and  civilians.     For  instance,  at  Quetta,  a  Colonel  and  a  Major 
each  maintained  a  missionary  ;  a  Captain  gave  £200  a  year  ;  and 
a  number  of  English  soldiers  gave  Es  20  a  month  to  keep  a  bed 
in  the  mission  hospital.     A  curiously  interesting  contribution  was 
the  gift  by  Capt.  Wyndham  to  the  hostel  at  Allahabad  of  the  whole 
*  Lord  Chelmsford  may  be  expected  to  be  no  less  appreciative. 


INDIA  .-  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        139 

proceeds  of  the  Aerial  Post  organized  at  the  time  of  the  Exliibi-    PARTII 
tion  there  in  1911,— Rs  2300.     Earlier  than  this,  in  1906,  at  that    ('haP- 14' 
same  city,  the  English  and  »  Anglo-Indian  "  community,  hearing 
of  the  retrenchments  which  the  Society   had  at  that  time   been 
obliged  to  order,  formed  a  missionary  association,  and  undertook 
the  support  of  the  Indian  agents  in  the  district. 

There  have  been  three  public  manifestations  of  royal  interest  in  Royal 
India  in  our  period.  In  1905-06  Prince  George  and  Princess  Mary 
of  Wales  took  a  tour  round  India,  and  though  they  did  not  have 
an  opportunity  of  meeting  important  bands  of  Indian  Christians,  as 
the  Prince's  father  did  in  1874-5,  they  did  come  into  personal  touch 
with  a  few  of  the  missionaries,  particularly  at  Benares.*  In  1908, 
when  just  fifty  years  had  elapsed  since  Queen  Victoria  took  over 
from  the  East  India  Company  the  direct  government  of  India, 
King  Edward  addressed  a  Message  to  the  princes  and  people  of  the 
hind.  But  these  were  small  things  compared  with  the  visit  of  King  King 
George  and  Queen  Mary  as  Emperor  and  Empress  in  1911-12,  six  for 
years  after  their  tour  as  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales.  The 
effect  of  it  has  been  great  indeed.  It  called  forth  everywhere  a 
wonderful  enthusiasm,  showing  how  partial  was  the  unrest  which 
had  caused  us  all  so  much  anxiety ;  and  we  do  not  doubt  that  it 
did  much  to  stimulate  the  loyalty  which  the  War  has  so  splendidly 
revealed,  f 

Above  all,  the  happy  influence  of  the  royal  visit  was  seen  in  the  His  public 
unmistakable  satisfaction  of  the  people  at  the  public  profession  of  SfSSn 
their  religion  by  their  supreme  earthly  rulers.  Indians  are 
emphatically  a  religious  people,  and  there  never  was  a  greater 
mistake  in  British  policy  than  when  its  representatives  suppressed 
their  own  religious  convictions— or  rather  their  religious  connexion, 
for  there  was  often  little  sign  that  they  had  any  convictions. 
"  Indians  prefer,"  says  the  present  Bishop  of  Bombay,  "that  we 
should  believe  in  our  own  religion,  and  practise  it.  They  cannot 
understand  a  man  without  a  religion ;  they  suspect  he  does  not 
practise  the  religion  he  professes  to  have."  So  when  the  only 
public  function  at  Delhi  on  Sunday  was  a  Christian  service,  and 
when  on  a  long  journey,  partly  of  necessity  taken  on  a  Sunday, 
the  King  stopped  the  train  at  the  time  of  divine  service  that  lie 
might  attend  it  in  a  tiny  village  church,  the  people  realized  that 
they  had  a  Sovereign  not  ashamed  of  his  faith,  and  were  glad  of 
it,  although  the  faith  was  not  their  own.  A  Sikh  chief  actually 
sent  to  the  Bishop  of  Lahore  a  gift  to  the  church  as  a  tkankoffer- 
ing  for  the  King's  open  acknowledgment  of  his  own  religion. f 

*  See  CM.  Intell,  April,  1906. 

t  Very  eloquent  and  picturesque  articles  on  the  King's  visit  appeared  in  the 
CM.  Review  of  Feb.,  March,  and  April,  1912,  by  the  Revs.  Dr.  Hooper  and  P. 
Ireland  Jones.  The  latter  enlarged  especially  on  the  dramatic  announcement 
that  Delhi  was  to  be  the  new  capital; 

t  In  an  American  book  a  lady  who  was  at  Delhi  tells  how  an  Indian  asked 
her  if  she  saw  the  King-Emperor  kneel  in  prayer,  adding,  "  I  would  rather 
have  seen  that  than  anything  else  in  Delhi."  Then  his  face  changed  :  "  How 


140         INDIA  :  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 

THE  UNREST. 

PART  ii.  rpke  King's  visit  to  India  was  the  best  response  to  the  unrest 
0  !fl14'  which  had  prevailed  during  the  previous  few  years,  chiefly  in 
£hind?aest  Bengal  and  the  Punjab.  In  Bengal  it  was  called  the  Swadeshi 
movement,*  which  may  be  roughly  rendered,  using  a  very  modern 
English  phrase,  as  the  "  boycott  "  of  things  British.  But  how 
came  it  to  arise  ?  Various  answers  may  be  given,  and  have  been 
o-iven,  to  this  question.  Perhaps  the  ultimate  cause  was  the 
beneficence  of  British  rule,  and  the  consequent  peace  and  pros 
perity  of  the  country.  One  is  reminded  of  Deut.  xxxii.  15, 
"  Jeshurun  waxed  fat,  and  kicked."  Of  course  grievances  were 
urged  against  the  Government,  and  against  British  administration 
generally ;  but  these  were  not  the  cause  of  the  unrest;  only  the 
excuse  for  it.  And  bearing  in  mind  that  cause  and  occasion  are 
two  very  different  things,  we  may  see  one  occasion,  at  least  in 
Bengal,  in  the  division  of  that  province  by  the  separation  for 
administrative  purposes  of  its  eastern  portions  from  those  of 
the  centre  and  west.  This  was  undoubtedly  very  unpopular 
for  a  time,  for  reasons  not  worth  considering  here  and  now, 
seeing  that  the  partition  was  practically  reversed  after  the 
King's  visit,  when  a  new  and  quite  different  partition  was 
arranged.  The  Government  system  of  secular  education— about 
which  more  presently— is  generally  recognized  as,  if  not  exactly 
the  cause  of  the  unrest,  yet  largely  responsible  for  the  spirit  of  dis 
content  that  prevailed.  But  behind  all  these  there  was  a  "  subtle 
spirit  "  which  had  for  some  years  been  "  hovering  about  the  large 
cities  of  the  Asiatic  Continent,  leading  to  a  Pan-Asiatic  renais 
sance."  f  It  was  in  part  a  revolt  against  the  dominance  of  the 
West,'  and  was  encouraged  both  by  the  difficulty  England  had 
found  in  subduing  the  Boers  and  by  the  greatness  of  the  Japanese 
victory  over  Eussia.  But  it  was  much  more  than  that.  Future 
historians  will  undoubtedly  perceive  that  the  term  renaissance  was 
as  true  of  the  movement  in  Asia  in  the  twentieth  century  as  of  the 
movement  in  Europe  of  the  fifteenth  ;  and  the  Eev.  C.  F.  Andrews 
rightly  entitled  his  brilliant  book  on  India  for  Study  Circles  The 
Renaissance  in  India. 

its  limited        It  is  important,  however,  to  bear  in   mind  how  small  a  section 
Range>        of  the  Indian  population  was  affected  by  the  unrest.     Probably 

is  it  that  all  his  officials  do  not  do  the  same  ?  "  "  Perhaps,"  she  said,  "  they 
do  in  private."  "  Ah  I  "  he  rejoined,  "  but  he  knelt  in  public."  (CM.  Eev., 
Feb.,  1913,  p.  71.) 

*  Mr.  Wigram  writes,  "  Swadeshi  is  violent  Protection  of  home-grown 
commodities  things  belonging  to  ithe  desk.  Desk  =  country ;  Swa  =  own 
(as  Lat.  -suus)."  A  touching  appeal  to  Bengali  Christians,  warning  them 
against  "  Swadeshi,"  was  written  by  Mr.  K.  N.  Basu,  M.A.,  a  teacher  in  the 
C°M.S.  High  School  at  Calcutta.  See  C.M.  Rev.,  May,  1907. 

f  Prom  a  paper  read  before  the  Calcutta  Missionary  Conference,  July,  1907, 
by  the  Kev.  H.  Anderson,  Secretary  of  the  Baptist  Mission  ;  printed  in  the 
C.M.  Beview,  Dec.,  1907. 


INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  Irs  RELIGIONS.        141 

five-sixths  of  the  three  hundred  millions  of  souls  never  even  knew  PART  n 
that  there  was  any  unrest,  or  any  grievance  to  cause  it.  "  They  ch^; 14' 
are  simple  peasants  engaged  in  the  cultivation  of  the  soil.  Their 
wants  are  not  social  and  political,  but  material,  and  if  the  rain 
falls  in  due  season,  and  simple  justice  is  done  to  them  in  their 
village  and  domestic  affairs,  they  ask  for  nothing  more."  So 
wrote  Sir  James  Bourdillon  in  1909;*  and  he  added  that  the 
other  sixth  of  the  population  consists  mainly  of  the  more 
prosperous,  more  intelligent,  and  better  educated  section,  in 
cluding  "almost  all  the  native  princes,  the  landholding  and 
mercantile  classes,  and  the  army,"  for  the  most  part  loyal  and 
sensible.  But  a  small  fraction  remains,  "  composed  mostly  of  T.ho 
lawyers,  schoolmasters,  and  journalists,  with  a  sprinkling  of  the  SSSS. 
other  classes  and  a  considerable  following  of  students,  who  by 
dint  of  perseverance  and  clamour  make  themselves  heard,  and 
would  fain  deceive  the  world  into  thinking  that  they  represent  the 
people  of  India."  In  fact,  the  very  term  "Indian  people  "  is  a 
misnomer.  In  the  many  languages  of  the  Indian  peoples  there  is 
not  even  a  word  for  "  nation."  The  very  idea  of  "  national " 
rights  and  interests  is  a  result  of  the  unifying  influence  of  British 
rule ;  and  the  leaders  of  the  "  national  "  movement  can  only  com 
municate  with  one  another  by  using  the  English  language  which 
they  have  almost  all  learned  at  government  or  mission  schools. 
Such  unity  as  India  is  now  beginning  to  realize  is  due  entirely  to 
the  one  British  rule. 

But  although  the  agitators  are  only  a  "  microscopical  minority  " 
(as  Lord  Dufferin  called  them),  they  can  easily  influence  the 
ignorant  and  superstitious  masses,  if  only  they  can  find  "fuel" 
for  the  "flame  "  they  seek  to  kindle  ;  and  in  Bengal  the  partition 
provided  the  fuel  for  a  time.  If  they  fail  to  find  it,  they  can 
manufacture  it  out  of  their  own  evil  imaginations  ;  and  as  Sir 
Andrew  Fraser  fully  explains  in  his  interesting  book,  Among 
Indian  Rajahs  and  Ryots,  unscrupulous  agitators  may  at  any  time 
stir  up  an  excitable  people  to  riot  by  disseminating  falsehoods 
among  them.  There  lies  the  peril. 

Moreover,  it  has  been  pointed  out  that  "  there  has  always  been  Unrest  nut 
unrest  in  India,  but  mostly  of  a  religious  character.     Deep  in  the  new' 
thought  of  India  is  the  implication  that  all  individual  existence  is 
an  evil.     The  doctrine  of  Karma  and  transmigration  teaches  that  Doctrine 
man  is  ever  reaping  that  which  he  has  sown,  and  until  the  round  °f  KarJ 
of  births  and  re-births  ceases  there  is  nothing  but  unrest."  f    This 
is  not  the  place  to  enter  on  the  vast  subject  of  Indian  religion 
and  philosophy.  J     On  the    doctrine   of    Karma  an    illuminating 

*  In  an  able  article  in  the  C.M.  Review,  Aug.,  1909.  The  peasant  life  of 
India  is  well  described  in  S.  K.  Datta's  book  for  Study  Circles,  The  Desire  of 
India,  Chap.  ii. 

t  Rev.  J.  P.  Ellwood,  in  C.M.  Review,  Sept.,  1911. 

J  For  the  ordinary  reader  there  is  now  no  better  explanation  than  in 
Andrews's  "  study  book,"  The  Renaissance  in  India.  But  there  is  nothing  new 


PART  II. 

Chap. 14. 


Religious 
Sanction 
claimed  for 
Crime. 


Sedition 
must  be 
suppressed 


but  not  to 
deter  us 
from 
generous 
action 


142        INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 

book  has  been  written  by  Professor  Hogg  of  Madras,  to  which  the 
reader  may  be  referred.*  But  it  may  be  noted  that  the  agitators 
of  Bengal  have  sought  even  to  justify  murder  by  references  to 
Hindu  sacred  books,  as  Sir  Valentine  Chirol's  famous  Letters  to 
the  Times  pointed  out.  That  able  writer  considered  that  some  of 
the  misguided  students  who  have  committed  political  murders 
would  have  been  incapable  of  so  doing  if  they  had  not  found  that 
they  could  invest  their  acts  with  religious  sanction.  They  even 
cited — by  a  false  interpretation — the  Bhagavad  Gita  (the  Lord's 
Song),  "  the  loftiest  production  of  Hindu  religious  thought,"  in 
which  the  doctrine  of  bhakti,  or  loving  faith  in  and  devotion  to  a 
personal  God,  as  contrasted  with  karma  (works  and  consequences), 
is  set  forth  as  the  true  way  of  salvation,  f  Bengal  has  had  a  suc 
cession  of  high-minded  and  generous-spirited  Governors,  and  not 
least  noble  among  them  was  Sir  Andrew  Eraser  ;  yet  there  were 
four  different  attempts  to  assassinate  him,  which  through  God's 
mercy  all  failed.  J 

In  the  face  of  all  this  we  cannot  be  surprised  at  Lord  Moiiey's 
language  (in  1909),  when  he  was  in  the  very  midst  of  the  reforms 
and  developments  that  signalized  his  tenure  of  the  India  Office 
and  Lord  Minto's  Viceroyalty,  "  We  are  face  to  face  with  probably 
the  greatest  arid  most  difficult  problem  of  government  with  which 
our  race  has  ever  yet  had  to  contend."  Lord  Curzon  and  Lord 
Cromer,  a  little  earlier  (1907),  had  agreed  in  saying  that  while 
"  sedition  must  be  firmly  suppressed,"  we  are  "  not  to  be  deterred 
from  adopting  such  reforms  as  are  calculated  to  satisfy  the  aspira 
tions  of  all  moderate  and  reasonable  men."  And  so  King  Edward's 
Message  to  India  in  1908,  on  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  the  transfer 
of  direct  administration  from  the  East  India  Company  to  the 
Crown,  expressed  the  resolute  determination  of  Great  Britain  : — 

"  It  is  a  paramount  duty  to  repress  with  a  stern  arm  guilty  conspiracies 
that  have  no  just  aim.  These  conspiracies  I  know  to  be  abhorrent  to  the 
loyal  and  faithful  character  of  the  vast  host  of  my  Indian  subjects,  and  I 
will  not  suffer  them  to  turn  me  aside  from  my  task  of  building  up  the 
fabric  of  security  and  order." 

Mr.  Maconachie,  who  has  written  much  that  is  valuable  in  the 
C.M.  Review  on  the  India  he  so  devotedly  served,§  while  strongly 
condemning  the  agitators,  gently  reminded  us  that  something  is 

in  these  modern  expositions.  The  Trident,  the  Crescent,  and  the  Cross,  by  the 
Rev.  J.  Vaughan,  of  Calcutta,  published  forty  years  ago,  and  now  out  of  print, 
was  as  good  as  any.  A  series  of  quite  popular  articles  based  on  it  appeared 
in  the  CM.  Gleaner  in  1878. 

*  See  also  an  article  on  "  Karma  and  the  Problem  of  Unmerited  Suffering, 
by  the  Rev.  J.  P.  S.  R.  Gibson,  of  Trinity   College,  Randy,  C.M.  Review, 
Sept.,  1913.     Also  one  by  Mr.  Padfield,  C.M.  Intell.,  March,  1900. 

t  See  C.M.  Review,  Sept.,  1911,  p.  528. 

%  See  CM.  Review,  Dec.,  1908. 

S  Mr.  Maconachie  not  only  has  the  experience  of  many  years'  service  under 
Government,  but  he  had  the  advantage  of  correcting  old  views  by  visiting  India 
again  in  1903-4.  Sco  his  interesting  article  in  C.M.  Intell.,  Aug.,  1904. 


INDIA-.  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        143 

needed  on  our  side.    He  headed  one  of  his  "  Indian  Notes  "  (Jan      PART  n 
1908),  "  Wanted— courtesy !  "     "  Something  helpful,  towards  paci-   chaP- 14- 
ncation,    he  declared,  «  can  be  done  by  every  Englishman  resident  Courtly  to 
in  India.       "The  idea  of  [an  educated  Indian],  who  in  England  Saown  to 
would  be  received  in  a  drawing-room  on  equal  terms,  being  com 
pelled  to  stand  or  sit  on  the  floor  when  visiting  an  English  official 
in  India  seems  quite  an  anachronism.     Yet  have  not  some  cases 
oi  this  occurred?"        In  which  connexion  we  cannot  but  recall 
the  perplexity  caused  to  the  Indian  mind  by  the  Sermon  on  the 
Mount.     "  Blessed  are  the  meek  "— "  and  yet,  how  could  I  offer  a 
greater  insult  to  the  Sahib  than  to  call  him  a  '  meek  man  "?  "     It 
must  certainly  be  admitted  that  not  by  "  meekness  "  have  English 
men  "  inherited  the  earth."  f 

THE  EENAISSANCE. 

But  although,  on  the  one  hand,  Indians  may  have  real  grievances,  Unrest,  in 
and  although,  on  the  other  hand,  shocking  crimes  have  disgraced  oue  vie'w'  a 
the  agitators,  many  of  the  best  friends  of  India  have  taken  a  larger  ^Testified' 
and  more  hopeful  view  of  the  "  unrest,"  indicated  already  by  the  a/eueadillg 
word  "  renaissance."     "  India,"  wrote  Sir  W.  Mackworth  Young 
in  1909,1  "is  undergoing  the  throes  of  a  new  birth."     The  Eev. 
A.  E.   Johnston,  formerly  Principal  of  the    Divinity   College   at 
Allahabad,    whose    loss    by    death    we   have    only    lately    been 
lamenting,  wrote  of    "the   New   Spirit   in    India."  §     The    Rev. 
J.  P.  Haythornthwaite,  for  many  years   Principal  of  St.   John's 
College,  Agra,  speaks  of  "  the  New  Idealism,"  which  he  suggests  as 
"  a  convenient  expression  for  denoting  the  subtle  and  many-sided 
character  of  that  remarkable  life-movement  frequently  described 
simply  as  Nationalism."  j|     Bishop  Lefroy,  now  Metropolitan   of 
India,  speaks  of  "the  stirring  into  a   new  life"  which  is  ''the 
inevitable  outcome  of  England's  work  in  the  past,"  and  towards 
which  "  a  sympathetic  attitude  is  essential."    The  Eev.  H.  G.  Grey, 
Principal  of  Wycliffe  Hall,  and  formerly  of  St.  John's  College] 

*  "Young  Indians  cannot,  and  will  not,  bear  things  that  were  done  as 
a  matter  of  course  by  Englishmen  a  generation  ago.  One  slight  but  not 
unimportant  index  of  this  growth  of  self-respect  is  their  dislike  to  be  called 
'  the  natives,'  as  though  they  were  an  inferior  race  of  beings.  .  .  .  Instances 
of  British  high-handedness  are  now  resisted  with  resentment  where  before 
they  would  have  been  passively  accepted.  Each  insult  to  British  Indians  in 
the  Transvaal  and  other  colonies  is  recorded  at  length  in  the  Indian  news 
papers,  and  made  the  talk  of  the  bazaars."— C.  F.  Andrews,  The  Renaissance 
in  India,  p.  171. 

t  In^this  connexion,  there  is  the  cognate  subject  of  the  intercourse  between 
the  missionaries  and  the  other  Englishmen  in  India.  Various  opinions 
touching  that  intercourse  are  held.  It  may  suffice  here  to  refer  to  a  judicious 
article  by  the  Rev.  E.  F.  E.  Wigram  in  the  CM.  Intell.  of  March,  1906.  ! 

$  In  an  important  address  on  the  National  Movement  in  India,  delivered 
at  Canon  Christopher's  Oxford  Breakfast  in  1909,  and  printed  in  the  C  M 
Review,  April,  1909. 

§  C.M.  Bevieiv,  Sept.,  1911. 

||  Ibid,  Oct.,  1912. 


144        INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 

PART  ii.  Lahore,  says  :  "  The  present  unrest  is  indicative  of  the  strength  of 
.  tne  new  forces  at  work  in  the  land  .  .  .  and  that  they  may  go  on 
more  mightily  is  the  desire  of  every  lover  of  India."  Mr.  Eraser 
of  Trinity  College,  Kandy,  says,  "  The  National  Movement  is  the 
expression  of  the  growing  self -consciousness  of  the  peoples  .  .  . 
It  is  rooted  in  the  very  depths  of  Eastern  religious  patriotic  feeling." 
Mr.  Holland  of  Calcutta  says,  "  At  bottom  it  is  nothing  else  than 
the  desire  to  make  India  the  best,  the  greatest,  the  noblest  she  can 
be."  Mr.  Slater  of  the  L.M.S.,  a  man  of  long  experience,  says, 
"  It  is  all  a  sign  of  progress,  and  progress  in  the  right  direction."* 
And  the  National  Indian  Congress,  notwithstanding  some  wild 
utterances  at  its  meetings  (as  might  be  expected),  seeks  to  set  a  high 
moral  standard,  and  has  certainly  grown  more  sane  and  reason 
able  year  by  year,  as  is  admitted  by  some  not  prepossessed  in  its 
favour. 

The  new          These    are    significant    testimonies,    and    highly    encouraging. 

idealism.  Mf  Haythornthwaite's  account  of  the  position  is  particularly 
clear  and  interesting.  He  describes  the  "  New  Idealism  "  as  ^  a 
great  aspiration  in  several  directions— political,  industrial,  social, 
educational,  and  religious."  He  carefully  distinguishes  between 
the  Extremist  and  the  Progressive  parties.  ((()  Politically,  while 
the  former  want  an  India  free  from  British  control,  the  latter  only 
look  for  the  gradual  development  of  representative  government,  so 
that  India  may  no  longer  be  a  "  dependency,"  but,  like  Canada 
and  Australia,  an  integral  and  responsible  part  of  the  Empire. 
(b)  Industrially,  while  the  former  organized  the  Swadeshi  move 
ment,  boycotting  English  goods,  the  latter,  perceiving  the  folly 
of  this  in  India's  own  interests,  only  desired  that,  in  Lord 
Lamington's  words,  fiscal  policy  should  not  be  governed  by 
British  trade  interests,  (c)  Socially,  the  Extremists  would  retain 
and  revive  the  power  of  caste,  but  the  Progressives  aim  at  welding 
all  classes  and  creeds  into  one  united  people ;  in  connexion  with 
which  Mr.  Haythornthwaite  happily  quotes  Burns  :— 

It's  coming  in  for  a'  that, 

That  man  to  man,  the  warld  o'er, 

Shall  brithers  be  for  a'  that. 

And  he  mentions  some  social  arrangements  at  his  College  at  Agra 
designed  to  foster  this  spirit  of  brotherhood,  (d)  Educationally,  all 
parties  condemn  the  past  system  of  government  education,  but 
have  not  solved  the  problem,  (e)  Eeligiously,  the  Progressives  have 
perceived  the  importance  of  the  spirit  of  service  and  self-sacrifice, 
Gokhaie.  which  Mr.  Gokhale,  their  highly-respected  leader,  sought  to  foster 

*  The  opinions  of  Bishop  Lefroy,  Mr.  Grey,  Mr.  Fraser,  Mr.  Holland,  and 
Mr  Slater,  were  quoted  by  Sir  W.  Mackworth  Young  in  the  Oxford  address 
above  cited,  and  are  taken  from  it.  Here  may  be  mentioned  an  important 
book  bv  Mr  Slater,  The  Higher  Hinduism  in  Relation  to  Christianity.  It  was 
reviewed  by  Mr.  Padfield  in  the  CM.  Jntell  of  Jan.,  1903  Also >  India  s 
Problem,  Krishna  or  Christ,  by  the  Kev.  J.  P.  Jones,  reviewed  Sept.,  l(JOd. 


INDIA  :  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        145 

by  his  "  Servants  of  India"  Society;*  but  Mr.  Haythorntliwaite    PART  IT. 
shows  how  Christianity  alone  can  meet  the  real  needs  of  India,  and   chap'  u- 
satisfy   the  aspirations  of   her  peoples;    and   he  cites  Professor 
Eudra,  the  able  Indian  Principal  of  St.  Stephen's  College,  Delhi 
(connected  with  the  S.P.G.  Mission),  as  declaring  that  "  in  Christ 
India's  children  would  gain  the  full  fruition  of  their  newly-found 
national  consciousness.      A  great  Indian  Church  would  become 
possible,  and  therefore  a  great  Indian  nation." 

Sir  James  Bourdillon  entitles  his  article,  already  quoted  from,  sir  J. 
"  The  Opportunity  of  the  Unrest  in  India."  He  approves  of  Mr.  onthe'"0" 
Holland's  phrase,  "  Capture  the  National  Movement  for  Christ,"  Unrest, 
so  far  as  it  goes  ;  but  his  motif  is  a  still  larger  one.  The  National 
Movement,  he  observes,  is  but  a  part  of  the  "  Unrest."  "  Our 
aim,"  he  finely  says,  "  should  be  to  direct  and  control  the  Unrest 
in  India  as  the  turbulent  volume  of  the  Nile  is  tamed  and  con 
trolled  and  transformed  into  a  million  rivulets  of  irrigation,  bear 
ing  everywhere  life,  fertility,  and  blessing  to  the  desert."  "  The 
idea,"  he  adds,  "  is  inspiring,  and  though  with  men  it  may  seem  to 
be  chimerical  and  impossible  of  achievement,  yet  '  with  God  all 
things  are  possible.'  "  His  chief  practical  suggestion  is  that  we 
should  win  the  hearts  of  the  women,  whose  domestic  influence  is 
so  potent  in  India,  and  also  capture  the  education  of  the  children  ; 
concerning  both  of  which  more  by  and  by.  Sir  W.  Mackworth  and  sir  w 
Young,  in  the  address  already  referred  to,  noticing  some  of  theM>Youngi 
recent  developments  in  India  pointing  towards  a  higher  life,  takes 
much  the  same  line.  He  lays  special  stress  on  Social  Reform, 
referring  to  "  a  few  ardent  souls  among  cultured  Indians  "  who  are 
"  working  hard  to  create  a  public  opinion  in  favour  of  the  relaxa 
tion  of  caste,  the  emancipation  and  education  of  women,  the  re 
probation  of  early  marriages  and  enforced  widowhood,"  &c.  He 
was  addressing  a  great  gathering  of  Oxford  men,  and  he  rightly  The 
added,  "  The  cause  of  India's  women  is  not  a  woman's  cause.  If 
ever  there  was  a  subject  in  which  the  best  manhood  of  Christian 
England  is  called  upon  to  take  a  keen  interest,  it  is  this ;  for  what 
Englishman  is  there  who  knows  not  that  to  the  dignity  and  purity 
of  womanhood  we  owe  the  deepest  debt  for  that  which  is  best  in 
our  social  evolution  ?  .  .  .  Win  the  women  of  India,  and  you  will 
win  the  men  !  "  Young  India  feels  this  deeply ;  and  as  their  women 
become  educated,  and  come  forth  out  of  the  zenana  to  engage  in 

*  This  Society  was  founded  by  Mr.  Gokhale  in  1906.  Its  objects  are  "  to 
train  national  missionaries  for  the  service  of  India,  and  to  promote  the  true 
interests  of  the  Indian  people."  Its  members  "frankly  accept  the  British 
connexion  as  ordained,  in  the  inscrutable  dispensation  of  Providence,  for 
India's  good,"  and  they  recognize  that  "  self-government  within  the  empire 
and  a  higher  life  for  their  countrymen"  constitute  a  good  which  "  cannot  be 
attained  without  years  of  earnest  and  patient  effort  and  sacrifices  worthy  of 
the  cause."  Meanwhile,  the  Society's  work  "  must  be  directed  towards  build 
ing  up  in  the  country  a  higher  type  of  character  and  capacity,"  and  to  this 
end  it  will  "  train  men  prepared  to  devote  their  lives  to  the  cause  of  the 
country  in  a  religious  spirit."  (Year  Book  of  Indian  Missions,  1912,  p.  6G.) 

L 


146 


INDIA  :  ITS  RULERS  AND  Irs  RELIGIONS. 


PART  n.  social  work,  they  are  but  reviving  the  ancient  freedom  of  woman 
4.  jn  Indian  life  which  was  interrupted  by  the  Mohammedan  purdah 
system,  and  restoring  the  romantic  chivalry  pictured  in  the  best 
of  Indian  classics,  the  Bamayana,*  We  must  not  fail  to  recognize 
the  fact  that  the  political  concessions  of  recent  years  have  done 
much,  not  perhaps  to  cure  the  unrest  among  the  disloyal  section 
before  referred  to,  but  to  prevent  its  extension  by  satisfying  the 
loyal  majority.  The  admission  to  the  Viceroy's  Imperial  Council 
of  representatives  of  many  sections  of  the  people  made  a  deep  im 
pression.  At  its  first  meeting  under  the  new  scheme,  in  1910, 
Bengali,  Mahratta,  Sikh,  Pathan, — Hindu,  Moslem,  Parsi,  Jew, — 
were  all  there.  It  was  a  generous  and  a  successful  beginning. 


The 

Education 

Question. 


Duff's 
prophecy. 


THE  EDUCATIONAL  PROBLEM. 

On  the  Education  Question  something  more  must  be  said,  as  it 
has  been  much  under  discussion  during  our  period.  There  has 
been  a  general  consensus  that  for  the  unrest  and  agitation  the 
Government  educational  system  was  in  no  small  measure  respon 
sible.  Eor  both  the  open  and  the  secret  agitators  were  almost  all 
men  so  educated.  Bishop  Welldon  said  at  Oxford  in  1901,  "  The 
inevitable  and  actual  result  of  British  government  in  India  was  to 
destroy  native  beliefs  ;  the  secular  education  itself  had  this  effect."" 
"  English  education,"  said  the  Times  in  the  same  year,  "  instead  of 
promoting  mutual  understanding  between  rulers  and  subjects,  has 
created  a  disappointed  class,  and  so  far  it  must  be  regarded,  from 
the  political  standpoint,  as  rather  worse  than  a  failure  "  In  1908, 
several  Indian  Chambers  of  Commerce  addressed  to  the  Secretary 
of  State  an  open  letter,  which  affirmed  that  many  government 
schools  were  "notoriously  nurseries  of  sedition,'  because  the 
secular  system  had  no  moral  influence.  That  had  come  to  pass 
which  Dr.  Duff,  the  greatest  educationist  in  India,|  had  predicted 
long  before,  when  addressing  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Church 
of  Scotland.  "  If  you  give  the  people  knowledge  without  religion, 
it  will  be  the  greatest  blunder,  politically  speaking,  ever  committed. 
Shaken  out  of  the  mechanical  routine  of  their  own  religious 
observances,  without  moral  principle  to  balance  their  thoughts,  or 
guide  their  movements,  they  become  restless  agitators."  Most 
true  are  Lord  Curzon's  words — "  We  are  sharpening  the  wits  of 

*  The  chapter  on  Indian  Womanhood  in  The  Renaissance  in  India  is  one 
of  the  most  interesting  in  the  book.  Miss  de  Selincourt,  now  the  Principal  of 


up  on  every  side."  See  also  an  article  on  Indian  Womanhood,  by  Mrs.  J.  F. 
Hewitt,  in  the  CM.  Review,  Dec.,  1913,  and  another  by  Miss  K.  M.  Bose, 
in  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  April,  1914. 

f  Dr.  Duff's  career,  and  his  influence  in  India,  are  sketched  in  the  History 
of  C.M.S.,  Chap.  21,  Vol.  I.,  pp.  302,  311 ;  and  Chap.  59,  Vol.  II.,  p.  496.  His 
Life  by  Dr.  George  Smith  is  a  book  of  extraordinary  interest. 


INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        147 

the   people  without  forming  their  characters."      Admitting  that    PARTII. 
Government  must   be   officially  neutral,   there    are    many   ways   chap- u 
in  which  the  obvious  difficulty  may  be  surmounted ;  particularly  The  true 
by  encouraging  local  and  unofficial  efforts,  giving  grants-in-aid  to  Plan< 
colleges    and    schools    according    to    their     efficiency,    whether 
established  by  Hindus,  Moslems,  or  Christians,  instead  of  multiply 
ing  secular  institutions.     This,  in   fact,  was  Sir  Charles  Wood's 
original  design  in  the  famous  Educational  Despatch  of  1854,  but  it 
was  never  properly  carried  out.* 

One  notable  result  of  the  mistake  has  been  that  non-Christian  Christian 
parents  have  continually  chosen  Christian  schools  or  colleges  for  popular, 
their  sons  rather  than  those  of  the  Government,  avowedly  because 
the  religious  teaching  had  a  moral  influence  upon  them,  j  While 
they  dislike  the  Christian  teaching,  they  know  it  is  not  pressed 
on  the  pupils  in  unfair  ways,  and  the  prohibition  of  a  change  of 
religion  under  a  certain  age  protects  them.  Missionary  educa 
tion  is  indeed  a  valuable  evangelistic  agency ;  almost  all  the  higher 
class  of  Indian  Christians  are  the  fruit  of  it;  but  the  fruit  is 
generally  gathered  after  school  days  are  over.  It  is  a  striking 
fact  that  at  the  time  of  the  most  serious  agitation,  when  the 
Swadeshi  movement  was  active,  the  Christian  colleges  were  the 
one  British  agency  not  boycotted.  Many  cases  of  the  preference 
for  Christian  schools  appear  in  the  Eeports  of  our  period ;  and 
one  still  more  striking.  In  Tinnevelly  Town,  which  is  dominated 
by  the  great  temple  with  its  huge  revenues  and  its  army  of 
priests,  the  only  mission  agency  is  the  C.M.S.  College.  When  the 
unrest  was  at  its  height  in  1907,  a  mob,  instigated  by  the  agitators, 
broke  the  College  windows  and  furniture ;  but  a  band  of  men,  also 
non-Christian,  gathered  round  Mr.  Schaffter,  the  Principal,  and 
defended  him  from  the  attack.  Yet  that  College  has  given  several 
converts  to  the  Church,  and  numbers  amongst  its  "  old  boys  "  the 
Bishop  of  Dornakal. 

Happily  the  King's  visit  to  India  was  made  the  occasion  of  New  Policy 
starting  a  wiser  policy.     An  official  manifesto  issued  in  the  fol- 
lowing  year,  confirming  the  largely  increased  grants   announced  Visit- 
by  himself  at  Delhi,  lamented  the  tendency  to  develop  the  intel 
lectual    at    the    expense   of   the   moral    and   religious   faculties, 
laid  stress  on  the  formation  of   character,  and  announced  large 

*  On  the  Indian  Education  question,  the  following  articles  are  worth 
noting  for  reference  : — By  Sir  Andrew  Eraser,  in  the  Int.  Eev.  Miss.,  July, 
1912,  and  July,  1913 ;  by  the  Eev.  J.  P.  Haythornthwaite,  in  The  East  and 
The  West,  Jan.  and  July,  1913,  and  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  July,  1911 ;  by  the 
Rev.  A.  P.  Ealand,  in  The  'East  and  The  West,  April,  1915  ;  and  by  the  Rev. 
W.  C.  Peiin,  Principal  of  the  Noble  College,  on  "  The  Hope  of  India,"  in  the 
C.M.  Eev.,  Sept.,  1909.  The  history  of  educational  plans  and  measures  is 
sketched  in  The  Renaissance  in  India,  Chap.  ii.  See  also  Note  on  p.  157. 

t  In  a  Hindu  biography  of  a  religious  leader,  it  is  acknowledged  that  he 
was  "  morally  bad,"  but  it  is  mentioned  as  an  "  extenuating  circumstance  " 
that  at  that  time  l(  few  missionaries  iv ere  preaching."  (Renaissance  in  India, 
p.  147.) 


148 


INDIA-.  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 


PART  ii    assistance  to  voluntary  effort ;  which  policy  has  since  been  illus- 

chap.  14.  trated  hy  handsome  grants  to  C.M.S.  colleges  and  hostels.     The 

Government  cannot   teach  religion  itself,  and  it  is  best  that  it 

should  not   do  so  ;  but   it  now   realizes   how  essential  religious 

education  is,  and  hence  the  liberal  treatment  of  religious  institutions, 

of  course  not  Christian  only,  but  also  Hindu  and  Moslem.     At 

the  same  time,  the  educational  standard  and  plant  which  the 
Government  demand  in  order  to  recognize  and  aid  an  institution 
is  constantly  being  raised ;  and  it  is  severely  trying  the  resources 
of  the  missionary  societies  to  take  advantage  of  the  proffered  help. 
It  is  not  from  mission  colleges  that  the  vast  majority  of  the 
agitators  come.  The  pupils,  with  rare  exceptions,  become  the 
most  loyal  of  the  people.  When  Sir  Curzon  Wylie  was  murdered 
in  London,  it  was  an  Indian  from  a  mission  hostel  that  seized  the 
assassin.  And  the  moral  effect  of  the  athletics  cultivated  in  the 
mission  colleges  is  great.  Again  and  again  have  C.M.S.  pupils 
carried  off  prizes  in  the  sports  open  to  all.  They  learn,  as  we 
say,  to  "  play  the  game." 


HINDUISM  AND  ITS  DEVELOPMENTS. 


Idolatry 
and  Caste 
still 
powerful . 


While  secular  education  has  tended  to  destroy  faith  in  any 
religion,  it  has  not  largely  affected  the  outward  observance  of 
religious  rites.  These,  in  fact,  are  more  or  less  connected  with 
caste,  and  caste  retains  its  mighty  power  even  over  the  graduates 
of  the  Indian  Universities.  There  is  now  and  then  a  loosening  of 
its  bonds  in  the  North,  and  even  in  the  South  this  may  be  noticed. 
Yet  it  was  from  Bengal  that  a  letter  in  1906  mentioned  the  fact  of 
University  graduates,  teachers  in  a  secular  college,  worshipping 
the  food  they  were  just  about  to  eat,  and  ceremoniously  bathing 
during  the  eclipse  of  the  moon.  It  was  at  the  great  temple  of 
Kali  at  Calcutta  that  the  most  seditious  meetings  were  held ;  and 
it  came  out  at  the  trial  of  certain  anarchists  that  in  an  institution 
where  the  manufacture  of  bombs  was  secretly  taught,  lectures 
were  also  given  on  the  Vedas  and  Upanishads.  As  a  missionary 
tersely  put  it,  "  The  sacred  books  were  studied  in  the  morning, 
and  the  art  of  assassination  in  the  evening."  Meanwhile  the 
degradation  of  the  popular  religion  has  been  as  conspicuous  as  ever. 
There  is  no  diminution  of  the  glaring  immorality  that  flourishes  in 
the  temples,  no  material  change  in  what  Miss  Wilson- Carmichael 
calls  "  Things  as  they  are,"  notwithstanding  a  proclamation  by  the 
Bombay  Government  against  it  in  1909.  rru-  «™u;^  oi,™  »  f™flR« 


The  "  white-slave  "  traffic 


of  England  is  a  small  thing  in  comparison.  Infanticide  is  still 
common,  and  even  "  sati,"  though  forbidden  by  law,  is  not  extinct, 
several  cases  having  been  reported  during  the  last  few  years.*  Mr. 
Holland,  whose  whole  temperament  is  to  seek  for  whatever  is  good 
in  Hinduism,  wrote  in  1906,  after  visiting  a  camp  of  "  holy  men  "  at 

*  See,  e.g.,  C.M.  Rev.,  April  and  Sept.,  1914,  pp.  257, 577  ;  Feb.,  1916,  p.  125. 


INDIA-.  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        149 

the  great  mela  at  Allahabad,  "  Never  till  now  have  I  known  what    PART  n 
Hinduism  means.     I  simply  did  not  know  it  existed.     Degradation   Char- 1*" 
unspeakable   that    cannot    be    exaggerated.     No    missionary  de-  Degi^da- 
scription  of  the  blackness  of  idolatry  can  approach  the  reality.  .  .  .  ti(?n  of. 
These  sadhus  are  at  once  the  living  representatives  of  philosophic 
Hinduism  and  the  personification  of  all  that  is  most  degraded  in 
Hinduism." 

This  indictment  comes  not  only  from  missionaries.  A  few  Mr.  Oman's 
years  ago,  Mr.  Campbell  Oman,  an  Oriental  by  descent,  and  a  Indictment> 
professor  of  science  in  a  government  college,  published  a  book 
entitled  The  Brahmans,  Theists,  and  Moslems  of  India.  His  word- 
pictures  are  drawn  from  personal  experience,  and  his  disposition 
is  to  defend,  as  far  as  he  can,  Eastern  customs  from  the  criticism 
of  the  West.  He  actually  argues  that  the  temple  prostitution, 
being  "  sanctified  by  religion,  and  under  recognized  control,  is 
morally  less  harmful "  than  the  vice  of  Western  cities.  But  his 
descriptions  as  an  eye-witness  of  the  orgies  of  certain  types  of 
religious  worship  are  of  such  a  kind  that  a  reviewer*  recommends 
"  squeamish  people  "  not  to  read  them,  although  they  do  not,  and 
dare  not,  give  the  whole.  Moreover  he  affirms  the  prevalence  of 
drunkenness,  of  which  we  are  accustomed  to  think  the  Hindus 
are  guiltless ;  but  Mr.  Natarajan,  a  contributor  to  the  Year  Book 
of  Indian  Missions  for  1912,  says  there  is  a  reaction  against  this, 
and  that  the  younger  educated  men  are  total  abstainers,  the 
habitual  drinkers  being  men  past  middle  age.  "  Is  this  Hinduism," 
asks  the  reviewer,  "  the  religion  of  the  educated  gentlemen  whom 
we  meet  in  our  English  colleges  and  elsewhere  ?  "  Evidently  the 
popular  picture  of  "the  Hindu  as  a  mystical  saint,  rapt  in  the 
contemplation  of  the  eternal  mysteries,  living  a  simple  and  self- 
denying  life,  and  undistracted  by  the  passions  that  sway  the 
minds  of  worldly  men,"  is  true  in  a  very  limited  sense,  and  of  a 
very  small  minority.  Mr.  Oman  affirmed  that  in  Bengal  religion 
is  "  a  morbid,  emotional  affection  "  which  "  tends  to  sap  the  man 
hood  of  the  people  and  to  effeminate  the  race  "  ;  and  the  Times,  confirmed 
referring  to  this  book  in  a  leading  article  (in  1907),  asked :—  §y^e 

"  Is  it  too  severe  an  indictment  of  a  people  amongst  whom  the  most 
popular  cult  is  that  of  the  goddess  Kali  or  Durga,  the  great  goddess  of 
death  and  destruction,  who  delights  in  bloody  sacrifices  ?  Is  it  too 
severe  an  indictment  of  a  people  among  whom  such  licentious  rites  as 
those  of  the  Durga  pujah  are  largely  practised  not  only  by  the  masses, 
but  even  by  many  of  the  educated  classes  ?  Is  it  too  severe  an  indict 
ment  of  a  social  system  under  which  special  sanctity  attaches  to  the  caste 
of  Kulin  Brahmans,  whose  privileges  include  the  most  outrageous  and 
degrading  form  of  polygamy  ?  " 

And  how  far  mere  material  progress  will  affect  idolatry  may  be 
illustrated  by  two  facts  referred  to  a  few  years  ago  in  a  Madras 

*  This  book  was  reviewed  by  Mr.  Manley  in  the  C.M.  Review,  April,  1908 ; 
and  from  that  article  the  above  is  taken. 


150        INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 

PART  ii.   newspaper,  viz.,  a  procession  of  the  god  Ganesha  mounted  on  a 
chap.^14.  bicycle,  and  the  cult  of  the  motor-car  as  an  incarnation  of  the 

Spirit  of  the  Ages  ! 

Modem  Past  history  shows  that  every  time  some  new  religious  system 

s  foun^  an  entrance  into  India,  the  ancient  Hinduism,  while  not 


ments         nas 

seriously  shaken  from  its  predominant  position,  has  been  so  far 

affected  that  some  great  teacher  has  put  forth  fresh  views  of 
doctrine  and  life,  which  have  not  only  brought  disciples  to  him, 
and  perhaps  inaugurated  a  new  religious  body,  but  also  have 
modified  in  some  way  the  general  Hindu  teaching.  Mr.  Johnston, 
in  his  article  on  the  New  Spirit,  illustrates  this  historical  fact, 
and  further  shows  how  the  same  effect  has  been  produced  by  the 
Brahmo  advent  of  Christianity.  The  Brahmo  Samaj  of  Bengal  was  the 
first  attempt  to  combine  the  new  light  thus  introduced  with  the 
old  religion  ;  but  its  influence  has  not  been  conspicuous  during 
the  period  under  review.*  The  Census  of  1911  showed  a  total  of 
5500  members,  an  increase  of  1000  in  the  decade.  Its  much 
respected  leader,  Protab  Chunder  Mozumdar.,  died  iri  1905. 
Arya.  Another  body,  however,  the  Arya  Samaj,  founded  about  1875  by  a 
Mahratta  Brahman  named  Dayanand  Saraswati,  has  grown  rapidly 
India  in  power,  particularly  in  the  North,  and  its  members  numbered 
?rom°the  243,000,  an  increase  in  the  decade  of  166  per  cent,  f  It  is  much  more 
West.  hostile  to  Christianity  than  its  more  moderate  and  dignified  fore 
runner.  It  is  an  attempt  to  drop  some  of  the  excrescences  of  later 
Hinduism,  and  to  go  back  to  the  teaching  of  the  Vedas,  the  oldest 
of  the  Hindu  sacred  books.  But  its  leaders  are  quite  oblivious^of 
the  fact  that  their  own  knowledge  of  the  Vedas  is  due  to  British 
research.  It  seems  that  Dr.  Mill,  the  Principal  of  Bishop's 
College  eighty  years  ago,  was  the  first  to  reveal  to  the  pundits 
of  Calcutta  the  relative  dates  and  characters  of  their  own  sacred 
books  ;  and  the  fact  is  that  Max  Muller  and  Monier  Williams  did 
more  to  introduce  the  Vedas  to  the  modern  Hindu  than  the 
Brahman  priests  of  Benares.  Even  the  Bhavagad  Gita  (before 
mentioned),  which  is  now  in  the  hands  of  every  one  who  can 
read,  was  a  rare  book  within  the  lifetime  of  men  now  in  India, 
and  was  barely  known  to  a  few  pundits  a  century  ago. 

The  Ayra  Samaj  does  not  realize  this  ;  on  the  contrary,  one  of 
its  members  has  declared  that  all  the  great  religions,  Christianity 
included,  have  been  derived  from  ancient  Hinduism.  J  But  it  pays 
Christianity  the  sincerest  form  of  flattery  by  imitating  its  methods 
of  promulgation.  It  establishes  schools  and  orphanages,  distributes 
tracts,  and  sings  hymns,  some  of  them  translations  of  familiar 
Christian  hymns  tlike  "  Lead,  kindly  light."  It  teaches  the  unity 

*  The  story  of  the  Brahmo  Samaj  ,  of  its  founder,  Ram  Mohun  Hoy,  and 

fc.  *i  -».,.        -i        T       f-*i  T  c~\  _____     J_-,1J3     I  —     /~1V*««      C\C\   rt-f    -d-l-i^      t7/»o  4-f\r\-nt 


Rev.,  April,  1915. 
I  J.  N.  Farquhar,  in  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  July,  1914. 


INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        151 

of  God,  denounces  idolatry,  and  professes,  though  not  very  truly,  PART  n. 
to  disregard  caste.  It  has  even  begun  to  admit  outcastes  into  its  (Jhap' 14' 
fold,  a  proceeding  which  may  tend  to  check  the  "  mass  movement " 
among  them  in  a  Christian  direction.  Its  great  college  at 
Hardwar,  in  which  Western  science  is  combined  with  ancient 
Indian  literature,  aims  at  high  moral  principles  and  conduct.  It 
has  also  the  Dayanand  College  at  Lahore,  another  important 
institution  doing  good  work  in  its  way  (though  not  free  from 
the  taint  of  sedition).  But  all  the  while,  the  Arya  Samaj  is  the 
most  bitter  antagonist  of  the  Gospel.  Indeed,  its  social  work  is 
only  undertaken  to  help  forward  its  religious  influence.  And  it 
claims  to  have  "  effectually  checked  conversions  to  both  Christi 
anity  and  Islam  "  "  by  keenly  criticizing  popular  Islam  and  popular 
Christianity  "  and  "  mercilessly  exposing  their  weak  points."  * 

In  the  Bombay  Presidency  there  is  the  Prarthana  Samaj,  which  other 
is  more  on  the  lines  of  the  Brahmo  Samaj  and  is  identified  with  yamajcs- 
the  Social  Keform  movement.     Its  leading  founder  was  Justice 
Eanade,  the  first  native  Fellow  of  Bombay  University,  and  a  man 
of  high  character   and   great   learning.      At   Poona   also   is   the 
Fergusson    College,  whose   Principal,   a  Marathi   Brahman,    Mr. 
Paranjpye,  was  Senior  Wrangler  at  Cambridge,  and  in  which  one 
of    the  teachers  was   Mr.  Gopal  Krishna   Gokhale,   the   Indian 
member  of  the  Viceroy's  Legislative  Council,  whose  recent  death 
has  been  so  widely  lamented,  f 

Movements  like  these  must  tend  to  shake  the  supremacy  and 
exclusiveness  of  the  Brahrnans.  According  to  ancient  Hinduism, 
they  alone  have  the  right,  or  the  capacity,  to  teach  religion.  But 
many  modern  leaders  of  new  sects  are  not  Brahmans ;  nor  are 
conspicuous  "  holy  men  "  like  Swami  Vivekananda,  the  apostle 
of  "  the  new  Vedanta,"  a  strange  mingling  of  Christian  philan-  The  new 
thropy  and  Hindu  philosophy,  who  anticipated  in  some  of  his  Vedanta- 
views  the  more  recent  National  Movement.  In  a  Madras  lecture 
he  declared  that  Christianity  was  "  a  very  patchy  imitation  of 
Hinduism."  He  appeared  at  the  great  Parliament  of  Eeligions  at 
Chicago  in  1893,  and  when  he  returned  to  India  he  was  enthusi 
astically  received  by  the  student  classes  as  a  national  hero,  and 
was  acclaimed  as  having  converted  the  West.  But  Mr.  Johnston 
says  that  he  was  actually  expelled  from  a  Hindu  temple  as  an  out- 
caste  who  had  presumed  to  represent  Hinduism  as  if  he  were  a 
Brahman. 

It  is  right  to  recognize  the  good  elements  in  the  National 
Movement,  and  the  varied  fruits  of  the  "  renaissance."  But}  a 
sympathizer  like  Mr.  Andrews  acknowledges  the  dark  side.  "  A 
close  survey,"  he  says,  "  reveals  many  dire  failures,  and  much  that 

*  Lajpat  Rai,  in  Contemporary  Review,  May,  1910. 

t  Mr.  Maconachie  paid  a  tribute  of  respect  and  appreciation  to  the  late  Mr. 
Gokhale  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  June,  1915,  p.  370.  All  the  above  movements  are 
described  in  Mr.  J.  N.  Farquhar's  recent  book  on  Modern  Religious  Move 
ments  in  India  ;  and  more  briefly  in  The  Renaissance  in  India. 


152 


INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 


PAKT  II. 
Chap.  14. 


View  of 

Professor 

Cairns. 


Mrs. 

Besant's 
Influence, 


is  still  dark  and  even  revolting  in  the  teaching  and  practice  of 
some  of  the  new  sects.  There  are  those  who  love  darkness  rather 
than  light,  and  such  are  impelled,  when  light  comes  into  their 
world,  to  a  more  desperate  denial  of  its  revelations  and  resistance 
to  its  demands."  * 

Professor  Cairns,  however,  in  his  masterly  review  of  Indian 
Eeligion  for  the  Eeport  of  Commission  IV.  to  the  Edinburgh 
Conference,— a  Eeport  based  on  the  letters  to  the  Commission 
from  many  leading  missionaries, — is  of  opinion  that  modern 
"  Vedantism,  in  one  or  other  of  its  forms,  is  a  more  formidable 
and  all-pervading  influence  than  either  of  the  theistic  Samajes." 
He  sees  in  it  a  striking  parallel  with  "  the  all-pervading  Hellenism 
which  conditioned  all  the  labours  and  the  thought  of  the  later 
years  of  St.  Paul  and  St.  John,  and,  in  a  still  greater  degree,  the 
labours  and  the  thought  of  the  Fathers."  And  he  significantly 
alludes  to  features  of  Hellenism  alongside  of  its  noble  philosophy : 
"  its  beautiful  but  poisonous  mythology,  its  corrupt  sexual  morality, 
its  cruel  system  of  slavery."  But  this  is  too  large  a  subject  to  be 
entered  on  here.f 

One  movement  belonging  to  our  period  which  has  little  indeed 
to  commend  it  is  the  Theosophical  Society,  with  the  establishment 
of  the  Central  Hindu  College  at  Benares  by  Mrs.  Annie  Besant.  This 
College  has  been  financed  by  wealthy  rajahs,  who  have  given  it 
lands  and  money  munificently.  Painful  indeed  has  it  been  to  find 
English  men  and  women  engaged  as  its  professors  and  teachers, 
and  instructing  Indian  boys  and  girls  in  what  is  essentially 
Hinduism,  though  in  a  more  or  less  occidental  dress.  One  of 
these  English  ladies  died  there,  and  her  body  was  duly  burnt  on 
the  bank  of  the  Ganges,  the  ashes  being  scattered  on  its  waters. 
Idolatry,  astrology,  charms,  incantations,  are  defended  as  good 
"  magnetism  "  ;  and  Mrs.  Besant  herself  has  discussed  and  excused 
in  her  magazine  the  legendary  immoralities  of  Krishna.^  Her 
teaching  is  in  the  main  that  of  Colonel  Olcott  and  Madame 
Blavatsky,  which  was  so  mercilessly  exposed  thirty  years  ago  ;  § 
and  the  whole  enterprise  has  been  unveiled  by  Miss  E.  E.  McNeile,  || 
and  by  Mr.  Farquhar  in  his  book  on  Modern  Eeligious  Movements 
in  India.  The  stricter  Brahmans  never  viewed  Mrs.  Besant's 
Society  and  College  favourably,  and  in  1904  a  public  lecture  was 
delivered  at  Benares,  with  the  title,  "  The  Theosophical  Bubble 
Pricked."  Moreover,  the  National  Movement  is  not  with  her. 
Many  of  its  members  object  to  this  new  "  foreign  intrusion."  "  We 
do  not  want  to  bind  round  our  necks  a  chain  of  new  superstitions, 

*  Renaissance  in  India,  p.  143. 

t  See  Vol.  IV.  of  the  Edinburgh  Reports,  pp.  217,  245,  &c.  ;  and  p.  276. 

t  The  Renaissance  in  India,  p.  149. 

§  Old  readers  of  the  CM.  Intelligencer  will  not  have  forgotten  the  late 
Rev.  G.  Knox's  crushing  articles,  culminating*  in  the  one  entitled,  "  The 
Collapse  of  Koot  Hoomi,"  in  Jan.,  1885. 

||  In  The  East  and  The  West,  April,  1913,  and  Jan.,  1914.  See  also  her  article 
in  the  CM.  Review,  Nov.,  1908. 


INDIA:  Irs  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        153 

having  just  discarded  our  own."  '      The  recent  unsavoury  case  in  . 

the  law-courts,  arising  out  of  Mrs.  Besant  putting   forward  an   GhaP- 14- 
Indian  boy  as  "the  Star  in  the  East"  and  as  a  second  Christ, 
suggests  the  kind  of  morality  inculcated,  f 

Another  English  lady  meanwhile  came  forward  to  rescue  the  »»d  Miss 
beauty  and  purity  of  Hinduism  from  the  unhallowed  cavils  of  N< 
Western  Christendom,  and  "  Sister  Nivedita,"  whose  real  name 
was  Miss  Margaret  Noble,  seemed  for  a  short  time  to  have  even 
surpassed  Mrs.  Besant  in  influence.     But  observe,  it  is  always  to 
the  West  that  Hinduism  has  to  look  for  its  champions. 

The  attitude  towards  Christianity  of  many  educated  Hindus  is  A  Hindu 
illustrated  by  an  article  which  appeared  a  few  years  ago  in  theapo1offi*' 
Fortnightly  Review.  The  writer  was  Mr.  P.  Venkata  Eao,  described 
as  "  a  Hindu  scholar  of  considerable  reputation,  who  in  the  course 
of  a  long  life  had  heard  and  read  much  about  Christianity,"  and 
had  been  asked  by  missionaries  why  he  was  not  a  Christian  ;  and 
the  article,  headed,  "  Why  I  am  not  a  Christian,"  was  his  answer 
to  these  queries.  His  reasons  were,  in  brief,  (1)  the  un trust 
worthiness  of  the  Bible,  as  shown  by  modern  critics,  (2)  the 
impossibility  of  miracles,  (3)  the  incredibility  of  the  doctrine  of 
Sin  and  the  Fall,  (4)  the  doctrine  that  the  world  is  governed  by 
a  Being  all-powerful,  all-wise,  and  all-good,  which  he  could  not 
believe.  The  Eev.  E.  F.  Pearce,  of  Calcutta,  reviewing  this  Mr.  ^  , 
apologia,%  showed  (1)  that  its  arguments  were  all  from  European  Reply*. * 
sources.  "  Critics  of  Missions  sometimes  tell  us  that  Indian 
Christians  are  Westernized;  but  no  Christian  ever  adopts  an 
attitude  so  fundamentally  Western  as  this  Hindu  assailant  of 
Christianity."  (2)  That  the  writer  does  not  believe  in  a  personal 
God  at  all,  whereas  the  Vedas  he  professes  to  cleave  to  consist 
largely  of  hymns  to  personal  deities ;  so  he  is  really  no  more  a 
Hindu  than  a  Christian ;  (3)  That  he  is  compelled  again  and  again 
to  recognize  much  good  in  Christianity,  although  he  professes  to 
think  it  absurd ; — "  an  evidence,"  observes  Mr.  Pearce,  "  of  the 
tremendous  power  which  Christianity  is  gaining  over  the  minds 
of  Hindus." 

This  power,  in  fact,  impresses  all  thoughtful  observers.  The  J 
"  New  Spirit "  before  referred  to  owes  its  principal  impetus  to  anity. " 
Christianity.  And  the  moral  and  social  evils  of  India  are  being 
ever  more  and  more  recognized,  and  even  denounced,  by  the  very 
men  who  nevertheless  oppose  the  Gospel  which  would  remedy  them. 
The  modern  educated  Hindu  cares  for  the  sick  poor,  and  builds  hos 
pitals  for  them.  He  advocates  the  relaxation  of  caste,  the  elevation 

*  The  Renaissance  in  India,  p.  47. 

t  The  trial  was  reported  in  the  Times  of  May  8th,  1913.  It,  and  the  subse 
quent  proceedings,  were  duly  noticed  in  the  C.M.  Review  of  July  and  Nov., 
1913,  Jan.,  Feb.,  March,  July,  Dec.,  1914.  See  also  Miss  McNeile's  articles  in 
The  East  and  The  West  before  referred  to. 

t  In  the  C.M.  Review,  Nov.,  1909,  whence  the  above  particulars  are  taken. 
The  article  in  the  Fortniyhtly  was  in  Sept.  of  that  year. 


PART  ii 


But  slow 
Change  of 
Opinion. 


154        INDIA:  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 

of  the  depressed  classes,  the  education  of  women,  the  re-marrying 
'  of  widows,  the  abolition  of  child- marriage.  He  is  ashamed  of  the 
revelations  of  the  Census,  the  nine  millions  of  "  wives  "  or  widows 
under  fifteen  ;  of  the  fact  that  the  large  majority  of  the  "  husbands  " 
were  not  boys  betrothed  early,  but  grown  men  ;  and  of  the  shocking 
evils  which  these  figures  imply.  Moreover,  he  cannot  forget  that 
Hinduism  never  moved  to  remedy  them  until  Christianity  led  the 
way,  and  that,  even  now,  the  general  public  opinion  will  not 
tolerate  effective  action  against  them.  For  instance,  although  young 
India  condemns  child-marriage  and  advocates  the  re-marriage  (or 
rather,  real  marriage)  of  child-widows,  and  although  such  re 
marriage  is  now  legalized,  scarcely  any  practical  change  has 
ensued.  Out  of  the  millions  of  Hindu  widows,  only  some  200 
(of  those  of  any  age)  are  married  each  year.*  And  while  the  poet 
and  philosopher  Eabindra  Nath  Tagore  declares  that  "  the  regene 
ration  of  India  directly  and  perhaps  solely  depends  upon  the 
removal  of  the  condition  of  caste,"  f  the  caste  system  remains  almost 
as  despotic  as  ever.  And  even  our  modern  educated  Hindu,  while 
he  respects  Christianity,  seeks  for  Western  excuses  for  rejecting 
its  claims  upon  himself.J 


The 

Moham 
medans. 


Strange 
Humours. 


Sir  G.  K. 
Scott- 
Moncrieff 
on  Moslem 
Bigotry. 


THE  MOHAMMEDANS. 

We  have  been  concentrating  our  attention  almost  entirely  upon 
the  Hindus.  But  we  must  not  forget  the  Mohammedans,  who  are 
a  most  powerful  section  of  the  Indian  peoples.  In  North- West 
India  they  are  the  great  opponents  of  the  Gospel.  At  Peshawar 
a  year  or  two  ago  certain  Moslems  essayed  to  show  the  victorious 
progress  of  the  true  faith  of  Islam  by  affirming  that  it  was  fast 
spreading  in  England,  that  one  princess  and  several  of  the  nobility 
had  declared  themselves  Mohammedans,  that  Canon  Sell,  the 
C.M.S.  Secretary  at  Madras,  whose  writings  on  Islam  are  so 
important,  had  embraced  it,  and  that  the  Principal  of  the  Edwardes 
College  at  Peshawar  had  been  recalled  home  to  try  and  stem  its 
progress  !  Although  there  have  been  a  great  many  converts  from 
Islam  in  India,  the  difficulties  they  meet  with  are  great.  Sir  G.  K. 
Scott-Moncrieff,  writing  in  his  valuable  book  Eastern  Missions  from 
a  Soldiers  Standpoint  (1907),  says : — 

"  Of  course  the  law  of  the  land  gives,  as  far  as  it  can  do  so,  religious 
liberty,  and  no  one  can  be  punished  in  a  court  of  justice  on  the  plea  of 
conversion  to  another  faith.  But  let  a  man  once  pass  the  line  which 
divides  respect  for  the  religion  of  the  ruling  race  from  acceptance  of  its 
teaching,  and  he  will  then  find  all  the  power  of  bigotry  and  persecution 
directed  against  him  in  every  possible  way.  I  know  of  two  cases  where 

*  Renaissance  in  India,  p.  199. 

t  Ibid.,  p.  185. 

j  Mr.  Waller  (the  new  Bishop  of  Tinnevelly)  sets  forth  in  an  interesting 
way  the  attitude  of  various  classes  in  North  India  towards  Christianity  in  the 
C.M.  Eeview  of  March,  1909. 


INDIA  :  ITS  ft  ULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        \  5  5 

Christian  subordinates  in  the  Public  Works,  both  converts  from  Islam,  PART  n. 
were  the  victims  of  cleverly  concocted  conspiracies,  got  up  by  their  former  Cll:ii)-  14" 
co-religionists,  with  evidence  so  skilfully  '  cooked '  as  to  be  on  the  face 
of  it  incontrovertible,  and  yet  to  one  who  knew  the  men  incredible. 
Both  conspiracies  were  quite  successful  in.  achieving  the  ruin  of  the 
victims.  I  have  known  the  case  of  a  young  chief,  about  to  be  baptized, 
who  was  kidnapped,  stripped,  and  beaten,  after  bribes  had  been  found 
useless;  and  a  young  Mohammedan  friend  of  mine,  who  was  as  fully 
persuaded  of  the  truth  of  the  Gospel  as  ever  a  man  could  be,  implored 
me  to  take  him  to  England,  there  to  be  baptized,  for  he  said  that  life  in 
his  country  would  be  an  impossibility." 

The  Mohammedans  of  India  long  resisted  the  temptation  to 
accept  government  education,  and  Census  after  Census  showed 
how  behindhand  they  were.  In  illiteracy  they  still  continue  to 
be  more  conspicuous  than  the  Hindus,  but  in  recent  years  they 
have  done  better.  The  change  in  their  views,  or  at  least  the  The  Aiigarh 
lessening  of  their  prejudice,  is  largely  due  to  Syed  Ahmad  Khan  Cullcgc- 
(afterwards  Sir  Syed),  a  noble  of  Delhi  who  was  a  firm  believer 
in  the  advantages  of  British  rule,  and  had  been  loyal  in  the  days 
of  the  ^Mutiny.  He  was  an  ardent  Moslem,  but  he  believed  that 
education  would  promote  and  not  hinder  the  influence  of  Islam. 
He  founded  the  great  College  at  Aiigarh,  assisted  by  many 
Englishmen  who  desired  the  enlightenment  of  the  Moslem 
population.  The  college  has  been  a  strong  centre  for  the  new 
party  of  liberal  Mohammedans  that  gradually  grew  up.  It  has 
succeeded  in  bringing  the  Sunnis  and  the  Skiahs  together  for 
daily  worship  as  they  have  not  been  brought  together  anywhere 
else  in  the  Moslem  world ;  and  Mr.  Haythornthwaite  tells  us  it 
"  has  produced  a  distinct  type  of  student  who  can  be  readily 
recognized  because  of  his  manly  bearing,  courteous  manners,  and 
disciplined  character."  '  Its  influence  is  not  confined  to  India. 
"  Students  from  Java  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,  from  Kabul  and 
Turkestan,  from  Mombasa  and  Zanzibar,  have  spread  from  thence 
the  new  Islamic  thought."  f  Dr.  Mott  was  invited  to  address  the 
men  when  he  was  in  India  in  1912,  and  he  wrote,  "  Nowhere  did 
I  have  a  more  enthusiastic  reception." 

It  may  be  doubted  whether  the  higher  education  of  men  can  g^^ 
raise  the  whole  community  so  long  as  women  are  excluded  from  of  Bhopai. 
its  benefits  and  the  purdah  system  is  maintained.     But  when  an 
enlightened   Moslem   female   ruler   like    the   Begum   of    Bhopai 
proposes  to  establish  a  Women's  College  at  the  new  city  of  Delhi, 
we  see  that  even  in  Islam  the  "  New  Spirit "  may  appear.     And 
it  has  one  great  advantage  in  being  without  caste.     Moreover,  the 
Mohammedans  of  India,  who  were  formerly  regarded  as  the  least 
loyal  of   the  population,  have  greatly  changed   in  recent  years. 
Lord  Minto's  reforms  pleased  them ;  and  the  enthusiastic  way  in 

*  The  East  and  The  West,  July,  1913,  p.  325.  The  college  was  described 
in  the  G.M.  Intdl.  of  Oct.,  1905  by  Mr.  Mylrea,  and  in  July,  1906  by  Mr. 
Pemberton. 

t  Renaissance  in  India,  p.  127. 


56 


INDIA  :  ITS  R  ULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS. 


PART  ii.   which  they  have  rallied  to  the  British  cause  in  the  present  War  is 
.   highly  significant  and  encouraging. 


Population       The  population   of   India   by   religion   in   1901    and  1911,    as 
of  India.      recOrded  by  the  Census,  was  as  follows  :— 


Rapid 

Christian 

Advance. 


Religion. 

1901. 

1911. 

Increase 
per  cent. 

Hindu    .... 
Mohammedan 
Buddhist     .     .     . 
Animistic  .     .     . 
Christian    .     .     . 
Sikh  

207,147,026 

62,458,077 
9,476,759 
8,584,148 
2,923,241 
2,195,339 

217,586,920 
66,623,412 
10,721,449 
10,295,168 
3,876,196 
3,014,466 

5-04 
6-66 
13-13* 
19-94* 
32-24 
37-37* 

1,334,148 

1,248,182 

-  6-44 

Parsi      .... 
Jewish   .... 
Unclassified    .     . 

94,190 

18,228 
129,900 

100,100 
20,980 
37,108 

6-27 
15-09 

-  70-98* 

294,361,056 

313,523,981 

6-51 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  percentage  of  increase  among  the 
Christians  is  much  the  largest  (except  among  the  Sikhs,  which 
is  explained  in  the  footnote).  Deducting  the  Europeans  and 
Eurasians,  the  numbers  of  Indian  Christians  was  as  follows  at 
four  Census  periods  :— 

In  1881  .  .  .  1,506,098. 

In  1891  .  .  .  2,036,178. 

In  1901  .  .  .  2,664,313. 

In  1911  .  .  .  3,574,770. 


Increase  22'0  per  cent. 
33-9 
30-7 
34-2 


These  figures  will  be  further  set  forth  in  detail  hereafter.f 
How  can  this  chapter  be  more  fitly  concluded  than  by  quoting- 
Mr.  Maconachie's  eloquent  words  ?  : — 

"  If  we  can  denationalize  the  idea  of  Christ,  if  we  can  convince  these 
peoples,  mostly  gentle,  and  gifted  with  such  great  spiritual  possibilities, 
that  it  is  the  World's  Saviour  Who  is  being  presented  to  them  by  British 
brothers  rather  than  conquerors;  if  in  our  progressive  development  of 
liberal  ideas  of  government  we  can  also  convince  them  that  we  are  really 
seeking  their  whole  good  rather  than  merely  our  own  worldly  advantage, 
that  we  are  holding  our  power  unselfishly  on  behalf  of  the  ignorant  and 
helpless  masses,  associating  Indians  with  Englishmen  steadily  more  and 

*  N.B. The  large  increase  of  the  Sikhs  is  due  to  the  inclusion  with  them 

in  1911  of  another  sect.  The  increase  of  the  Animists  is  due  to  more  correct 
classification ;  and  this  also  causes  the  diminution  of  the  unclassified.  The 
Buddhists  are  almost  entirely  in  Burma. 

f  On  the  non-Christian  populations  shown  by  the  Census,  see  an  article  by 
Mr.  Snell  in  the  CM.  Review,  April,  1915;  and  on  the  whole  subject,  one  by 
Mr.  S.  K.  Datta  in  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  Oct.,  1914. 


INDIA-.  ITS  RULERS  AND  ITS  RELIGIONS.        157 

more  in  the  discharge  of  our  great  trusteeship,— then  we  may  humbly  PAUT  II 
trust  that,  trying  to  do  God's  will,  we  shall  be  owned  and  used  and  ChaiJ- 14' 
preserved  of  God."  * 

And  Mr.  Eudra's,  the  Principal  of  St.  Stephen's  College,  Delhi. 
It  is  interesting  to  see  that  the  experienced  British  civil  officer, 
and  the  learned  Indian  Christian,  are  one  in  their  aspirations  :— 

"  I  regard  the  ultimate  victory  of  Christianity  as  certain,  if  only  the  The 
Person  of  Christ  Himself  is  raised  high  before  the  eyes  of  India  without  Christian 
any  intervening  Western  medium.     To  that  Person,  as  the  one  centre  of 
unity  of    races    aud    classes,   we    Indians,    both    Christians    and    non- 
Christians,  are  looking  more  and  more  for  our  inspiration,  guidance   and 
life."  f 

And  the  victory  of  Christianity  will  not  expel  the  Indian 
classics  from  India.  What  Homer  and  ^Eschylus  and  Plato, 
Cicero  and  Virgil  and  Tacitus,  have  been  to  Christian  Europe, 
that  the  Vedas  and  the  Bhagavad  Gita  and  the  Eamayana  will  be 
to  Christian  India.  Matthew  Arnold's  picture  will  not  continue 
the  true  representation  of  India  : — 

The  East  bowed  low  before  the  blast, 

In  patient,  deep  disdain  ; 
She  let  the  legions  thunder  past, 

Then  plunged  in  thought  again. 

But  A.  H.  Clough  will  prove  right,— 

For  while  the  tired  waves,  vainly  breaking, 

Seem  here  no  painful  incb  to  gain, 
Far  back,  through  creeks  and  inlets  making, 

Comes  silent,  flooding  in,  the  main. 


*  CM.  Review,  Jan.,  1909,  p.  8. 

f  The  East  and  The  West,  July,  1913,  p.  307. 


;NOTE  TO  PAGE  147. 

It  is  not  possible  to  treat  the  great  subject  of  Educational  Missions 
adequately  here.  Particular  C.M.S.  Colleges,  &c.,  will  be  noticed  under  the 
different  Missions.  The  following  recent  articles,  &c.,  in  the  missionary 
periodicals  should  be  referred  to  for  further  information  : — By  tbe  Rev.  W.  E.  S. 
Holland,  ini  the  C.M.  Review,  July,  1909,  and  in  The  East  and  The  West,  Jan., 
1912 ;  and  by  tbe  Kev.  N.  H.  Tubbs,  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Marcb,  1909.  On  tbe 
Education  of  Women,  there  were  important  articles  by  Miss  E.  R.  McNeile 
in  tbe  C.M.  Rev.,  Feb.,  1910,  and  Nov.,  1913,  and  by  Miss  McDougall  in  tbe 
Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  Jan.,  1914,  and  The  East  and  The  West,  July,  1914. 


CHAPTER  XY. 

INDIA:  THE  CHBISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

Statistics  of  Missionary  Societies—  Summary  of  their  Work—  The  Indian 
Missionary  Society—  Statistics  of  Indian  Christendom—  Indian  Esti 
mate  of  Christian  Progress—  The  Mass  Movements—  Character  of 
Indian  Christians—  British  Opinion  and  Treatment  of  them—  The 
Anglo-Indians  —  Attitude  of  the  Christian  Church  towards  Indian 
Religions  :  Sir  J.  Bourdillon,  B.  Lucas,  J.  N.  Farquhar,  Prof.  Hogg, 
Bishop  Copleston,  Bishop  Whitehead,  Prof.  Cairns,  &c. 


PART  n.  BH"B9HNI)IA  isthe  greatest  of  the  mission  fields,  j^ged  bY 
£he  number  of  missionaries  and  of  converts,  though 
China  is  grater  if  Judged  by  the  population  to  be 
reached.  The  latest  available  and  complete  statistics 
are  contained  in  the  Year  Boole  of  Indian  Missions 
for  1912  and  these  are  late  enough  to  serve  our  present  purpose. 
It  must  be  explained  that  they  include  Burma  and  Ceylon. 

It  is  easy  both  to  over-  and  to  under-estimate  the  value  of 
statistics  There  is  nothing,  it  is  said,  so  misleading  as  figures, 
except  facts.  In  India,  a  native  Christian  community  of  three 
and  a  half  million  sounds  large,  but  we  have  to  remember  that 
the  great  bulk  of  these  are  in  the  farthest  south,  and  are  the 
descendants  of  converts  of  past  centuries,  not,  therefore,  the  fruit 
of  modern  Missions.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  admitted  on  all 
hands  that  mere  figures  quite  fail  to  reveal  the  wide  and  increasing 
influence  of  Christianity.  So  that,  both  ways,  we  have  to  weigh 
results  as  well  as  to  count  them. 

But  we  will  first  examine  the  statistics  of  the  missionary  workers 
and  their  work. 

STATISTICS  OF  WORKERS  AND  WORK. 

The  Mis-          The  number  of  Protestant  Missionary  Societies,  large  and  small, 

sionary       working  in  this  great  field,  as  stated  in  the  tables  referred  to,  is 

^ooeties,     no  les*than  18b6.     Of  these,   41  are  British,  41  American  and 

Canadian  (which  are  reckoned  together),  8  Australasian   12  Con 

tinental,  22  Local  (having  their  home  base  in  the  field),  and  1^5 


INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


'59 


"  Independent  "  or  "  International."    Their  missionary  forces  com-    PART  n. 


prise  (or  rather  comprised)  2076  men  and  3124  women,  total  5200 ; 
and  their  Indian  workers,  28,320  men  and  10,138  women.  The 
tables  give  the  "ordained"  and  "  unordained "  men  separately, 
but  as  some  of  the  denominations  have  uncertain  standards  for 
"  ordination,"  the  men  are  here  all  counted  together. 
The  following  are  the  principal  Societies  :— 


Chap. 15 


Foreign. 


Indian. 


British  — 

Men. 

Women. 

Total. 

Men. 

\Vomen. 

Church  Miss.  Soc.     .     .     . 

230 

271 

501 

3594 

1122 

Ch.  of  E.  Zenana  Soc.*      . 

— 

162 

162 

850 

Soc.  Prop.  Gosp  

103 

98 

201 

1466 

444 

Lond.  Miss.  Soc  

152 

91 

243 

1643 

361 

Wesl.  Miss.  Soc  

80 

110 

190 

1542 

444 

Bapt.  Miss.  Soc  

75 

136 

211 

839 

216 

Estab.  Ch.  Scot  

32 

92 

124 

247 

425 

Un.  Free  Ch.  Scot.    .     .     . 

89 

131 

220 

2016 

300 

Salv.  Armv  . 

70 

80 

ir>o 

IQOH- 

American — 

Meth.  Episc.  Ch. 
Bapt.  Union.     . 
Presb.  Bd.  N.    . 
A.  B.  C.  F.  M.  . 
Un.  Presb.  Bd. 


Continental — 
Basel  Miss.  Soc.  . 
Gossner  Miss.  .     . 
German  Ev.  Luth. 


162 

160 

64 

37 

29 


89 
50 
35 


316 

240 

100 

59 

68 


80 
42 
49 


478 

3240 

1943 

400 

3240 

582 

164     652 

150 

96 

1225 

537 

97 

329 

116 

169 

826 

41 

92 

319 

55 

84 

552 

134 

These  seventeen  Societies  have  thus  together  3582  missionaries, 
leaving  1618  divided  among  the  other  119  Societies. 

The  Protestant  Societies  employ,  in  addition  to  the  38,458 
Indian  Christians,  3575  non-Christians,  chiefly  as  teachers  of 
secular  subjects  in  schools. { 

The  Roman  Catholic  Missions  in  India  are  described  in  the 
Year  Book  by  Father  Hull  of  Bombay.  He  states  that  there  are  Missions- 
2653  bishops  and  priests,  of  whom  1700  are  Indian,  and  953 
European.  The  Atlas  Hierarchicus  published  in  1914  gave  the 
numbers  1258  foreign  and  1230  Indian.  The  lay  brothers  and 
the  sisters  are  stated  in  the  Edinburgh  Conference  Atlas  to  be  517 
and  2933. 

*  As  in  the  above  table  some  of  the  Societies  are  credited  with  the  numbers 
of  their  Women's  Auxiliaries,  although  these  are  separate  in  the  Year  Book, 
the  C.E.Z.M.S.  women  should  for  purposes  of  comparison  be  added  to  the 
C.M.S. 

t  This  figure  probably  includes  women. 

£  In  an  important  article  in  the  Int.  Rev.  Miss,,  July,  1912,  Canon  (now 
Bishop)  Waller  explained  why  this  is  done. 


i6o 


INDIA  .-  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


PART  II. 
Chap. 15. 

Educa 
tional 
Missions. 


Roman 
Schools. 


Medical 
Work. 


Separate  tables  are  given  in  the  Year  Book  of  the  educational 
work  of  the  Societies.     The  following  are  the  totals  :— 


Institutions. 

Pui 

)ils. 

Male. 

Female. 

University  Colleges  .  .  . 
Theological  Instns.  .  .  . 

38 
87 
127 

5,488 
1,841 
1,904 

51 
11 
1,173 

High  Schools  

283 

62,604 

8,400 

Boarding  Schools  .... 
Industrial  Schools  .... 
Elementary  Schools  .  .  . 

880 
160 
13,184 

22,193 

5,752 
298,937 

17,566 
3,373 
147,608 

The  38  colleges  (at  the  time,  as  stated)  included,  C.M.S.  6  ; 
S.P.G.,  L.M.S.,  U.F.Ch.,  4  each  ;  Ch.  Scot.,  Wesleyan,  3  each  ; 
Baptist  1;  total  British,  25.  American,  13.  Others  have  been 
added  since. 

The   scholars   taught    by   the   chief    British    Societies    are   as 

follows  : —  * 


Colleges  and 
High  Schools. 

Theol.  and 
Training. 

Boarding  and 
Industrial. 

Elementary. 

Male 

Female. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male. 

Female. 

Male,     i  Female. 

C.M.S.  .     .     . 

13,771 

552 

404 

32 

2,939 

391 

35,548    10,082 

C  E  Z  M.S.     . 

60 

— 

15 

— 

787 

8,961 

SPG     .     .     .      5,568      450 

131 

71 

2,149 

1,653 

27,482 

7,281 

LMS.  .     .     .      5,084      824 

74 

81 

580 

697 

25,922    11,753 

W.MS..     .     .      5,094  1    203 

132 

44 

1,449 

1,631 

48,603    30,100 

B  M  S                       688 

404 

166 

109 

151 

550 

8,395 

5,628 

Ch.  Scot.  .     . 
U.F.Ch.  Scot. 

982 
5,574 

257 

53 

15 

30 

646 

678 

8,498 
8,219 

861 
7,367 

The  Eoman  Catholics  have  23  theological  seminaries,  with  697 
students;  135  colleges  and  high  schools,  with  about  12,000 
scholars;  and  over  4000  other  schools,  with  206,000  scholars. 
The  French,  Belgian,  German,  and  Italian  Jesuits  have  separate 
colleges  at  different  cities. 

The  Year  Book  also  gives  tables  of  the  medical  work, 
number  of  mission  hospitals  is  given  as  204,  and  the  dispensaries 
as  405  ;  but  some  must  be  quite  small,  to  judge  by  the  figures  for 
the  C.M.S.,  which  are  larger  than  the  Society  itself  reports.  The 
numbers  of  beds  should  have  been  stated,  as  the  true  index  of  the 
work.  The  qualified  doctors,  male  and  female,  afe  given  as  278 ; 

*  An  official  review  of  the  Progress  of  Education  in  India  during  the  five 
years  1907-12,  by  Mr.  H.  Sharp,  C.I.E.,  has  some  striking  illustrations  of  the 
share  in  education  taken  by  the  Missionary  Societies.  For  instance,  as 
regards  female  education:  "In  the  United  Provinces  the  female  Hindu 
population  is  19,172,597,  the  Mohammedan  3,192,086,  and  the  Indian  Christian 
77fl31 ;  but  the  figures  for  girls  in  Anglo-Vernacular  Secondary  Schools  are  : 
Hindus  404,  Mohammedans  138,  Christians  2668. 


INDIA-.  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  161 


oq4Th  r  rses     PAR.II. 

The  in-patients  are  given  as  70,000,  and  the  out-patients  Cha»-  15 
as  almost  three  millions;  but  the  latter  figure  evidently  means 
not  separate  individuals,  but  the  visits  paid  ,by  them.  The  lamest 
figures  of  institutions  are  those  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  which  is 
credited  with  19  hospitals  and  37  dispensaries  ;  also  of  nurses  75 
in  number.  But  the  United  Free  Scottish  Church  has  the  largest 
number  of  doctors,  30  qualified  and  13  others,  and  of  [visits  of] 
out-patients  508,000;  while  the  C.M.S.  stands  first  as  regards 
in-patients,  8535.  The  importance  of  indicating  the  size  of  the 
hospitals  by  the  number  of  beds  is  shown  by  comparing  two 
American  Societies.  The  Baptists  have  18  hospitals  with  979 
m-patients,  while  the  Presbyterians  have  8  hospitals  with  3773 
in-patients. 

THE  PEINCIPAL  SOCIETIES  AND  THEIR  FIELDS. 

A  few  particulars  may  be  added  concerning  the  principal  works 
of  the  leading  Societies,  leaving  the  C.M.S.  Missions  for  fuller 
treatment  by  and  by. 

^he  ?'^;G-  is  rePresented  in  almost  all  the  divisions  of  India.  S.PO 
Bishop  s  College,  at  Calcutta,  founded  nearly  a  century  ago  by  Work- 
Bishop  Middleton,  has  always    been  its  work.     In  Bengal  and 
Assam,  many  towns  and  villages  are  occupied.     Assam  has  now 
a  bishop  of  its  own,  Dr.  Pakenham  Walsh,  an  S.P.G.  missionary 
from  the  south.     In   the  Chota  Nagpur   district  there  is  a  very 
interesting    and  expanding   Mission  among  the  aboriginal  Kols  ; 
and  here  is  the  Dublin  University  Brotherhood,  with  its  numerous 
'Lady  Associates."     In  the  United  Provinces,  Cawnpore  is  the 
most  important  station,  with  a  large  and  able  staff.     Even  greater 
is  the  Delhi  Mission,  just  within  the  Punjab  (but  now,  since  the 
King's  visit,  a  separate  division),  the  centre  of  a  very  large  and 
widely   extended   work,    educational,    medical,    evangelistic,    &c. 
The  Cambridge  Delhi    Mission   is    associated  with   the   Society, 
supplying  a  goodly  band  of  devoted  men  and  women,  under  Canon 
Allnutt  as  the  Head.     St.   Stephen's  College,  one  of  the  finest 
institutions  in  India,  has  an  Indian  Principal,  Mr.  Eudra,  son  of 
a  former  C.M.S.  Indian  missionary  in  Bengal.     In  the  Bombay 
Presidency  there  is  (besides  the  capital  and  several  other  towns 
and  districts)  a  large  and  fruitful  Mission  at  Ahmednagar.     But 
the  Society's  largest  work  is  in  the  South,  in  Madras  Diocese  and 
Tinnevelly,  among  the  Telugu  and  Tamil  people,  where,  besides  the 
missionaries,  there  are  some  eighty  Indian  pastors.     Trichinopoly 
and  Tanjore  are  the  old  mission  districts  of  the  days  of  Schwartz. 
Nazareth,  in  Tinnevelly,  is  a  Christian  village  of  great  interest. 
In   Burma,  in  the  Diocese  of  Eangoon,   the  S.P.G.  is  the  only 
Anglican    Society,  and  it   has  extensive   work   among  Burmese, 
•  Karens,  and  Tamils.    The  Society  has  about  150  Indian  clergymen 
altogether. 


M 


162 


INDIA  .-  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


UITI^        Of  the  other  Anglican   Missions  in   India,  the   largest   is  "the 
!*Lie'   Church  of  England  Zenana  Society,  with  its  160  women  mission 


Chap. 

Other 

Anglican 

Missions. 


L.M.S. 


B.M.S. 


W.M.S. 


•Salvation 
Army. 


Presby 
terian 
Missions. 


aries,  working  in  most  parts  of  the  country  except  the  United 
Provinces  and  the  Bombay  Presidency,  —  which  fields,  by  arrange 
ment,  are  served  by  the  sister  Women's  Society,  the  Zenana 
Bible  and  Medical  Mission.  That  Society  is  not  exclusively 
Anglican,  but  a  large  proportion  of  its  150  women  are  Anglicans, 
and  work  in  association  with  the  C.M.S.  Missions,  as  do  the 
C.E.Z.  missionaries.  There  are  also  two  Brotherhood  Missions 
(besides  those  already  mentioned  which  are  associated  with 
the  S.P.G.),  viz.,  (1)  the  Oxford  Mission  to  Calcutta,  with  (in 
the  tables)  14  men  and  11  women,  who  are  doing  fine  work 
at  Calcutta  and  in  Eastern  Bengal,  and  (2)  the  Society  of  St. 
John  the  Evangelist  (Cowley  Fathers)  in  the  Bombay  Presidency, 
which  does  not  return  its  statistics.  The  Scottish  Episcopal 
Church  has  a  Mission  at  Chanda  in  'the  Central  Provinces  ;  and 
the  Canadian  Church  has  taken  over  the  C.M.S.  Kangra  Mission 
in  the  Punjab. 

The  London  Missionary  Society  represents  the  Congregationalists 
of  England,  and  works  in  Calcutta,  Benares,  Almora,  and  other 
places  in  the  North;  among  the  Kanarese,  Telugu,  and  Tamil 
people  in  the  Madras  Presidency  ;  and  in  South  Travancore.  It 
has  had  some  exceptionally  able  missionaries. 

The  Baptist  Missionary  Society,  of  which  William  Carey  was 
the  founder  and  the  first  missionary,  has  for  its  headquarters  in 
the  North  the  famous  station  of  Serampore.  The  College  there  is 
the  only  one  in  India  entitled  to  grant  degrees  in  divinity.  The 
Society  also  occupies  Delhi,  where  particularly  friendly  relations, 
with  a  certain  amount  of  co-operation,  are  maintained  with  the 
S.P.G. 

The  Wesleyan  Society  has  done  more  than  most  Missions  for 
the  poorer  English  and  Eurasians  in  the  Presidency  cities.  Its 
most  interesting  mission  to  the  non-  Christian  population  is  in 
Mysore.  But  it  is  particularly  strong  in  Ceylon. 

The  Salvation  Army,  under  Commissioner  Booth-Tucker,  has 
also  worked  largely  among  the  English  and  Eurasians  ;  '  also 
among^  criminals;  and  among  the  out-caste  native  population. 
Its  social  work  is  particularly  interesting  and  important.  In  the 
Punjab,  Gujarat,  and  Travancore  it  has  large  bodies  of  native 
Christians. 

The  two  Scottish  Presbyterian  Churches,  Established  and 
United  Free,  have  combined  some  of  their  work  in  India,  to  its 
great  advantage.  Their  great  colleges  at  the  chief  Presidency 
cities  have  been  among  the  most  important  in  India,  particularly 
the  Madras  Christian  College,  so  long  under  the  brilliant  princi- 
palship  of  Dr.  W.  Miller.  Specially  interesting  also  is  the  work 
at  Darjeeling  and  Kalimpong,  in  the  Eastern  Himalayas;  and 
the  Mission  in  Eajputana,  carried  on  by  the  old  "  U.P.V  until 
their  union  with  the  Free  Church. 


INDIA:  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  163 

The  English  and  Irish  Presbyterians  are  also  represented  the    PAKTII 
latter  having  a  considerable  Mission  in  Gujarat.  chaj^is 

The  W7elsh  Calvinists,  who  are  counted  among  Presbyterians 
ecclesiastically,  have  an  interesting  Mission  in  Assam  and  the 
Khasia  Hills.  At  the  time  of  the  Welsh  Revival  a  similar 
spiritual  movement  sprang  up  there,  which  bore  much  fruit 

The  Friends'  Foreign  Mission  Association  works  in  the  Central  Smaller 
Provinces.  Bodies. 

There  are  several  small  free-lance  British  Missions;  and  the 
-Open  Brethren,"  represented  by  a  body  called  -Christian 
Missions  in  Many  Lands,"  are  credited  in  the  tables  with  135 
missionaries  and  over  5000  converts. 

Of  the  American  Societies,  the  oldest  is  the  American  Board  American 
("  A.B.C.F.M.'  ),  corresponding  to  the  L.M.S.  in  England  as  virtually  Societies- 
though  not  necessarily  Congregationalist.    It  celebrated  in  Novem 
ber,  1913,  the  centenary  of  the  arrival  of  its  first  missionaries  at 
Bombay.     Its  principal  Missions  are  among  the  Marathi  people  in 
that   Presidency,  particularly   at   Ahmednagar,    and   among   the 
Tamils  of  Madura  in  the  South  ;  also  in  Ceylon. 

The  American  Baptists  have  the  fruitful  Mission  in  Burma 
which  was  founded  by  Judson  a  century  ago.  They  also  work 
in  Assam  and  Eastern  Bengal;  while  their  Telugu  Mission  is 
famous  for  its  great  mass  movement  in  the  Ongole  district  under 
Dr.  Clough  at  the  time  of  the  disastrous  famine  of  1877. 

The  American  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  is  perhaps  the  most 
pushing  Christian  organization  in  India,  and  almost  the  largest, 
though  much  of  its  work  is  younger  than  that  of  others' 
Beginning  in  Oudh  and  Rohilkand,  it  has  gradually  spread  over 
many  parts  of  India,  under  the  inspiring  leadership  of  its  bishops, 
the  late  Dr.  Thoburn,  and  the  present  brothers  Robinson.  It  is 
regarded  by  many,  however,  as  too  ready  to  baptize  quickly.  But 
it  works  also  among  the  European  and  Eurasian  populations ;  and 
its  mission  presses  occupy  a  particularly  useful  sphere. 

The  American  Presbyterians  have  two  or  three  societies  at 
work  in  India.  The  Presbyterian  Board  North  works  in  the 
Punjab  and  the  United  Provinces.  It  was  the  first  Christian 
body  to  enter  the  Punjab  on  its  annexation,  and  the  names  of 
Newton  and  Forman,  and  Ewing,  at  Lahore  are  universally 
honoured.  The  United  Presbyterians  also  have  active  work  in 
that  province. 

The  Christian  and  Missionary  Alliance  works  in  Berar  and 
Khandesh ;  and  there  are  several  smaller  free-lance  Missions.* 

The  American  (German)  Lutherans  have  considerable  Missions 
in  the  Telugu  country. 

The  American  (Dutch)  Reformed  Church  Mission,  which  works 
*  It   should  be  mentioned  that  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  the 
United  States,  which  is  so  prominent  in  China  and  Japan,  has  no  Missions  in 
India.     All  India  being  covered  by  Church  of  England  dioceses,  our  sister 
Church  finds  no  room  for  bishops  of  its  own  ;  and  it  does  not  work  without 

T,  horn 


them. 


1 64  INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

PART  ii.    west  of  Madras,  is  notable  for  the  Scudder  family,  eleven  men  of 
chap^is.   whicn  have  laboured  in  it. 

colonial  The  Canadian  Presbyterians  have  a  Mission  in  Central  India, 

Societies,  with  its  headquarters  at  Indore  ;  and  the  Canadian  Baptists  in  the 
Telugu  Country.  (The  Anglican  Canadian  Mission  has  already 
been  mentioned.)  There  are  no  less  than  seven  different  Baptist 
Missions  from  Australasia.  These  Canadian  and  Australian 
Societies  have  about  130  missionaries  together,  men  and  women, 
in  India. 

continental  The  Continental  Lutherans  have  large  Missions.  The  most 
societies.  jmp0rtant  is  the  Mission  begun  in  1844  in  Chota  Nagpur, 
organized  by  Pastor  Gossner  of  Berlin.*  The  S.P.G.  Mission  in 
that  district  is  the  result  of  a  secession  from  it  of  missionaries  and 
Indian  Christians  who  appealed  in  1869  to  Bishop  Milman  to 
receive  them.  The  Leipzig  Mission  in  the  Tamil  Country  is 
notable  for  declining  to  observe  "  missionary  comity."  There  are 
also  Lutheran  Missions  from  Schleswig-Holstein  among  the 
Telugus,  from  Denmark  in  the  Madras  Presidency,  and  from 
Sweden  in  the  Central  Provinces. 

The  Basel  Mission  is  in  the  Kanarese  Country  south  of  Bombay, 
and  down  the  Malabar  coast.  It  is  famous  for  its  successful 
industrial  work. 

The  Moravians,  always  to  the  front  in  the  most  unpromising 
fields,  have  a  Mission  in  the  Himalayas,  north  of  the  Punjab, 
where  Tibetans  are  met  with. 

There  have  been  interesting  movements  of  late  in  the  direction 
of  a  certain  measure  of  union  among  some  of  the  Presbyterian 
and  Congregationalist  Missions  (see  p.  191). 

Indian  Here   should  be   mentioned   the   two  independent  missionary 

societies  which  have  been  established  by  Indian  Christians,  not,  of 
course,  those  only  in  C.M.S.  districts.  The  first  was  in  Tinnevelly, 
and  dates  from  1903.  It  sent  its  own  evangelists  some  hundreds 
of  miles  away  into  the  Telugu  part  of  the  Nizam's  territory,  the 
State  of  Haidarabad,  to  them  a  foreign  country  with  a  foreign 
language.  The  district  so  occupied  is  now  in  the  diocese  of 
Bishop  Dornakal,  and  Bishop  Azariah  himself  was  one  of  the  mis- 
Azariah.  gjonaries.  It  has  now  four  missionaries  and  several  Telugu 
agents.  But  a  larger  enterprise  is  the  National  Missionary 
Society  of  India,  founded  in  1905, f  of  which  Bishop  Azariah  was 
the  first  secretary  and  Eaja  Sir  Harnam  Singh  the  President,  and 
which  sent  as  its  first  missionary  a  son  of  the  late  Eev.  Dr.  John 
Williams  of  Tank,  the  well-known  Indian  medical  missionary, 
into  the  villages  of  the  Punjab.  Both  societies  have  been  growing 
in  efficiency  and  in  estimation.  They  have  sent  forth  several  men 
into  different  parts  of  India,  and  have  baptized  some  hundreds  of 

*  See  the  War  Appendix  for  recent  news. 

f  A  full  statement  of  this  Society's  aims,  basis,  constitution,  &c.,  by 
Mr.  Sherwood  Eddy,  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Intell.  of  March,  1906. 


INDIA  .-  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  165 

converts ;    and  the    Bishop   of   Madras  had  confirmed  bands  of    PART  11. 
Telugu  candidates  before  Bishop  Azariah  was  consecrated.     The   Chap" 15' 
National  Missionary  Society  had  in  1914  "five  .fields  of  labour, 
24   missionaries   of  whom   13  were   graduates,  a  Christian  com 
munity    of    600    converts,    and    an    annual    income    of    nearly 
Es  45,000 ;  "  *  and  it  was  issuing  one  English  and  four  vernacular 
periodicals,  in  Urdu,  Hindi,  and  Tamil.    Mr.  E.  S.  Hensman,  B.A., 
a  Tamil  Government  official,  and  brother-in-law  of  the  Eev.  W.  D. 
Clarke,  Tamil  pastor  of  Zion  Church,  Madras,  resigned  his  appoint 
ment  in  1911  to  become  an  honorary  secretary  of  the  Society. 

STATISTICS  OF  INDIAN  CHRISTIANS. 

We  will  next  take  the  statistics  of  Indian  Christendom.     As  we  Indian 
have  already  seen,  the  census  of  1911  showed  a  total  of  3,574,770,  christiaus- 
an  increase  of    34    per  cent.f     One   notable  feature  of   the  last 
returns  was  that  for  the  first  time  the  Protestant  Christians  out 
numbered  the  Roman  Catholics,  as  the  following  table  shows  :— 

1901.  1911. 

Protestant.     .     «     .     .     .  867,167  1,435,175 

Roman  Catholic      .     .     .         1,122,508  1,393,720 

Syrian   .     . 571,320  728,291 

Others 103,318  17,584 

The  large  reduction  in  "  Others "  merely  means  that  more 
accuracy  was  obtained  on  the  last  counting.  It  will  be  seen  that 
while  the  Roman  Catholics  increased  in  the  decade  by  24  per  cent., 
the  Protestants  increased  by  65  per  cent.  The  various  increases  of 
the  Protestant  Churches  and  denominations  are  shown  in  the 
following  table  : — 


Denomination. 
Anglican   

Actual 

1901. 
213  042J 

number. 

1911. 
332  807 

Baptist      ....... 

216  915 

332,171 

Lutheran  

153  768 

216  842 

Methodist  . 

68  455 

162  367 

Presbyterian  . 

43  064 

164  069 

Congregationalist    .... 
Salvationist    .               ... 

37,313J 
18  847 

134,240 
52,199 

Minor  Denominations 
Unspecified    

23,119 
92,644 

12,896 

27,584 

Totals  

867,167 

1,435,175 

*  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  Jan.,  1914.  Some  interesting  notices  of  these  Indian 
Societies  have  appeared  from  time  to  time  in  the  C.M.S.  Gazette,  particularly 
Nov.,  1909,  May,  1911,  May,  1913. 

t  The  Census  Reports  are  reviewed  by  Mr.  Snell  in  three  articles  in  the 
CM.  Review  of  1915  :  in  February,  the  statistics  of  Christianity  in  India ;  in 
April,  of  the  non-Christian  Religions  ;  in  August,  the  social  conditions. 

%  It    must    be   explained  that  in   the  Government   returns   in   1901,  the 


1 66 


INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


PAKT  II. 
Chap. 15. 


bution  of 
Soens°mil  " 


Anglican 
Christians . 


Until  lately  we  have  always  understood  that  the  great  bulk  of 
the  Indian  Christians  were  in  the  South.  That  is  still  the  case 
with  the  Koman  Catholics,  but  the  Protestant  Christians  are  now 
rapidly  increasing  in  the  North  too,  as  the  following  figures 
show : — 

North  (Bengal,  Assam,  Bihar,  U.P.,  Eajputana, 

Punjab,  etc.) 546,563 

Central  (with  Bombay,  Haidarabad,  &c.)  .     .     .  120,586 

South  (Madras,  Travancore,  Mysore,  &c.)       .     .  633,606 

Burma  134,420 


1,435,175 

When  we  look  further  into  the  distribution  of  the  denominations 
among  the  different  provinces  in  1911,  we  find  interesting  facts 
revealed.  Of  the  Anglicans,  two-thirds  are  in  the  South.  The 
Baptists  are  mostly  in  the  South  and  in  Burma,  in  both  districts 
chiefly  fruits  of  American  Missions ;  the  English  Baptists  are  in 
Bengal  and  its  neighbourhood.  The  Congregationalists  are  almost 
all  in  the  South,  chiefly  in  Travancore.  The  Lutherans  are 
about  half  in  the  South  (German  and  American),  and  nearly  the 
other  half  are  the  Gossner  Mission  in  Chota  Nagpur.  The 
Methodists  are  chiefly  the  American  Episcopal,  and  these  mostly 
in  the  United  Provinces.  The  Presbyterians  mostly  belong  to  the 
American  Missions  in  the  Punjab  and  the  Welsh  Calvinists  in 
Assam.  The  Salvationists  are  strong  in  the  Punjab,  Bombay,  and 
Travancore.  Taking  them  the  other  way,  we  may  say  that  the 
Christians  are  chiefly  as  follows  :— in  Assam,  Presbyterians  or 
Baptists ;  in  Bengal,  Baptists  or  Anglicans  ;  in  Bihar,  Anglicans  or 
Gossner ;  in  Bombay,  Anglicans,  Congregationalists,  or  Metho 
dists  ;  in  Burma,  the  great  majority  Baptists ;  in  Madras,  four- 
fifths  either  Anglicans,  Baptists,  or  Lutherans  ;  in  the  Punjab, 
two-thirds  Presbyterians;  in  the  United  Provinces,  four-fifths 
Episcopal  Methodists  ;  in  Travancore,  Congregationalists  or 
Anglicans. 

Of  the  Anglican  Christians,  151,000  are  in  Madras,  which 
includes  the  Telugu  and  Tamil  Missions  of  both  C.M.S.  and  S.P.G. ; 
59,000  in  Travancore  and  Cochin,  all  C.M.S. ;  32,000  in  Bihar, 
chiefly  S.P.G.  in  Chota  Nagpur  and  C.M.S.  in  Santalia  ;  29,000  in 
the  Punjab,  the  majority  C.M.S.,  but  including  the  S.P.G.  Delhi 
Mission ;  18,000  in  Bengal,  both  Societies  and  the  Oxford  Mission  ; 
12,000  in  Bombay,  both  Societies  ;  10,000  in  Burma,  S.P.G.  ; 
9000  in  Haidarabad,  mostly  C.M.S.  ;  6000  in  the  U.P.,  mostly 
C.M.S. ;  30.00  in  Assam,  S.P.G. ;  about  5000  in  the  remaining 
provinces.  One  of  the  compilers  of  the  Census  Eeport  states 
that  the  Anglican  Missions,  unlike  some  others,  "  are  strict  in  the 

"  unspecified  "  were  thrown  into  the  Anglican  total,  which  was  thereby  unduly 
swollen.  Moreover,  two-thirds  of  these  were  known  to  belong  to  the  L.M.S. 
in  Travancore,  and  the  omission  of  these  from  the  Congregationalist  total 
reduced  it  unduly.  This  has  been  put  right  in  1911,  though  there  are  still 
some  slight  uncertainties. 


INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


167 


matter  of  conversions,  and  will  not  take  in  anybody  of  whom  they    PART  n. 
are  not  sure  that  he  has  truly  begun  to  believe  in  the  creed  they   chap- 15- 
preach  to  him  "  ;  and  of  the  C.M.S.  in  particular  he  observes  that 
the  Society  "  prefers  fewer  converts,  but  real  ones,  to  many." 

The  foregoing  figures  are  from  the   Census   Eeport.     For  the  society 
different  Societies  we  must  go  to  the  Year  Book.     It  gives  the  statistics- 
figures  of  the  Indian  Christian  community  in  three  columns,  viz., 
(1)  Communicants,  (2)  Baptized  Adherents,  including  Communi 
cants,   (3)    Total   Christian   community.      The   variety  of   usage 
regarding  communicants  is  so  perplexing  that  the  figures  give  no 
correct  impression,  so  they  may  be  passed  over.     The  other  two 
returns  are  subjoined,  for  the  principal  Societies  : — 


Baptized 

adherents. 


British — 

Baptist  Miss.  Soc 10,852 

Church  Miss.  Soc !  165,809 

London  Miss.  Soc 25,000 

Soc.  Prop.  Gosp 110,068 

Wesl.  Miss.  Soc 30,000 

Estab.  Ch.  Scot 15,946 

U.  F.  Ch.  Scot 9,807 

Welsh  Calv.  Soc 25,114 

Salvation  Army 

American — • 

Baptist  Soc 135,000 

A.B.C.F.M.  (Coiigt.)      ...  I  20,100 

Evang.  Lutheran      .     .     .     .  !  39,152 

Meth.  Episcopal !  185,000 

Presbyterian  (North)     ...   I  33,850 

Do.  United I  32,000 

Do.  Dutch  Eef |  6,725 

Canadian — 

Baptist 7,314 

Presbyterian \  4,000 

Continental — 

Basel  Mission 17,767 

Gossner's  Mission     ....  70,865 

Germ.  Evang.  Luth.      .     .     .  !  21,166 

Schleswig-Holstein  .     .     .     .  i  4,000 


Total  Christian 
community. 


29,647 

185,816 

116,575 

116,000 

48,000 

102,834* 

10,789 

28,437 

34,095 

355,000 
39,617 
50,130 

227,247 
36,978 
45,406 
11,298 

15,000 
15,000* 

19,018 
92,000 
22,000 
12,577 


THE  OUTLOOK  APART  FROM  STATISTICS. 

But  statistics  give  no  true  idea  of  the  real  progress  of  Chris-  Indian 
tianity  in  India.     The  thoughtful  Indian  is  more  impressed  by  its 

*  N.B. — In  the  cases  of  the  Established  Church  of  Scotland  and  the 
Canadian  Presbyterian  Church,  the  larger  figure  is  in  the  first  column  and  the 
smaller  in  the  second,  in  the  Year  Book.  Assuming  this  to  be  an  accidental 
mistake,  the  figures  are  here  transposed;  but  this  does  not  make  them  at  all 
clear.  There  is  something  unexplained. 


1 68 


INDIA  .-   THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


Profres*  than  we  at  a  distance  are.  We  count  the  heads  of 
baptized  converts.  He  does  not  trouble  himself  with  figures  ;  but 
he  realizes  the  change  of  feeling  which  is  a  certain  precursor  of 
far  greater  and  more  rapid  changes  in  the  future.  Very  numerous 
have  been  the  evidences  of  this  in  the  past  few  years  The  self- 
denying  labours  of  the  missionaries  when  plague  and  famine  were 
ravaging  the  country,  at  the  commencement  of  our  period,  led  to 
the  Indian  Messenger,  the  organ  of  the  Brahmo  Samai,  using  this 
language :  ••'  Verily  at  this  threshold  of  the  twentieth  century 
Christian  >  philanthropy  comes  to  us  with  healing  balm  for  the 
many  afflictions  of  mankind.  This  humanity  of  Jesus'  followers 
and  not  their  dogmas,  will  surely  establish  the  throne  of  their 
Master  on  the  love  and  reverence  of  humanity."  When  the 
Bishops  met  in  conference  at  Calcutta  in  1900,  a  large  meeting  of 
non-Christians  in  the  Town  Hall  adopted  an  address  to  them  in 
which  occur  the  following  words  :— 

"You   are  trying   to  win  the  heart  of  India  by  infusing  into  it  the 
ospel  of  love  and  goodwill.     The  Bible,  which  you  have  brought  to  the 
itry,  is  an  inestimable  boon,  and  the  sweet  and  sacred  name  of  yonr 
doved  Master,  which  lias  already  revolutionized  the  world,  is  unto  us  a 
benefaction  the  true  value  of  which  we  cannot  yet  adequately  conceive. 
.  .  .  Our  country  cannot  do  Avithout  Christ." 

Wh?n  ^  National  Congress  met  at  Calcutta  in  1907,  it  was 
christi-        opened  with  a  remarkable  prayer,  copied  from  Christian  models 
and  expressing  in  Christian  language  the  need  of  the  guidance  of 
Holy  Spirit,  though    the   name  of   Christ    Himself   did   not 
occur  in  it.     When  an  All-India  Convention  of  Religions,  attended 
)   delegates,   met  at  Allahabad  in    1911,  the   prayers    and 
addresses    of    Christian   Indians  were  the  only  ones    attentively 
listened  to.     The  audience  talked  and  laughed  during  a  Sanscrit 
prayer,  but  they  stood  up  in  reverent  silence  during  the  Christian 
prayer.      A  secular   kinematograph  company  which   toured   the 
.911  found  that  their  most  successful  pictures  were 
some  representing  the   life  of  Christ,  which  were   received  with 
reverent  appreciation  by  large  crowds.     The  language  and  tone  of 
best   non-Christian  Indian  newspapers— that  is,  the  papers 
conducted  by  Indians-are  also  significant  in  this  respect.     They 
treely  acknowledge  the  progress  of  Christianity,  and  its  uplifting 
power,     jhe  Indian  Social  Reformer,  published  at  Bombay  is  par 
ticularly  mentioned  as  "  extraordinarily  generous  "  in  its  references 
to  Christianity. 

iSJX       Inf,ividual  utterances  are  equally  significant.     A  famous  -holy 
timonies.     man      at  Benares  said  to  an  inquirer,  "  There  is  one  book  that 
can    tell   you   all   you  want   to  know,  the  Bible."     A  Brahman 
Bengal,  dying  among  his  own  people,  with  no  Christian  near 
m,  was  reported  by  a  Hindu  who  was  present  to  have  had  con 
stantly  on  his  lips  one  name,  Jesus.     A  Hindu  judge  told  a  C  M  S 
missionary  that  he  kept  a  copy  of  the  Psalms  open  before  him  at 


INDIA-.   THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  169 

Psalm  xv.,  as  his  own  guide,  and  for  the  benefit  of  the  money-lenders  PART  u. 
who  brought  their  victims  into  court.  Others  have  testified  to  the  Chap' 15t 
integrity  of  the  Christians.  One  Hindu  said,  "  Christianity  changes 
men's  lives ;  if  a  man  becomes  a  Christian  he  ceases  to  take 
bribes  "  ;  a  large  landowner  said  his  Christian  labourers  were  much 
more  industrious  than  others;  another  thanked  the  missionary 
for  making  his  people  Christians,  as  now  his  cattle  were  safe. 
We  are  not  surprised,  therefore,  when  a  Brahman  says,  "  The 
Christian  religion  must  win  in  the  long  run,"  or  when  an  Arya 
tract  deplores  the  "  sapping  of  the  foundations  of  Hinduism  "  by 
Christianity,  and  that "  unbelief  and  Christianity  are  making  steady 
progress  " ;  or  when  the  Hon.  Sir  Narayan  G.  Ghardavarkar,  a 
Judge  of  the  Bombay  High  Court,  speaking  in  1911,  says  :— 

"India  is  being  converted;  the  ideas  that  lie  at  the  heart  of  the 
Gospel  of  Christ  are  slowly  but  surely  permeating  every  part  of  Hindu 
society,  and  modifying  every  phase  of  Hindu  thought." 

On  the  other  hand,  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  a  very  large 
proportion  of  Indian  Christians  are  from  the  low  caste  or  out-caste 
population ;  and  some  authorities  affirm  that  the  real  Hindu 
peoples  are  as  yet  scarcely  touched.  The  low  castes  and  out-castes 
are  counted  as  Hindus,  but  they  know  little  of  true  Hinduism,  and 
the  religion  of  large  numbers  of  them  is  rather  Animism,  and 
should  be  so  reckoned.*  This  brings  us  to  one  of  the  conspicuous 
features  of  the  present  position,  the  mass  movements. 

THE  MASS  MOVEMENTS. 

These  mass  movements  have  been  very  noticeable  in  the  last  The  Mass 
few  years ;  and  the  Bishop  of  Madras  has  again  and  again  called 
the  attention  of  the  whole  Church,  as  well  as  of  the  Missionary 
Societies,  to  the  urgent  need  of  supplying  evangelists  and  teachers 
to  deal  with  them,  even  at  the  cost  of  reducing  the  staff  and  the 
cost  of  colleges  and  high  schools. f  He  has  no  doubt  that  if 
these  are  forthcoming,  the  accession  even  of  millions  to  the 
Christian  Church  may  be  confidently  looked  for  in  the  near 
future.  It  was  of  the  Telugu  Country  that  he  first  spoke;  but 
when  he  visited  North  India  in  1913,  he  said  that  the  Punjab  was 
a  still  more  hopeful  field ;  and  indeed  in  many  parts  of  India  the 
same  demand  for  Christian  teachers  comes  from  multitudes  of  the 

*  The  counting  of  the  out-castes  as  Hindus  involves  a  serious  political 
difficulty.  The  Mohammedans  object  to  the  Hindu  population  being  thus 
artificially  augmented  in  Government  reckonings,  especially  in  a  province  like 
the  Punjab,  where  they  and  the  Hindus  are  nearly  equal  in  number. 

f  The  Bishop  opened  his  courageous  campaign  with  an  able  article  in  thef 
Nineteenth  Century  and  After,  Dec.,  1909  ;  and  an  important  address  by  him 
is  printed  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Aug.,  1912.  See  also  an  article  by  the  Rev.  W.  P. 
Hares  in  the  C.M.  Bev.,  Jan.,  1913.  On  the  "  untouchables,"  as  the  out-caste 
people  are  calJed,  see  articles  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  April,  1913  and  July,  1915,  by 
the  Rev.  W.  S.  Hunt,  and  Dec.,  1913  by  the  Bev.  A.  I.  Birkett ;  also  one  by 
the  Rev.  A.  F.  Painter  in  The  East  and  The  West,  April,  1912. 


PART  II. 

Chap. 15. 


Difficulties 
of  the 
Position. 


INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

11  depressed  classes."  To  them  Christianity  is  a  "  lift  "  socially, 
and  their  motives  are  of  course  mixed  ;  but  the  opportunity  is  the 
same  for  Christian  effort  on  a  large  scale.  It  is  deeply  to  be 
deplored  that  the  response  has  been  so  inadequate ;  yet  it  is 
largely  to  these  movements  that  the  recent  increase  of  the 
professing  Christian  population  is  due. 

Two  dangers  are  visible  in  this  state  of  things,  as  the  Eev. 
C.  F.  Hall  has  lately  pointed  out :  *  on  the  one  hand  delay, 
on  the  other  over-haste.  People  are  declaring  themselves  Chris 
tians  without  having  been  taught,  as  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the 
Census  of  1911  reports  many  thousands  more  "  Christians  "  in 
the  Punjab  than  are  claimed  by  all  the  Missions  together.  It  was 
even  reported  that  certain  persons  were  going  about  offering  to 
baptize  people  for  a  fee,  from  E  1  to  Es  5  per  head.  This  shows 
the  urgency  of  the  case,  and  the  danger  of  delay.  On  the  other 
hand,  baptism  before  sufficient  instruction  means,  as  Mr.  Hall 
says,  "  an  ignorant  Church,  unable  to  read  the  Bible,  only  half 
weaned  from  idolatry,  a  prey  to  superstition,  and  a  real  stumbling- 
block  to  future  progress."  Unhappily  some  of  the  _  Missions 
have  deliberately  adopted  the  policy  of  baptizing  uninstructed 
people;!  while  the  Salvation  Army,  and  some  of  its  imitators, 
enrol  converts  without  baptism  at  all,  thus  encouraging  the  high- 
caste  man  who  is  convinced  of  the  truth  of  Christianity,  but  afraid 
of  being  expelled  from  caste  and  family,  to  plead  that  he  can 
be  a  Christian  without  baptism.  It  must  be  mournfully  added 
that  some  of  the  Missions  imitate  the  Eoman  Catholics  in  what 
is  colloquially  called  "sheep-stealing,"  enticing  the  converts  of 
the  more  regular  Missions  to  come  out  and  join  them,  and 
employing  (actually  on  higher  pay)  agents  dismissed  by  other 
Missions  for  bad  conduct. 

Another  danger  which  has  been  feared  from  the  large  accession 
Christianity  of  low-caste  and  out-caste  people  to  the  Church  is  lest  the  higher 
repel  High  castes  should  be  hindered  thereby  from  joining  a  body  composed 
largely  of  those  who  a  few  years  ago  ate  carrion  and  were  clothed 
in  rags.  Apparently  the  result  is  the  exact  contrary.  So  striking 
is  the  improvement  of  these  people  through  their  becoming  Chris 
tians,  that  caste  people  are  drawn  to  inquire  into  the  cause  of  it ; 
and  sqine  have  actually  been  converted  in  this  way.  There  are 
now  clergymen  from  the  "  pariahs  "  (as  we  call  them  generically) 
who  read  the  Greek  New  Testament  and  Hebrew  Bible,  and  have 
passed  the  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Preliminary  Theological  Exami 
nation  with  credit ;  and  in  schools  and  classes  caste  people  may 
be  seen  sitting  in  a  class  taught  by  an  out-caste  teacher.  For 
instance,  the  Bishop  of  Madras  wrote  in  1909,J  "  Only  a  few 

*  CM.  Bev.,  May,  1914. 

f  Professor  Griswold,  of  the  American  Presbyterian  College  at  Lahore, 
discusses  this  subject  in  The  East  and  The  West  of  Jan.,  1915,  and  rather 
favours  speedy  baptism. 

•J  In  the  article  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  before  referred  to. 


win  LOW 


Castes  ? 


INDIA:  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  171 

years  ago  the  mission  high  school  in  this  town  [Ellore]  was  four    PART  11. 
times  emptied  of  all  its  Hindu  scholars  because  a  single  Christian   ^^i15- 
boy  from  the  out-caste  classes  was  admitted  as  a  pupil ;  yet  here, 
now,  I  find  out-caste  teachers  teaching  Brahman  boys." 

INDIAN  CHRISTIANS  :    CHARACTER  AND  EEPUTATION. 

As  regards  the  general  character  of  the  Christians,  the  same  character 
has  to  be  said  of  all  mission  fields.  There  is  much  improved  out- 
ward  conduct ;  there  is  regular  attendance  at  church,  and  so 
forth ;  but  there  is  a  lack  of  spirituality,  and  in  particular  an 
absence  of  earnest  desire  for  the  conversion  of  others,  besides  not 
a  few  cases  of  open  'sin.  Hereditary  Christianity,  of  which  there 
is  of  course  now  a  large  amount,  differs  entirely  in  the  cases  of 
individual  converts  and  of  village  communities  "  coming  over  " 
m  masse  or  nearly  so.  The  individual  convert  is  very  often  a 
man  who  has  suffered  much  for  Christ,  and  is  a  most  true 
disciple  ;  but  it  does  not  at  all  follow  that  his  children  will  be  like 
him  ;  so  that  hereditary  Christianity  in  this  case  means  deteriora 
tion.  But  when  a  whole  body  of  low-caste  or  out- caste  people 
desire  to  be  Christians  from  mixed  motives,  and  after  due  instruc 
tion  are  baptized,  they  may  have  little  of  true  Christianity  in  them, 
while  their  children,  ,who  will  have  a  Christian  education,  will 
distinctly  rise  in  character ;  and  in  this  case  hereditary  Christianity 
means  progress.  Mr.  Holland  wrote  in  1910  :— 

"It  would  seem  that  in  India  the  diffusion  of  Christian  ethics  and 
enlightenment  is  to  precede  baptism.  In  Great  Britain  it  has  followed 
baptism  by  centuries.  Amongst  the  low-castes,  as  over  so  large  a  part 
of  mediaeval  Europe,  it  is  often  a  case  of  baptized  Paganism.  With  the 
higher  castes  and  educated  classes  it  is  unbaptized  Christianity." 

Yet  while  the  missionaries  themselves  are  often  discouraged  by 
the  faults  and  failings  of  the  converts,  they  feel  constrained  to 
acknowledge  the  real  difference  between  them  and  the  non- Chris- 
tian  population.     One,  whose  standard  was  a  high  one,  wrote  in  Heathen. 
1901  of  Tinnevelly,  where  is  the  largest  body  of  Native  Christians : — 

"  I  am  not  blind  to  the  weaknesses  and  sins  among  us.  The  light 
view  of  sin,  the  '  cheap '  idea  of  forgiveness  ;  the  fatal  facility  for  lying 
and  deceit,  and  the  passion  for  money  and  the  law  courts ;  the  blindness 
to  the  truth  of  the  keeping  power  of  Christ ;  all  these  I  see ;  but  yet  I 
firmly  believe  that  Christianity  has  struck  its  roots  into  the  hearts  of 
the  people,  and  has  an  uplifting,  enlightening,  and  emancipating  power 
amongst  us." 

And  he  described  the  people  as  "  with  a  strong  vein  of  Old 
Testament  theology  in  their  nature,  understanding  the  law  better 
than  the  Gospel ;  yet  containing  an  inner  core  of  souls  whose  hearts 
have  been  drawn  by  the  higher  influence  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and 
who,  by  life,  preaching,  and  literature,  are  spreading  the  healthy 


172 


INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


PART  II. 

Chap. 15. 


lievival 
Move 
ments. 


Special 
Services 
by  Mr. 
Walker  ami 
Others. 


Liberal 
Gifts  of 
Indian 
Christians. 


influence  abroad."  A  multitude  of  individual  cases  of  Christian 
grace  and  example  occur  in  the  Eeports,  and  it  would  be  only  by 
reading  the  whole  of  them — an  almost  impossible  task — that  one 
could  get  a  perfectly  just  estimate.  Moreover,  there  are  many 
cases  reported  of  persecution  courageously  borne.  It  is  not  only 
the  individual  high-caste  convert  who  is  persecuted.  The  humblest 
out- caste  villagers  often  have  to  suffer.  Their  cattle  are  stolen, 
their  wells  stopped,  their  neighbours'  cows  turned  into  their  fields 
to  graze  on  the  springing  crops  ;  themselves  dragged  on  false 
charges  before  Hindu  officials  who  are  only  too  glad  to  have  an 
excuse  for  punishing  them  ;  and  so  forth.  Yet  these  trials  have 
been  patiently  borne. 

About  the  time  of  the  Welsh  Eevival  in  1905,  there  were  in 
dications  here  and  there  in  India  of  similar  movements.  Much 
was  said  in  some  quarters  in  England  of  the  "  showers  of  blessing  " 
on  the  Indian  Christians.  The  late  Eev.  T.  Walker,  who,  it  is 
needless  to  say,  was  in  fullest  sympathy  with  such  movements, 
and  whose  own  work  aimed  earnestly  at  fostering  them,  made 
extensive  inquiries,  and  reported  thereon  in  an  extremely  interest 
ing  article  in  the  C.M.  Review  (May,  1907).*  He  thankfullly 
recognized  unmistakable  signs  of  the  working  of  the  Spirit  of  God 
in  a  few  places,  but  concluded  that  "  there  had  not  been  enough 
to  justify  us  in  saying  that  a  great  Eevival  was  abroad  in  India." 
Mr.  Walker,  Mr.  Eddy,  and  others  have  held  many  "  special 
missions "  and  conventions  for  Indian  Christians,  which  have 
been  attended  by  much  blessing.  The  Eev.  A.  H.  Bowman  also, 
who  was  for  a  time  Incumbent  of  the  English-speaking  congrega 
tions  successively  at  Bombay  and  Calcutta  under  the  C.M.S.,  did 
excellent  work  of  the  same  kind.  The  Student  Movement  also 
has  strongly  influenced  some  of  the  best  and  ablest  of  the 
younger  educated  Christians,  and  diverted  into  right  channels  the 
nationalistic  feelings  and  aspirations  which  have  tended  to  undue 
independence. 

But  one  good  point  is  the  liberality  of  some  at  least  of  the 
people.  It  is  true  that  the  self-support  of  the  Church  is  as  yet  a 
long  way  off,  particularly  in  the  North ;  and  the  contributions  of 
the  congregations  cannot  compare  with  those  in  West  Africa  or 
in  Uganda.  Still,  about  £13,600  was  contributed  by  the  C.M.S. 
Indian  Christians  in  1913,  and  this  was  more  than  double  the 
amount  in  1899.  Some  particular  illustrations  recorded  are 
interesting ;  for  instance,  in  the  Dummagudern  district  of  the 
Telugu  Mission,  the  converts  regularly  give  the  firstfruits  of 
their  produce  to  the  service  of  God,  and  in  one  village  in  1907  the 
Christians  brought  the  first-born  calves  of  their  herds,  each  saying 
as  he  presented  his  calf,  "  I  here  offer  this  first-born  to  the  Lord 
in  acknowledgment  of  His  goodness  to  me."  In  1911  a  little 
congregation  at  Faizabad  sent  Es  30  to  the  fund  for  rebuilding 
the  cathedral  in  Uganda.  But  there  is  no  doubt  much  truth  in 
*  See  also  CM.  IntelL,  Feb.,  190G. 


INDIA-.   THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  173 

Archdeacon  Ihsan  Ullah's  report  in  1913,  "  The  Church  is  like  an    PART  n. 
infant  a  foot  and  a  half  in  height.    This  small  infant  loves  its  cradle,    ChaJL15' 
and  is  given  its  feeding-bottle  by  its  English  benefactors.    Out  of  the 
cradle  it  cannot  even  walk  without  crutches.     These  are  the  mis 
sionaries  and  the  Western  money."    And  he  adds  that  the  Church, 
reversing  our  Lord's  words,  considers  it  "  more  blessed  to  receive 
than  to  give."     Still  there  is  some  progress  in  self-support.     For 
instance  in  1911  the  C.M.S.  grant-in-aid  to  the  Tinnevelly  Church 
Council,  which  had  been  Es  26,000  in  1892,  but  had  been  gradually 
reduced,  ceased  altogether,  being  no  longer  required. 

Is   all    this   progress   welcomed   by   the   bulk   of   the   British  British 
community  in  ^  India  ?     We    are  all   familiar  with   the  common  gSn  of 
complaints  against  Christian  servants.     Such  complaints  usually  Christians. 
come  from  those  who  have  not  troubled  to  inquire  whether  the 
servants  in  question  are  really  Christians,  or  whether  they  only 
pretend  to  be  because   they  suppose  (erroneously!)  that   it  will 
commend  them  to  a  "  Christian  "  employer.     Of  course  there  are 
bad  Christian  servants  in  India  as  well  as  in  England,  but  there  is 
ample  evidence  on  the  other  side  also.*     One  letter  said,  "  Life  is 
worth  living    now;   we    have   just   got  Christian    servants."     In 
another   letter,  in   1909,    came   two   testimonies :   a  young   sub 
lieutenant  praised  his  Indian  servant  "  in  glowing  terms,"  and  an 
English  official  had  a  clerk  who  was  exceptionally  efficient  and 
devoted  to  duty,  but   had   no  idea   he   was   a    Christian  till   he 
happened  to  see  him  at  church. 

But  as  regards  educated  Christians  of  high  or  middle  caste,  one  Unsympa- 
of  their  keenest  trials    is  the   treatment   of  them   too   often    by  Treatment 
English    Christians    (so-called).      It    may    suffice    to    cite    one  of  Converts, 
illustration,  from  The  Renaissance  in  India  (p.  193) :— t 

"  What  treatment  did  you  receive  within  the  Church  after  you 
became  a  Christian  ?  " 

"  That  was  almost  the  hardest  part  of  all.  It  was  so  unexpected.  I 
was  a  new  convert,  and  had  seen  little  of  Christians.  I  had  read  in  the 
New  Testament  the  commandments  of  love  and  brotherhood.  I  had 
also  suffered  so  much  that  I  thought,  *  Now  surely  my  troubles  are  over ; 
I  am  among  Christ's  followers.'  I  knew  that  all  Englishmen  were 
Christians,  and  the  missionary  who  baptized  me  treated  me  as  a  brother. 
And  so,  in  my  ignorance,  when  I  met  an  Englishman,  at  first,  I  would  go 
up  to  him  and  say,  '  I  am  a  Christian ' ;  but  I  was  received  with  cold 
looks  and  sometimes  with  abuse,  and  would  be  told  to  '  get  out.'  Here 
and  there  I  found  a  true  Christian ;  but  the  majority  of  the  English  I 
have  met  seem  to  regard  me  as  belonging  to  a  lower  caste.  ...  It 
seemed  just  '  caste '  over  again.  I  have  suffered  slights  harder  to  bear 
from  those  who  should  have  been  my  brother  Christians  than  from  my 
relations  who  outcasted  me." 

*  See  the  Rev.  J.  P.  Haythornthwaite's  article  in  the  C.M.  IntelL,  June, 
1902,  and  the  Rev.  T.  Bomford's  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  May,  1909. 

t  See  also  an  article  by  a  Retired  Indian  official  in  The  East  and  The  West, 
of  Jan.,  1915,  on  the  Attitude  of  Europeans  in  India  towards  the  Spread  of 
Christianity. 


174 


INDIA  .-  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


PART  II. 
Chap. 15. 

A  good 
Example. 


Indian 
Christians 
in  Con 
ference. 


The  Anglo- 
Indians. 


Bishop  Durrant,  in  his  speech  at  the  C.M.S.  Annual  Meeting 
in  1913,  gave  an  admirable  illustration  of  the  opposite  treatment. 
He  was  preaching  to  the  European  congregation  at  Delhi,  and  the 
chaplain  in  charge  gave  out  that  on  the  following  Sunday  there 
would  be  no  Communion  Service  there,  but  all  communicants  were 
invited  to  go  instead  to  St.  Stephen's  mission  church  (S.P.G.)  and 
join  their  Indian  fellow  Christians  at  the  Holy  Communion.  No 
less  than  130  went,  "  including  some  Members  of  Council." 

But  the  Indian  Christian  community  will  win  its  way  to  respect 
and  brotherly  treatment  in  time.  It  is  too  large  now  to  be  ignored, 
much  less  despised.  There  has  for  some  years  been  an  Indian 
Christian  Congress  meeting  annually  at  Madras;  but  it  only 
touched  the  southern  provinces.  In  December,  1914,  however, 
the  first  All-India  Conference  of  Indian  Christians  assembled  at 
Calcutta,  delegates  to  it  gathering  from  all  parts  of  India  and 
Burma.  Eaja  Sir  Harnam  Singh  was  to  have  been  chairman,  but 
the  death  of  his  son,  Captain  Indrajit  Singh,  a  doctor  in  the 
British  Army  in  France,  prevented  it,  and  Dr.  George  Nundy,  of 
Haidarabad,  took  his  place.  Among  the  subjects  discussed  were 
Higher  Education,  Village  Christians,  Marriage  and  Divorce,  the 
Law  touching  Indian  Christians,  &c. 

It  does  not  fall  within  the  province  of  this  History  to^  treat  of 
the  great  importance  of  Christian  work  among  the  Eurasians  (or, 
as  they  are  now  officially  called,  Anglo-Indians).  But  a  word  of 
commendation  must  be  said  in  passing  of  the  Indian  Church  Aid 
Association,  which  takes  them  specially  under  its  wing.  Bishop 
Copleston  is  President  of  the  London  Council,  and  Mr.  H.  P.  K. 
Skipton  Secretary. 


Attitude  of 

Christian 

Church 

towards 

Indian 

Religions. 


Sir  J.  Bour 

tlillon's 

Warning. 


THE  CHRISTIAN  ATTITUDE  TOWARDS  INDIAN  RELIGIONS. 

On  one  other  important  subject  a  few  words  must  be  said.  We 
have  seen  a  little  of  the  attitude  of  the  people  of  India  towards 
Christianity.*  But  what  is  the  attitude  of  the  Christian  Church 
towards  the  Indian  religions  ?  This  question  has  been,  during  the 
period  under  review,  a  subject  of  frequent  and  important  discussion. 
Almost  every  writer  and  speaker  on  India  has  in  these  latter  years 
deprecated  strong  denunciations  of  Hinduism  and  the  readiness  to 
see  and  to  expose  the  worst  side  of  it.  In  comparing  our  own 
religion  with  that  of  others,  says  Sir  James  Bourdillon,  "  let  us 
compare  like  with  like.  Let  us  not  single  out  for  comparison  all 
that  is  bad  in  heathendom  and  all  that  is  good  in  Christianity.  It 
is  as  unfair  to  take  as  a  type  of  the  religions  of  India  the 
abominations  of  Tantric- worship  as  it  would  be  to  take  the  moral 
and  religious  life  of  a  London  slum  as  typical  of  the  Christianity  of 
England."  "  The  days,"  he  adds,  "  of  militant  and  aggressive 
proselytism  are  past;  we  need  no  longer  the  sternness  of  a 

*  See  previous  chapter. 


INDIA-.   TtiE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  175 

Tertullian,  but  the  tenderness  of  an  Augustine  or  a  Francis."  *  It  PART  IT. 
is  doubtful  whether  there  was  in  past  days  so  much  "militant  chaP-_15' 
proselytism  "  as  it  is  now  the  fashion  to  impute  to  them  ;  and  if 
the  barbarities  of  Hinduism  loomed  large  in  printed  Reports,  we 
have  to  remember  that  Jagannath  and  sati  and  other  abominations 
were  then  rampant  as  they  are  not  to-day.  Nevertheless,  all  agree 
that  Sir  James's  warning  is  right.  It  is  all  to  the  good  that  our 
missionaries  should  try,  as  in  fact  they  do  try,  to  understand  the 
genuine  religious  feelings  of  the  people  among  whom  they  work, 
and  to  appreciate  whatever  makes  for  good  in  their  systems  ;  only' 
did  Schwartz  and  Carey  and  Duff  and  French  ever  do  otherwise  ?' 

A  singular  influence  has  been  gained  by  one  C.M.S.  missionary,  Pundit 
the  Eev.  J.  J.  Johnson  of  Benares,  familiarly  known  as  Pundit  Johllson- 
Johnson,  by  his  thorough  mastery  of  the  Sanskrit  language  and 
literature.     He  has  the  ear  of  the  most  learned  pundits  and  "  holy 
men  "  as  very  few  other  missionaries  have  gained  it ;  and  the 
accounts  of  his  tours  in  various  parts  of  India  and  his  conversations 
witli  the  Brahman  priests  are  extraordinarily  interesting.]-     The 
Brahmans  appreciate  his  courtesy  and  respect  his  learning,  and 
are  quite  ready  for  friendly  religious  discussion. 

But  it  is  quite  another  thing  to  follow  Mr.  Bernard  Lucas  in  Mr.  B. 
minimizing  the  value  of  all  that  has  been  done  in  past  years,  and  JgSs3 
in   proposing   to    substitute    "  evangelizing "    (in    his    sense)   for 
"  proselytizing  "  (in  his  sense).     His  interesting  book,  The  Empire, 
of  Christ,  has  gained  for  him  the  ear  of  the  thoughtful  Christian 
public;    but  there   is  much   in   it  which  would   call   for   serious 
criticism  if  this  were  the  place  to  offer  it.J    And  still  more  gravely 
should  we  have  to  deprecate  the  teaching  of  his  later  work,  Our 
Task  in  India.     "  Evangelizing  "  cannot  properly  mean  anything 
but  preaching  glad  tidings,  and  if  St.  Paul  is  any  authority  on  the 
question  what  the  glad  tidings  are,  they  are  the  definite  statement 
of  certain   historic   facts   about   Christ   as   a   Saviour   from  sin. 
Well,  you  tell  those  tidings ;  you  show  how  truly  "  glad "  they 
are ;  a  Hindu  believes  them,  and  is  himself  "  gladdened  "  ;  what 
then  ?     Don't,    says   Mr.   Lucas,   in   effect,  bring   him    into   the 
community  of   believers   by  the  rite  that  Christ  ordained :  that 
would  be  "proselytizing,"  which  is  quite  wrong.     Certainly  the 
emasculated  "gospel"  with  which  the  missionary  is  to  "evan 
gelize  "  is  not  very  likely  to  produce  believers,  so  of  course  the 
risk  of  "  proselytism  "  would  be  very  small.     A  remark  of  Dr.  Fruit  not 
Mott's  is  very  much  to  the  point.     He  tells  us  that  "  the  Principal  notpected' 
of  a  Christian  college, "in  Asia,'  had  said  that  'he  did  not  expect  Gathered, 
to  have  conversions  in  his  college  in  this  generation,  but  simply  to 
do  the  work  preparatory  for  making  conversions  possible  in  the 
next  generation '  "  ;  whereupon  Dr.  Mott  drily  observes,  "  It  need 
not  be  pointed  out  that  this  attitude  and  practice  is  not  Wcely  to  result  in 

*  CM.  Eev.,  Aug.,  1909. 

t  See  CM.  Intell,  Jan.,  1905, | May,  1906  ;  CM.  Rev.,  Feb.,  1915. 

t  It  was  reviewed  by  Mr.  Snell  in  the  CM.  Rev.  of  Sept.,  1908. 


i;6  INDIA:  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 

PART  ii.  the  desired  conversions  in  the  next  generation:'  *  Dr.  Orr,  the  Presby- 
chaiKjL5.  terjan  missionary  in  Bajputana,  very  rightly  concludes  his  review 
of  Mr.  Lucas's  book  (to  the  actual  merits  of  which  he  bears  full 
testimony),  "  The  only  final  and  absolute  failure  of  Christian 
evangelism  can  be  when  the  dominant  Christian  note  of  appeal 
and  urgency  is  lost."  f  And  Canon  (now  Bishop)  Waller,  in  his 
review  of  it,{  while  expressing  much  sympathy  with  the  spirit  it 
exhibits,  is  obliged  to  correct  some  of  its  statements,  and  to 
"  deplore  "  many  of  the  suggestions.  But  he  rightly  hopes  that 
missionaries  may  be  stirred  up  to  examine  their  methods  and  seek 
more  effectively  "  to  present  Christ  clearly  to  the  soul  of  India." 
Mr.  Another  book,  of  much  greater  value,  is  Mr.  J.  N.  Farquhar 's 

BooqkUhar'S  Crown  of  Hinduism,  the  argument  of  which  he  further  expounded 
in  an  article  in  the  International  Review  of  Missions  (July,  1914). 
In  the  book  Mr.  Farquhar  "  gathers  the  beliefs  of  the  people 
round  the  social  system,  and  shows  how  each  in  turn  acted  on 
the  other."  So  Bishop  Waller  describes  it,  and  he  adds  :— 

"  Only  writers  who  treat  of  the  problems  of  life  as  related  to  religion, 
and  of  religion  as  influencing  (and  solving)  those  problems,  writers  who 
will  take  us  down  to  root  principles  as  Mr.  Farquhar  has  done,  will 
prove  to  have  made  a  permanent  contribution  to  the  Science  of  Eeligion, 
and,  what  is  more  important,  to  have  contributed  to  the  uplifting  of 
humanity."  § 

In  the  Revieiv,  Mr.  Farquhar' s  suggestion  is  that  Christianity 
fulfils  Hinduism  very  much  as  it  has  fulfilled  Judaism  ;  that  is,  as 
the  New  Testament  fulfils  the  Old.  The  analogy  is  a  fallacious 
one,  and  Mr.  Farquhar  foresees  the  objections  to  it,  but  he  man 
fully  essays  to  meet  them,  not  very  successfully,  however.  Pro 
fessor  Hogg,  of  Madras,  whose  whole  tendency  is  to  appreciate 
whatever  is  good  in  Hinduism,  reviews  The  Crown  0/  Hinduism  in 
the  same  periodical  (Jan.,  1914),  and  while  praising  it  as  a  "  dis- 
tingished  book  "  with  "  a  great  purpose,"  is  evidently  not  satisfied 
with  the  argument.  He  acutely  says :  "  Doubtless  Christ  fulfils 
what  is  good  in  Hinduism.  But  then  He  leaves  out  much  of 
what  was  in  Hinduism,  and  He  fulfils  much  of  what  was  never 
in  Hinduism.  .  .  .  What  Christ  fulfils  is  not  Hinduism,  but  the 
need  of  which  India  has  begun  to  be  conscious,  the  need  of  which 
He  has  made  her  begin  to  feel  conscious."  "  The  message,  '  You 
need  Christ  now,'  is  really  more  telling  than,  '  Christ  fulfils  your 
old  religion.' "  || 

*  The  Present  World  Situation,  p.  180.  See  also  Dr.  Mott's  powerful 
address  delivered  at  the  meeting  of  the  National  Conference  at  Calcutta  in 
Dec.,  1912,  printed  in  the  CM.  Review,  May,  1913. 

t  Int.  Miss.  Rev.,  April,  1914,  p.  373. 

I  CM.  Rev.,  April,  1914. 

§  CM.  Rev.,  Jan.,  1914. 

y  It  should  here  be  added  that  one  of  the  most  encouraging  statements  of 
the  position  and  prospects  of  Christianity  in  India  was  an  article  by  Mr. 
Farquhar  in  the  Contemporary  Review  of  May,  1908. 


INDIA-.   THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  177 

^  Bishop  Copleston,  lately  Metropolitan  of   India,  in   his  Third    PART  n 
Charge  to  the  Diocese  of  Calcutta,  deals  with  an  important  part  of   ChaP- 15- 
the  subject  in  a  masterly  way.*     He  puts  the  question,  How  f ar  Bish^T 
is    Hinduism  a   preparation   for   the   Gospel  ?     How  far  are  its  ^pleston 
"  sacred  books  "  an  "  ethnic  Old  Testament  "  ?     He  distinguishes  Hinduism, 
between  "the  philosophical  part  of  Hindu  thought  and  teaching 
represented  mainly  by  the  Upanishads  and   the    Yedanta,"    and 
"  the  more  practical  or  devotional  part,  the  religion  of  '  bhakti  ' 
represented  by  the  Ramayana  of  Tulsi  Das,  and  by  the  cult  of 
Krishna  or  Rama."     He  confines  himself  to  the  former,  and  gives 
to   the  above   questions  "  an   emphatic   negative."     "I   am   not 
saying  that  such  teachings  contain  nothing  that  is  good  and  true ; 
far  from  it.     What  I  insist  on  is,  that  they  do  not  contain  those 
specific  truths  which  are  calculated  to  prepare  the  way  of  Christ, 
but  that,  on  the  contrary,  their  characteristic  teaching  is  singularly 
calculated  to  make  the  reception  of  the  Gospel  difficult."     This  he 
proceeds  to  prove  in  detail ;  and  the  proof  is  complete.' 

The   present  Bishop   of   Madras,    Dr.    Whitehead,' dealt   with  Bishop 
another  subject   in  a  lecture  delivered  at  Haidarabad,t  viz     the  Wh4tc^ea(1 , 
demand  for  a  "  National  Christianity."     This  demand,  he  observes,  Christ^ 
found    expression    at   the    Edinburgh    Missionary  Conference   in anity- 
speeches    by  delegates  from    India,    China,  and   Japan;  and   he 
reminds  us  that  a  similar  demand,  for  an  "  Oriental  Christ,"  has 
been  made  by  the  Brahmo  Samaj,  by  the  mouth  of  its  late  leader, 
Babu  Protab  Chunder  Mozumdar,  who  argued   that  Christ  was 
an   Oriental,    and   only    Orientals    could   understand   Him.     The 
Bishop  adds  that  when  another  leader  adapted  the  Lord's  Prayer 
for  Brahmo  use,  he  changed  the  opening  words  into  "  a  thoroughly 
Indian  form,"  "  Our  Mother  which  art  in  Heaven."     Of  course 
we  are  all  agreed  that  much  more  might  be  done,  and  ought  to  bo 
done,  to  "  clothe  the  Christian  life  and  spirit  in  an  Indian  form." 
But  the  Bishop  points  out  that  the  New  Testament  says  nothing 
of  a  "  National "    Christianity,  and  on    the   contrary   lays   great 
stress  upon  the  Universality  of  Christ,   the   Universality  of  the 
Gospel,  the  Universality  of  the  Church ;  and  on  these  points  he 
reasons  very  cogently. 

An  article  by  the  Rev.  J.  F.  Hewitt,  who  was  for  several  years  Mr.  Hewitt 
an  evangelistic  missionary  in  Bengal,  discusses  "  the  Presentation  Sitefio?6" 
of  Christ  to  the  Hindu  "  in  a  very  interesting  way.J     He  describes  of  Christ, 
the  Bengali  peasants  as  they  actually  are,  and  their  vague  belief 
in  a  Supreme  Being  as  practically  issuing  in  a  tenacious  devotion 
to  the  local  idol.     Loyalty  to  ancestral  tradition  naturally  resents 
"wholesale  denunciation,"  which  "only  arouses  bigoted  opposi 
tion."     "  Kindly  humour,  sweet  reasonableness,  a  gentle  leading 
towards  higher  thoughts,"  he  commends;  "  but  we  must  beware 
of   an   over-sensitive   toleration  which   encourages  superstition." 

*  This  part  of  the  Charge  was  printed  in  the  CM.  Review,  Sept.   1913. 

Printed  in  the  CM.  Review,  Jan.,  1911. 
I  C.M.  Review,  March,  1913. 

N 


178 


INDIA  .-  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


PART  II 
Chap.  15 


India  and 
St.  John's 
Gospel. 


LRT  ii.  Then  he  refers  to  the  pundit  class,  and  speaks  of  Berkeley's 
ap-  is',  philosophy  as  invaluable  in  dealing  with  "  Maya  "  theories,  "  lead 
ing  up  in  Berkeley's  inimitable  style  to  the  doctrine  of  a  personal 
God."  And  then  the  students,  with  their  Western  education, 
whose  *'  immemorial  custom  compels  their  public  acknowledgment 
of  doctrines  they  disbelieve,  and  often  demands  the  worship  of 
images  they  repudiate."  Mr.  Hewitt  proceeds  to  indicate  briefly 
the  way  in  which  St.  John's  Gospel  can  be  used  with  such  men  : 
chap.  i.  pointing  to  the  real  divine  Avatar ;  chap.  iii.  to  a  spiritual 
new  birth  for  even  the  "twice-born"  Brahman;  chap.  iv.  to 
"  worship  in  spirit  and  in  truth,"  and  to  Christ's  attitude  to  caste 
("  Give  Me  to  drink,"  spoken  to  an  outcaste  woman) ;  chap.  ix.  to 
the  falsity  of  the  Hindu  doctrine  of  pre-existence  ("which  did  sin?  "); 
chap.  xii.  to  the  sacrificial  aspect  of  the  Atonement  (ver.  32), 
"  comparing  its  nature  and  effects  with  the  Vedic  sacrifices  and 
the  present-day  sacrifices  of  the  Saivites "  ;  chaps,  xiv.-xvii.  to 
"the  doctrine  of  the  indwelling  Spirit  and  the  abiding  Christ"; 
while  "  the  all-prevalent  view  that  '  God  is  everything  and  every 
thing  is  God'  will  meet  its  corrective  in  chap.  xvii.  20-23." 
"  Thus,"  concludes  Mr.  Hewitt,  "  with  thought  and  care  our  own 
incomparable  creed  may  be  built  up  from  the  apparent  errors  of 
another  system,  which  after  all  has  developed  or  retained  many  a 
o-reat  truth  and  noble  view,  and  which  it  will  be  easier  to  lead 
onward  to  perfection  than  to  force  back  to  negation."  Bishop 
Westcott,  it  will  be  remembered,  used  to  say  that  Europe  would 
never  understand  St.  John  until  Indian  Christians  expounded  it.  ^ 

Lastly  brief  reference  must  again  be  made  to  Professor  Cairns's 
Eeport  for  Commission  IV.  to  the  Edinburgh  Conference.  The 
letters  from  leading  missionaries  which  he  cites  show  that  many 
have  felt  the  need  of  modifying  the  form  in  which  they  present 
Christian  truth  to  the  Hindu  mind ;  but  there  seems  to  be  an 
almost  unanimous  conviction  that  the  great  central  facts^  of 
Christianity  must  be  affirmed  as  strongly  as  ever.  A  mystical 
Hindu  cares  little  about  historical  fact,  but  Prof.  Cairns  well 
remarks  that  "the  mysticism  of  Christianity  presupposes  the 
historical  revelation  ;  there  could  have  been  no  Pentecost  had  it 
not  been  for  the  life  and  death  and  resurrection  of  the  Son  of  God." 
Most  of  the  missionary  correspondents  seem  to  be  represented  by 
one  who  insists  that  "  the  fact  of  the  Incarnation  is,  and  must  be, 
the  basis  of  all  Christian  teaching  " ;  and  he  proceeds  to  quote 
Browning : — 

I  say  the  acknowledgment  of  God  in  Christ, 
Accepted  by  thy  reason,  solves  for  thee_ 
All  questions  in  this  world  and  out  of  it, 
And  has,  so  far,  advanced  thee  to  be  wise. 

Professor  Cairns  notes  that  the  "  generous  recognition  of  all  that 
is  true  and  good  in  other  religions  "  does  not  in  the  least  imply  a 
weakenin^  of  the  conviction  of  "the  absoluteness  and  finality  of 


Keport  by 

Professor 

Cairns. 


INDIA  :  THE  CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.  179 

Christ."     Nowhere  in  the  evidence  before  him  did  he  find  "  the    PART  it 
slightest  support  for  the  idea  that  Christianity  is  only  one  religion   Ch^_15- 
among  others,  or  that  all  religions  are  simply  different  ways  of 
seeking  the  one  Father."     "  One  massive  conviction  animates  the 
whole  evidence,  that  Jesus  Christ  fulfils  and  supersedes  all  other 
religions."  %  He  also  quotes  some  answers  from  Indian  correspond-  How 
ents  touching  their  own  conversion,  and  very  encouraging  they  Indian 
are      One  writes  of  -the  sudden  dawning  of  a  new  relationship  coml'to* 
to  God,  through  Christ,  as  implied  in  the  word  Saviour."     Another  Christ- 
writes,  "  What  finally  helped  me  to  accept  Christ  as  my  personal 
Saviour  was  the  sense  of  my  sins,  Christ's  claim  to  save  men  from 

their  sins,  and  the  testimony  of  Dr.  P to  the  fact  that  Christ 

had  forgiven  him  his  sins."  A  third  one  is  named,  Canon  Nihal 
Singh  (C.M.S.,  Allahabad),  who  says,  "  It  was  the  sense  of  sin 
that  forced  me  to  accept  Christ  as  my  Lord  and  Saviour.  I  found 
no  remedy  for  my  sins  but  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  Who  shed  His 
blood  for  me." 

This  chapter  cannot  be  concluded  without  a  tribute  of  admira- 
tion  to  Dr.  Julius  Eichter's  comprehensive  and  masterly  History  </ 
Missions  m  India,  which  has  been  translated  into  English  by 
Sydney  H.  Moore,  and  published  by  Oliphant.  It  was  reviewed 
in  the  G.M.  Review  of  October,  1909,  by  Mr..Manley.  The  book  is 
exceedingly  appreciative  of  C.M.S.  work,  but  to  other  Anglican 
Missions,  the  S.P.G.  in  particular,  justice  is  scarcely  done.  It  is, 
however,  an  indispensable  guide  to  the  history  and  problems  of 
Indian  Missions. 

Among  the  Pan-Anglican  Papers  on  Missions  in  India  the 
following  are  to  be  specially  noted  for  reference,  all  in  Vol.  V.  of 
the  Reports,  belonging  to  Section  D  :— 

Among  the  Preliminary  Papers,  inserted  in  the  appendices :  On 
Evangelistic  Work  among  Women,  by  Deaconess  Ellen  Goreh,  marked 
S.D.  2  (a) ;  on  Industrial  Work,  by  the  Rev.  G.  H.  Westcott  (now  Bishop 
of  Lucknow),  S.D.  2  (b) ;  on  the  Development  of  the  Native  Church,  by 
the  Eev.  W.  D.  Clarke  of  Madras,  S.D.  2  (k) ;  on  Missionary  Education, 
by  Mr.  S.  K.  Budra,  S.D.  2  (1)  ;  on  Medical  Missions,  by  Dr.  A.  C. 
Lankesfcer,  S.D.  2  (n)  ;  on  Mission  Work  and  National  Customs,  by  the 
Rev.  E.  H.  M.  Waller  (now  Bishop  of  Tinnevelly),  S.D.  3  (1) ;  on  the 
Comity  of  Missions,  by  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  S.D.  4  (e). 

Among  the  papers  read  at  the  Congress :  On  Village  Itineration,  by 
the  Bishop  of  Madras,  p.  19;  on  Education,  by  the  Rev.  W.  E.  S. 
Holland,  p.  31  ;  on  Medical  Missions,  by  Dr.  E.  F.  Neve,  p.  45 ;  on 
Industrial  Missions,  by  Bishop  Foss  Westcott,  p.  55  ;  on  Indian  Women, 
by  Dr.  Datta  and  Mrs.  Ball,  pp.  128-9 ;  on  Village  Populations  and  the 
Educated  Classes,  by  Bishop  Foss  Westcott  and  the  Bishop  of  Madras, 
pp.  150-153 ;  on  the  Presentation  of  Truth  to  the  Hindu  Mind,  by  the 
Rev.  G.  T.  Manley,  p.  173 ;  on  the  Comity  of  Missions,  by  the  Bishop  of 
Travancore,  p.  162 ;  on  Caste,  by  the  Rev.  H.  Pakenham  Walsh  (now 
Bishop  of  Assam),  p.  117. 


OHAPTEE  XVI. 


1'ART   U. 
Chap.  16. 


INDIA:    THE  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND   UNION 
MOVEMENTS. 

The  Anglican    Episcopate-New   Bishops-The   First  Indian   Bishop- 
Plans  for  Synodical  Organization-Dr.  Mott's  Campaign  1912-13— 
The  Memorable  December  of  I9i2-The  National  Conference- 
National  Council    The  Future  Indian  Church-Bishop  Whitehead  s 
Views— Kikuyu  Anticipated. 

[lE  must  now  turn  our  attention  to  some  important 
events  of  the  last  few  years  in  connexion  with  the 
Anglican  Church  in  India,  and  with  the  whole  cause 
of  Christianity  there.  Most  significant  are  the  events 
now  to  be  recorded,  in  view  of  the  possibilities  of  a 
future  united  Indian  Church. 


:NC<V 

Bishops 
iii  1899. 


Further 
Changes. 


THE  BISHOPS;    THE  FIKST  INDIAN  BISHOP. 

And  first,  as  regards  the  Anglican  Episcopate.  There  have 
been  many  changes  during  our  period.  Bishop  Welldon  landed 
at  Calcutta  to  succeed  the  retiring  Metropolitan,  Bishop  John 
son  in  the  same  month  that  Lord  Curzon  arrived  as  the  new 
Viceroy,  January,  1899,  three  months  before  the  C.M.S.  Centenary. 
Dr  Welldon  had  only  accepted  the  post  on  the  clear  understanding 
that  he  had  a  free  hand  to  encourage  and  support  Missions  m 
India,  and  he  fulfilled  this  purpose  with  his  whole  heart, 
had  also  been  other  changes  at  that  time.  The  venerable  Bishop 
Gell  had  resigned  the  Bishopric  of  Madras,  and  had  been  suc 
ceeded  by  Bishop  Whitehead,  who  had  been  Head  of  the  Oxfrad 
Mission  at  Calcutta ;  and  Bishop  Mylne's  place  at  Bombay  had 
been  taken  by  Bishop  Macarthur— both  before  the  Centenary. 
Bishop  Matthew  of  Lahore  had  only  lately  died,  and  the  Eev. 
G.  A.  Lefroy,  Head  of  the  Cambridge  Delhi  Mission,  was  con 
secrated  for  that  Diocese  in  November,  1899. 

In  due  course  other  changes  ensued  in  these  high  omces. 
Bishop  Welldon's  health  did  not  allow  of  a  long  period  of  service, 
and  on  his  retirement  in  1901,  Dr.  Copleston,  who  had  been 
Bishop  of  Colombo  since  1876,  was  translated  to  Calcutta,  to  the 
genuine  satisfaction  of  the  C.M.S.  He  proved,  as  was  expected, 
a  true  Father  in  God  during  the  twelve  years  of  his  service  there. 


INDIA  ?  A  NGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  Mo  VEMENTS.    \  8 1 

On  his  retirement  in  1913,  Bishop  Lefroy  of  Lahore  was  trans-    PART  n 
lated  to  Calcutta,  as  Metropolitan,  to  the  Society's  great  satisfac-   C1)ap- 1G- 
tion.     At  Bombay  Bishop  Macarthur  was  succeeded  by  Bishop 
Pym  in  1904,  and  he  by  Bishop  Palmer  in  1908.     Moreover  in 
1905  there  were  three  other  changes,  Bishop  Williams  for  Bishop 
Morley  m  Tmnevelly,  Bishop  Foss  Westcott  for  Bishop  Whitley 
in  Chota  Nagpur,  and  Bishop  Gill  for  Bishop  Hodges  in  Travancore 
and  Cochin.     Meanwhile  one  new  diocese  was  formed  in  1903  for 
Central  India,  with  its  see  at  Nagpur ;  and  the  Eev.  Eyre  Chatter- 
ton,  an   S.P.G.   missionary,  and  head  of  the  Dublin  University 
Mission  in  Chota  Nagpur,  became  its  first  bishop.      Then  in  1910 
Bishop  Clifford,  who  had  won  all  hearts  by  his  work  and  influence 
in   the   Diocese   of   Lucknow,  retired,  and   Dr.  G.  H.  Westcott 
succeeded  him ;  and  in  the  same  year  the  Eev.  E.  S.  Fyffe,  of  the 
S.P.G.,  became  Bishop  of  Eangoon.     On  Bishop  Lefroy's  trans 
lation  to  Calcutta  in  1913,  the  Eev.  H.  B.  Durrant,  of  the  C.M.S. 
Agra  Mission,  Principal  of  St.  John's  College,  was  appointed  to 
Lahore.     A  new  diocese  has  lately  been  formed  for  Assam  ;    the 
first  Bishop  being  the  Eev.  H.  Pakenbam  Walsh,  who  was  an 
S.P.G.  missionary  in  the  South.     And  on  the  lamented  death  of 
Bishop  Williams  of  Tinnevelly,  in  June,  1914,  the  choice  of  the 
Indian  Episcopate  fell  upon  Canon  E.  H.  M.  Waller,  who  had 
been  C.M.S.  Secretary  in  the  United  Provinces,  and  afterwards  in 
Salisbury  Square. 

We  have  now  a  century  of  the  Indian  Episcopate  to  look  back  Retrospect 
upon.    Bishop  Middleton  was  consecrated  for  Calcutta  on  May  8th,  iLtoSmate 

1  Q  ~1   A  ~\    J_l  /^i          i  n  «/  '    XUplSCOPutOi 

.4 ;  and  the  Centenary  of  the  event  was  celebrated  by  a  special 
service  and  meeting  in  London.  The  C.M.S.  History  has  a  good 
deal  about  him  and  his  successors,  Bishops  Heber,  D.  Wilson, 
Cotton,  Milman,  and  Johnson.  All  made  their  mark  in  various 
ways,  as  no  doubt  Bishops  James  and  Turner  also  would  have 
done  if  their  lives  had  been  longer  spared.  It  is  certainly  a  record 
of  which  any  see  might  be  proud,  to  have  had  seven  bishops  suc 
cessively  who  died  at  their  post.  Bishops  Johnson,  Welldon,  and 
Copleston  did  not,  but  neither  did  they  come  home  to  rest.  Bishop 
Johnson  did  good  service  as  chairman  of  the  Board  of  Missions. 
Of  the  two  living  men  it  would  be  impertinent  to  say  anything. 

But  the  most  interesting  development  of  the  Episcopate  is  the  The  first 
consecration  of  the  first  native  Indian  Bishop.  Bishop  Whitehead  Sp. 
of  Madras  had  long  felt  the  importance  of  making  a  beginning, 
and  an  opening  occurred,  without  interfering  with  the  existing 
sees,  through  the  extension  of  the  C.M.S.  Telugu  Mission  into 
the  Nizam's  territory  of  Haidarabad,  and  also  of  the  Tinnevelly 
Missionary  Society  before  mentioned.  Moreover  the  leader  of  the 
latter  Mission,  the  Eev.  V.  S.  Azariah,  was  considered  by  Dr. 
Whitebead  to  have  distinct  qualifications  of  character  and 
experience  for  the  episcopate.  Many  difficulties  arose  in  bringing 
the  plan  to  a  successful  conclusion,  but  all  were  happily  over 
come,  and  on  December  29th,  1912,  Mr.  Azariah  was  consecrated 


1  82  INDIA  :  A  NGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  Mo  VF.MENTS. 

PAET  ii.   at  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  Calcutta,  eleven  Bishops  laying  their  hands 

chap.  i«.  hi      and  the  Governor  of  Bengal,  Lord  Carmichael,  being 

"Kil^ai"  present.*     Canon  Hensley  wrote,  "It  seemed  as   though  India 

cathedSita  had  taken  possession  of  the  cathedral,  by  far  the  majority  present 

being  Indian  Christians.     Christian  sadhus  in  long  saffron  robes 

and  bare  feet,  Tamils,  Telugus,  Singhalese,   Burmese    Bengalis 

Punjabis,  &c.,  pressed  forward  to  the  common  Holy  Tab  e  wlt] 

English  men  and  women,  '  all  one  in  Christ  Jesus.       Did  all  these 

Indians  belong  to  the  Anglican  Church  ?     Surely  not  considering 

how  many  of  various  Christian  communions  were  at  fehat  time  at 

Calcutta.    Was  not  that  Communion  Service,  then,  an  anticipation 

Bishop  >f  SopUAzariah's  father,  the  Eev.  Thomas  Vedanayagam,  was  a 
Azariah.  c  M  g  f  amil  pastor  in  Tinnevelly  ;  his  mother  had  been  matron 
of  the'  Elliott  Tuxford  Girls'  School  there  ;  and  he  himself,  born 
Aug  17th  1874,  was  educated  in  the  C.M.S.  College  in  Tinnevelly 
Town  and  at  the  Madras  Christian  College,  where  he  went 
through  his  B.A.  course,  but  was  struck  down  by  influenza  on  the 
day  when  he  should  have  been  examined.  He  was  associated 
with  the  Y.M.C.A.  at  Madras,  and  with  Mr.  Eddy  conducted 
missions  and  conventions  in  many  parts  of  India  and  Ceylon. 
1905  he  attended  the  Y.M.C.A.  Conference  in  Japan.  _  He  was 
practically  the  founder  of  the  Tinnevelly  Missionary  Society  He 
was  ordained  in  1909  by  Bishop  Whitehead.  He  visited  Great 
Britain  in  1910,  and  was  present  at  the  Edinburgh  Conference  He 
took  the  title  of  Bishop  of  Dornakal,  a  place  in  Haidarabad  btate, 
which,  though  conventionally  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Madras,  is 
not  strictly  part  of  that  diocese.  But  Bishop  Azariah  is  also  a 
Suffragan  Bishop  under  Bishop  Whitehead,  which  is  m  fact  his 
official  status,  and  he  holds  confirmations  in  that  capacity  in  any 
part  of  the  Telugu  and  Tamil  countries. 

He  joins  in       Interesting  as  Bishop  Azariah's  own  consecration  was,  another 

consecra-  t  made  in  a  sense  a  deeper  impression,  at  least  upon  the 

British  community  in  India.     This  was  when  Bishop  Durrant  was 

Bishop'        consecrated  at  Simla  in  August,  1913,  for  then  the  congregation, 

which  in  that  month  comprises  hundreds  of  influential  English 

men  and  women,  saw  with   their  own  eyes  an    Indian    Bishop 

joining  with  English  Bishops  in  laying  hands  upon  an  English 

man.     To  many  it  was  the  final  proof  of  the  unity  of  the  Church. 


PLANS  FOB  SYNODICAL  ACTION. 

Possible  To  establish  that  unity  more  firmly  by  forming  Synods  which 

should  include  English  and  Indians  on  equal  terms  had  long  been 
the  desire  of  the  Bishops  and  other  leaders  ;  but  there  were  many 
difficulties,  particularly  connected  with  the  State  establishment  < 

*  Canon  Sell's  sermon  on  the  occasion  was  printed  in  the  CM.  Review, 
March,  1913. 


INDIA:  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS.    183 

the  Anglican  Church  in  India.     Meanwhile,  for  some  years  the    PART  n. 
Bishops  had  met  yearly  at  Calcutta  to  consider  the  problems  of  ohap' 16- 
the  whole  Church,  and  these  gatherings  had  proved  very  useful. 
Several    Diocesan    Conferences    also   had   met   regularly.      But 
it  was  deeply  felt  that  more  was  needed.      The  clergy  and  the 
laity  of  the  Church,  both  British  and  Indian,  must  in  some  way 
be  called   together.     Informal   Diocesan    Conferences   had   been 
held,    but    something   more   regular   and   permanent,    and   more 
definitely  representative,  was  desired.     The  Diocese  of  Bombay, 
in  1912,  took  an  important  step  forward,  Bishop  Palmer  being 
earnestly  set  upon  progress  in  the  matter.     A  Conference  met 
which  had   been   carefully  planned.     All   the   clergy  in   priests' 
orders,  both  English  and  Indian,  were  members;  and  every  con 
gregation  or  group  of  congregations  with  a  clergyman  in  charge, 
sent   lay  delegates,  English   and  Indian,  proportionately  to  the 
number  of  communicants ;  with  the  result  that  the  clerical  and 
lay  members  were  almost  exactly  equal  in  number.     One  of  the 
papers  read  was  by  Canon  Heywood,  the  Secretary  of  the  C.M.S.  Canon 
Western  India  Mission.     He  frankly  faced  the  risks  and  possible  Jtates°°d 
dangers  of  synodical  organization.     "  Synods  in  the  past,"  he  said,  C.M.S. 
"  have  been  by  no  means  uniformly  wise  and  considerate  in  their 
action,  and  a  majority  is  sometimes  tempted  by  its  own  power  to 
go  too  far  and  too  fast ";  and  in  an  Indian  Synod  grave  racial 
difficulties  might  arise.     Nevertheless,  he  warmly  advocated  the 
scheme  outlined  by  the  Bishop,  and  read  extracts  from  the  C.M.S. 
Memorandum  of  1901  on  Native  Churches  in  support  of  it.*     The 
paper  is  altogether  a  masterly  one,   and  deserves  reading  again 
and  again.     One  paragraph  may  be  subjoined  :— 

"  Are  we  going  to  organize  the  Church  of  England  in  India  ?  I  speak 
as  one  who  loves  the  Church  of  England  with  all  my  heart.  I  thank 
God  for  her  witness  all  down  the  centuries  since  first  the  Gospel  came  to 
Britain.  I  thank  God  for  the  Reformation,  when  so  many  abuses  that 
had  crept  in  were  swept  away.  I  thank  God  for  His  continued  mercies 
to  her  in  the  present  day,  and  that  He  allowed  me  to  be  brought  up 
from  infancy  under  her  care.  But  I  am  sure  that  it  is  not  the  Church 
of  England  that  we  are  to  organize  in  India.  .  .  . 

"  What  then  do  we  need  ?  We  need  a  Church  in  India  adapted  to  the 
land,  and  adaptable  to  the  peoples  who  sojourn  here  :  a  Church  which 
holds  fast  to  the  fundamentals  as  laid  down  in  the  Lambeth  Conference, 
a  Church  which  draws  largely  from  the  rich  treasury  of  our  Prayer-book, 
but  provides  for  the  needs  and  aspirations  of  the  peoples  here  ;  a  Church 
which  lias  the  wisdom,  claimed  by  the  Church  of  England  in  the  Preface 
of  our  Prayer-book,  to  keep  the  mean  between  the  two  extremes  of  too 
much  stiffness  in  refusing,  and  of  too  much  easiness  in  admitting  any 
variation  from  it." 

At  the  end  of  that  same  year,  on  Dec.  30th,  1912,  the  Bishops 
met  at  Calcutta  as  usual,  but  this  time  not  alone.  Forty  "  asses 
sors,"  clergymen  and  laymen,  English  and  Indian,  sat  with  them 

*  In  the  C.M.  Review  of  June,  1912,  Canon  Heywood  gave  an  account  of 
the  Conference ;  and  his  own  paper  was  also  printed  in  full. 


184  INDIA-.  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS. 

PART  n.  in  a  three  days'  Conference,  to  consider  the  whole  question  of 
Ohap^io.  Synocycaj  government.  These  assessors  unanimously  advised  that 
the  Church  be  named  "  The  Church  of  India  in  communion  with 
the  Church  of  England  "  ;  and  the  Bishops,  "  in  view  of  the  advice 
received  from  the  assessors,"  resolved  that  "it  is  desirable  to  take 
steps  at  once  for  the  introduction  throughout  the  [ecclesiastical] 
Province  of  full  synodical  government,  alike  provincial  and 
diocesan,  on  the  basis  of  consensual  compact,  where  such  govern 
ment  does  not  already  exist."  These  last  words  were  evidently 
put  in  because  the  Diocese  of  Colombo,  i.e.  Ceylon,  though  in  the 
ecclesiastical  Province,  is  not  "  established  "  like  the  Church  in 
India,  and  has  a  regular  synod  as  its  governing  body. 

Arrangements  were  accordingly  planned  for  the  election  of 
Synods  in  all  the  dioceses  ;  and  in  July,  1914,  the  Metropolitan 
(Bishop  Lefroy)  and  the  Bishops  of  Madras  and  Bombay  (White- 
head  and  Palmer)  met  at  Bangalore,  and  considered  the  draft  con 
stitutions  prepared  in  six  of  the  dioceses,  viz.,  Bombay,  Lucknow, 
but  Nagpur,  Chota  Nagpur,  Travancore,  and  Eangoon.  Subsequently, 

checked.  ]lowever,  legal  opinions  were  obtained,  which  indicated  that  any 
action  to  form  what  might  be  regarded  as  an  independent  Church 
would  be  a  breach  of  the  law,  the  original  dioceses  of  Calcutta, 
Madras,  and  Bombay  having  been  established  by  Act  of  Parlia 
ment  ;  and  when  the  Bishops,  twelve  in  number,  held  their  annual 
meeting  at  Calcutta  in  March,  1915,  they  were  compelled  to  yield 
to  the  awkwardness  of  the  situation,  and  to  resolve  that  full 
synodical  government,  both  diocesan  and  provincial,  was  "  at 
present  impossible." 

This  was  what  many  onlookers  had  foreseen,  but  it  was  none  the 
less  disappointing.  In  the  circumstances,  the  Bishops  resolved 
that,  in  lieu  of  the  full  scheme,  "  a  Provincial  Council,  consisting 
of  Bishops,  representatives  of  the  clergy,  and  representatives  of 
the  laity,  should  be  established  as  soon  as  possible  "  ;  while  the 
"Episcopal  Synod"  already  working  was  "to  maintain  its  inde 
pendent  existence."  It  is  hoped  that  the  first  Provincial  Council 
may  be  formed  in  1916.  Of  course  it  will  be  a  purely  voluntary 
body,  with  no  legal  powers ;  but  perhaps  its  real  moral  weight 
may  be  none  the  less  on  that  account. 

importance      Yet  this  arrangement  fails  at  one  important  point.     The  Church 

"'church  of  remains  the  Church  of  England  in  India.     It  is  not  the  Church 

India."        of  India.     And  the  Indian  Anglican  Christian  will  have  learned 

by  the  check,  itself  encountered  by  the  praiseworthy  effort  of  the 

Bishops,  how  hard  it  is  to  constitute  the  Church  he  longs   for. 

Very  true  are  the  words  of  Mr.  Wigram  of  Lahore,  the  newly 

appointed  Secretary  for  India  at  the  home  headquarters  of  the 

C.M.S.,  in  writing  to  friends  in  England  when  he  was  in  full  hope 

that  the  original  scheme  would  be  worked  out : — 

"  Even  the  convert  finds  it  hard  to  get  up  any  enthusiasm  about  the 
corporate  aspect  of  his  Christianity  so  long  as  he  has  to  be  told  he  is  a 


INDIA  :  A  NGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  Mo  VEMENTS.    1 8  5 

member  of  the  Church  of  England,  a  foreign  organization  to  him,  which    PART  II. 
he  does  not  understand,  and  which  awakens  110  enthusiasm  in  him.     How    chap'  16- 
much  more  will  the  non -Christian  feel  that  Christianity  represents  some 
thing  altogether  outside  his  patriotic  aspirations,  and  stands  or  falls  with 
the  fortunes  of  English  rule  here  !     But  when  there  is  an  autonomous 
Church  of  India,  in  communion,  indeed,  with  the  Mother  Church,  but 
making  its  own  Canons,  and  electing  ultimately  its  own  Bishops,  the  case 
will  be  wholly  changed." 

But  the  difficulties  are  not  small.  Not  only,  as  already  men-  Practical 
tioned,  were  the  three  original  dioceses  established  by  Acts  of  D 
Parliament,  but  some  of  the  others  are  at  least  "  established  "  in 
the  sense  that  the  Bishops  are  appointed  by  the  Crown.  A  con 
siderable  number  of  the  clergy  are  government  chaplains,  many 
of  whom  have  no  particular  desire,  to  put  it  in  a  mild  way,  for 
Indian  bishops  or  for  Synods  largely  Indian  in  membership. 
Moreover,  as  Mr.  Holland  says  in  the  article  before  referred  to, 
"  There  are  in  India  large  bodies  of  English  visitors  with  only  a 
passing  interest  in  the  country,  such  as  the  British  garrison,  who 
would  probably  prefer  to  belong  to  congregations  of  the  Church  of 
England  in  India  rather  than  to  be  attached  to  a  Church  of  India 
which  had  a  hierarchy  and  liturgy  and  life  dominantly  Indian  in 
character."  Yet  "  all  are  agreed  that  there  must  be  no  racial  line 
of  division  in  the  Church."  The  problem  is  really  a  difficult  one. 
And  there  would  be  serious  questions  touching  property.  Can  a 
legally  consecrated  English  cathedral  or  church  be  transferred  to 
an  Indian  Church,  however  closely  allied  as  belonging  to  the 
Anglican  Communion  ?  And  wrhat  of  endowments  and  trusts  ? 


:.  Mott's 


THE  LARGER  UNITY;    DR.  MOTT'S  CONFERENCES. 

Meanwhile  a  still  larger  problem  looms  ahead.     Simultaneously 
with  the  efforts  of  the  Bishops,  another  important  movement  has  campaign, 
been  in  progress.     The  World  Missionary  Conference  of  1910  at  101.2-1:1. 
Edinburgh  formed  a  Continuation  Committee  to  carry  on  its  work 
and  influence,  and  that  Committee  called  upon  its  chairman,  Dr. 
John  E.  Mott,  to  visit  the  Missions  abroad  with  a  view  to  bringing 
the   missionaries   together  in  conference  and  forming  plans  for 
more  effective  work  in  the  non-Christian  world,  in  the  light  of  the 
evidence  collected  at  Edinburgh  and  in  the  spirit  there  manifested. 
And  in  pursuance  of  this  proposal  Dr.  Mott  went  to  India  first. 

This  is  not  the  place  for  the  details  of  the  truly  remarkable 
gatherings  that  ensued.     Plans  were  laid  and  preparations  made 
with  rare  foresight  and  skill ;  and  within  less  than  six  weeks,  in  The  pro- 
November  and  December,  1912,  Conferences  were  held  at  Colombo, 
Madras,    Bombay,    Jabalpur,    Allahabad,    Lahore,    and    Calcutta, 
followed  by  a  National  Conference  for  all  India  at  Calcutta.    Each  National 
Conference  was  attended  by  delegates  only,  and  the  number  was          '" 
strictly  limited  to  50  or  60,  to  facilitate  practical  discussion  and 
business.     All  Churches  and  Missions  were  represented  except  the 


1 86  INDIA:  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS. 


PART  IT. 


Dr.  Mott's 

personal 

Work. 


Anglican 
Members  of 
the  Con 
ferences. 


Church  of  Eome,  which  never  joins  in  anything  of  the  kind.*  Ex 
clusive  Anglicans,  exclusive  Lutherans,  and  exclusive"  Brethren," 
who  have  scarcely  ever  joined  before,  were  present;  also  the 
Syrian  Churches  in  Travancore,  and  the  Salvation  Army.  At 
each  Conference  the  subjects  for  discussion  were  the  following  : — 
The  Occupation  of  the  Field,  the  Indian  Church  and  Indian 
Christian  Leadership,  the  Training  of  Missionaries,  Christian 
Education,  Christian  Literature,  Mass  Movements,  Medical 
Missions,  Women's  Work,  Co-operation  between  Missions,  and 
the  European  and  "  Anglo-Indian  "  Community.  The  "  Findings  " 
at  all  the  local  Conferences  were  submitted  to  the  final  National 
Conference,  which  also  agreed  upon  its  own  "  Findings "  and 
summed  up  the  whole. 

Dr.  Mott  himself  presided  over  all  the  Conferences,  with  his 
incomparable  strength,  good  judgment,  and  large-heartedness. 
But  his  work  was  not  confined  to  them.  At  every  place  there 
were  great  evening  meetings  of  students  (of  all  religions  or  no 
religion)  in  the  largest  halls  and  theatres,  to  hear  addresses  from 
him  and  Mr.  S.  Eddy.f  From  Allahabad  Mr.  Holland  wrote  of  Dr. 
Mott,  "  That  he  was  altogether  equal  to  the  double  strain  proved 
that  by  the  grace  of  God  he  was  a  man  of  iron.  On  the  last  day, 
having  been  in  Conference  wrork  from  7.0  a.m.  to  4.0  p.m.,  even 
using  for  work  the  intervals  for  meals,  he  was  speaking  con 
tinuously  at  meeting  and  after-meeting  from  6.0  to  10.30  p.m., 
with  but  three  intervals  of  seven,  twenty  (for  dinner),  and  ten 
minutes !  "  J 

It  is  historically  interesting  to  note  the  Anglican  elected 
members  of  the  Conferences  :— 

At  Madras  :  Bishop  Whitehead,  Bishop-designate  Azariah ;  of  the 
C.M.S.,  Canon  Sell,  Eevs.  E.  S.  Carr,  W.  D.  Clarke  (Tamil),  W.  S.  Hunt, 
11.  W.  Peachey,  Miss  E.  E.  Howard  ;  of  the  S.P.G.,  Eevs.  Canon  G.  H. 
Smith,  A.  F.  Gardiner,  G.  Hibbert-Ware  ;  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  Miss  P. 
Grover ;  also,  Messrs.  P.  Appaswamy,  M.  D.  Devadoss,  E.  S.  Hensman, 
P.  T.  Tharyan. 

At  Bombay :  Bishop  Palmer ;  of  the  C.M.S.,  Eevs.  Canon  Heywood, 
Canon  Joshi,  L.  B.  Butcher,  H.  W.  Lea-Wilson,  C.  W.  Thorne,  Miss  S. 
Sorabji,  Mr.  P.  Bunter;  of  the  S.P.G.,  Miss  Latham;  also  Mr.  B.  N. 
Athavale. 

At  Tabalpur  :  Bishop  Chatterton  ;  of  the  C.M.S.,  Eevs.  E.  A.  Hensley, 

*  But  Dr.  Mott,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  Governor  of  Madras,  had  an 
interview  with  the  Roman  Archbishop  of  Madras,  who  (wrote  Dr.  Mott) 
"  showed  deep  interest  in  the  cause  of  Christian  unity,"  and  declared  that 
"the  most  helpful  means  of  promoting  it  were,  first,  prayer;  secondly,  the 
exercise  of  gentleness  and  courtesy ;  thirdly,  we  must  see  more  of  each 
other." 

t  Mr.  Sherwood  Eddy,  whose  name  not  infrequently  occurs  in  these 
pages,  has  been  the  American  Secretary  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  at  Madras.  He  has 
for  some  years  done  a  igreat  work  as  a  lay  preacher  in  India,  China,  and 
Japan.  It  is  interesting  to  know  that  his  wife  was  Miss  Maud  Arden,  daughter 
of  a  devoted  C.M.S.  missionary  in  India  and  Organizing  Secretary  in  England. 

I  The  East  and  The  West,  July,  1913,  p.  271. 


INDIA  :  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS.   \  87 

F.  E.  Keay,  Mr.  E.  M.  Modak  ;  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  Miss  C.  A.  Hall ;  of  the    PART  II. 
Scottish  Episcopal  Church,  Eev.  C.  D.  Philip.  Chap.  l<5. 

At  Allahabad  :  Bishop  G.  H.  Westcott ;  of  the  C.M.S.,  Eevs.  Canon 
Durrant  (now  Bishop  of  Lahore),  S.  J.  Edwin,  F.  W.  Hinton,  W.  E.  S. 
Holland,  J.  J.  Johnson,  C.  G.  Mylrea,  J.  Qalandar,  W.  V.  K.  Treanor,  N. 
H.  Tubbs,  J.  A.  F.  Warren,  Mrs.  Birney;  of  the  S.P.G.,  Eevs.  A.  Cros- 
thwaite,  B.  H.  P.  Fisher,  Ahmad  Shah ;  also,  Mr.  B.  Mohun,  Mr.  E.  K. 
Sorabji. 

At  Lahore:  Bishop  Lefroy;  of  the  C.M.S.,  Archdeacon  Ihsan  Ullah, 
Eevs.  Canon  Ali  Bakhsh,  Canon  E.  F.  E.  Wigram,  C.  M.  Gough,  E.  Guil- 
ford,  C.  E.  Tyndale-Biscoe,  Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester ;  of  the  S.P.G.,  Principal 
S.  K.  Eudra,  Deaconess  Mary  Cooke ;  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  Miss  K.  M. 
Bose,  Miss  M.  E.  Jackson  ;  of  the  Canadian  Church,  Eev.  E.  H.  A. 
Haslam  ;  also,  Dr.  D.  N.  P.  Datta,  Pandit  Ganpat  Lai  Misra. 

At  Calcutta  :  Bishop  Copleston,  Bishop  Foss  Westcott ;  of  the  C.M.S., 
Eevs.  E.  F.  Pearce,  E.  T.  Sandys  ;  of  the  S.P.G.,  Eevs.  J.  C.  Forrester, 
E.  Gee,  A.  Logsdail,  P.  L.  Singh,  Mr.  J.  C.  Choudhary  ;  of  the  Oxford 
Mission,  Eev.  Canon  E.  F.  Brown;  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  Miss  E.  Phailbus, 
Miss  E.  G.  Sandys. 

Then,  of  the  National  Conference:  — 

Bishops  Lefroy,  Foss  Westcott,  Whitehead  ;  Bishop-designate  Azariah  ; 
of  the  C.M.S.,  Eevs.  Canon  Heywood,  W.  E.  S.Holland,  Dr.  A.  C.  Lan 
kester;  of  the  S.P.G.,  Eev.  E.  Gee;  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  Miss  K.  M. 
Bose ;  also,  Mr.  B.  N.  Athavale.* 

That  month  of  December,  1912,  at  Calcutta,  was  certainly  one  The 
of  the  most  memorable  in  the  history  of  Indian  Missions.  The  December6 
National  Conference  was  held  on  Dec.  18tk-21st.  It  was  followed  of  191-- 
by  a  National  Student  Conference  at  Serarnpore,  Carey's  old 
station,  which  was  attended  by  200  Christian  student  delegates 
from  72  colleges  in  all  parts  of  India,  some  travelling  2000  miles 
for  the  purpose.  They  were  addressed,  not  only  by  Dr.  Mott 
and  Mr.  Eddy,  but  by  Christian  Indian  leaders  like  Mr.  Azariah, 
Mr.  Appaswamy,  Dr.  S.  K.  Datta,  and  Mr.  K.  T.  Paul.  At 
the  close  of  this  there  was  a  Syrian  Church  Unity  Confer 
ence,  which  will  be  noticed  in  the  chapter  on  Travancore.  On 
Dec.  29th  was  the  consecration  of  Bishop  Azariah.  On  Dec.  30th- 
Jan.  1st  was  held  the  Anglican  Conference  of  Bishops  and  delegates 
already  noticed.  And  in  the  midst  of  all  these  consultations  there 
came  a  striking  incident  of  real  missionary  work  :  Bishop  Azariah  A  notable 
left  the  Anglican  Conference  to  go  to  Serampore,  where,  on 
Dec.  31st,  "  with  the  assistance  of  a  Quaker  and  a  Presbyterian," 
and  in  the  presence  of  students  from  all  parts  of  India,  he 
"  baptized,  in  the  river  Hooghly,  two  high  caste  M.A.  students  of 
Calcutta  University,"  "  whose  final  decision  to  accept  Christ  had 
been  taken  during  the  evangelistic  addresses  of  Dr.  Mott  and  Mr. 
Eddy  given  a  few  days  before."  This  took  place  close  by  Henry 
Martyn's  Pagoda,  "  reminding  one  of  his  remark  that  he  would 

*  It  is  possible  that  among  the  representatives  of  the  Y.M.C.A.  and  other 
interdenominational  bodies  there  may  be  Anglicans,  but  the  lists  do  not  give 
their  denominations. 


1 88  INDIA  .-  A  NGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  Mo  VRMENTS. 

PART  n.    as  soon   expect  to   see  a   man  rise  from   the  dead    as  to  see    a 
^L  (>'    Brahman  converted  "  ;  and  at  "  the  very  spot  where  Carey  bap 
tized  his  first  convert  in  the  river  Hooghly  on  the  last  Sunday  of 
1800." 

impressions  Deeply  interesting  were  the  accounts  that  came  of  those 
Weei?  memorable  days.  Dr.  Horton,  the  distinguished  Congregationalist, 
was  visiting  India  at  the  time,  and  he  wrote  a  remarkable  letter 
to  the  Times,  which  was  read  with  keenest  interest  and  thankful 
ness  in  England, — but,  it  must  be  added,  with  great  alarm  by 
those  Churchmen  who  have  always  dreaded  the  unifying  influence 
of  "  Edinburgh."  Two  of  the  most  encouraging  communications 
were  articles  by  the  Bishop  of  Madras  in  the  International  Review 
of  Missions,  and  Mr.  Holland  in  The  East  and  The  West*  Both 
wrote  enthusiastically,  and  so  did  others  in  private  letters.  Some 
of  the  younger  Indian  leaders  commented  on  the  statesmanship 
and  progressive  outlook  of  the  more  elderly  missionaries,  while 
many  of  the  missionaries  admitted  that  they  had  never  realized 
that  the  Indian  Church  had  already  produced  so  many  Indian 
leaders  who  were  the  equals  and  peers  of  the  foreign  missionaries. 
Lord  Carmichael,  the  Governor  of  Bengal,  who  received  the  dele 
gates  at  Government  House,  spoke  of  the  National  Conference  as 
in  some  respects  the  most  important  gathering  ever  held  in  India. 
Findings  The  «Finciings"  of  the  final  National  Conference  were  of 
National  exceptional  importance.  The  Bishop  of  Madras  wrote  very 
e<  warmly  of  them.  Naturally  he  was  particularly  interested  in 
those  on  Mass  Movements,  the  reports  on  which  subject  he  pre 
sented  himself.  The  Conference  strongly  urged  their  importance. 
Also  he  was  thankful  that  the  Conference  did  not  neglect  the 
European  and  "Anglo-Indian"  (i.e.  Eurasian)  Community,  but 
declared  that  "its  presence  and  influence  represents  a  vital  factor 
in  the  problem  of  the  evangelization  of  India,"  and  that  "  every 
effort  should  be  made  for  the  realization  of  the  oneness  in  Christ 
Jesus  of  Western  and  Eastern  Christians."  The  important 
"Findings"  on  the  Indian  Church  and  Indian  Christian  Leader 
ship,  which  were  submitted  from  a  sub-committee  by  Mr.  Azariah, 
Bishop  are  summarized  by  Bishop  Whitehead  as  follows  : — 

Azariah's 

Heport. 

"  The  desire  on  the  part  of  many  leaders  of  the  Indian  Christian  com 
munity  for  a  comprehensive  Church;  the  demand  that  the  Indian 
Church,  while  continuing  to  receive  and  absorb  every  good  influence 
which  the  Church  of  the  West  may  impart  to  it,  yet  in  respect  of  forms 
and  organization  should  have  entire  freedom  to  develop  on  such  lines  as 
will  conduce  most  to  the  natural  expression  of  the  spiritual  instincts  of 
Indian  Christians  ;  the  recognition  of  widespread  indications  of  a  true 
spirit  of  sacrifice  and  service  in  the  Indian  Church,  and  the  conviction 
that,  whenever  capable  and  spiritually  minded  men  and  women  are 
discovered,  Churches  and  Missions  should  make  a  real  and  unmistakable 
advance  by  placing  Indians  on  a  footing  of  complete  equality,  in  status 
and  responsibility,  with  Europeans  ;  the  emphasis  laid  on  the  principle 

*  Int.  Rev.  Miss.,  April,  1913  ;  E.  &  W.,  July,  1913. 


INDIA  ;  A  NGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  Mo  VEMRNTS.    1 89 

that  the  work  carried  on  by  foreign  missionary  societies  should  be  PART  II. 
gradually  transferred,  as  opportunities  offer,  to  the  Indian  Church ;  and  Chap.  16. 
the  opinion  expressed  that  in  view  of  the  importance  of  this  principle 
all  positions  of  responsibility  made  available  for  Indian  Christians  should 
be  related  to  Church  organizations  rather  than  to  those  of  foreign 
missionary  societies  ; — these  are  views  and  opinions  now  made  part  of  a 
definite,  well-considered  programme,  and  deliberately  adopted,  after  a 
careful  and  searching  criticism  of  every  phrase  and  word,  by  the  most 
representative  body  of  missionaries  in  India  which  it  would  be  possible 
to  assemble.  .  .  .  We  have  often  talked  and  written  about  developing 
the  Indian  Church.  .  .  The  Indian  Church  has  now  become  a  matter  of 
practical  politics." 

Still  more  notable  were  the  "  Findings  "  on  Co-operation  and 
Unity,  submitted  by  Bishop  Lefroy,  who  had  just  been  appointed  Bishop 
Metropolitan  of  India,  and  whose  responsibility  to  the  whole  Report  ? 
Church  was  enhanced  by  that  fact.  They  declared  that  difficulties 
had  often  occurred  between  different  Missions  touching  (1)  de 
limitation  of  territory,  (2)  transfer  of  mission  workers,  (3)  scales 
of  salaries,  (4)  treatment  of  persons  under  discipline,  and  desired 
that  special  attention  be  paid  to  these  matters  in  the  different 
areas,  with  a  view  to  "  comity  and  co-operation."  Moreover  it 
,  was  felt  to  be  desirable  "  that  spiritual  hospitality  be  offered  to 
persons  of  whatever  denomination  who  may  find  themselves  in 
an  area  in  which  the  ministrations  of  their  own  Communion  are  Kikuyu 
not  available," — which  plainly  anticipates  "  Kikuyu  "  ;  *  and  other 
suggestions  for  conference  and  co-operation  were  added.  The 
scene  was  thus  described  in  an  account  sent  to  the  Society,  and 
printed  in  the  G.M.  Review  of  February,  1913  :— 

"  Perhaps  the  most  inspiring  sight  in  the  whole  Conference  (it  certainly 
was  so  to  us)  was  the  Bishop  of  Lahore,  Dr.  Lefroy,  the  Metropolitan-elect, 
standing  on  the  Chairman's  left  (Dr.  Mott),  presenting  the  Keport  of  the 
Sub-committee  on  Co-operation.  Very  much  of  it  we  believe  was  drafted 
by  his  own  hand,  and  as  we  heard  him  read  out  the  calm,  clear,  and 
practical  proposals  for  the  correlation  and  co- ordination  of  Christian 
activities  of  every  kind,  we  could  not  but  thank  God  and  feel  that  under 
the  Spirit's  guidance  a  real  step  forward  had  been  taken  towards  the  ful 
filment  of  our  Lord's  great  prayer  that  we  might  be  one.  .  .  . 

"  One  very  suggestive  detail  in  the  Report  was  the  recommendation  that 
the  various  Churches  should  offer  '  spiritual  hospitality '  to  members 
of  other  communions  within  their  areas  who  were  out  of  reach  of  the 
ministrations  of  their  own  Churches.  When  this  Report,  after  being 
taken  clause  by  clause  and  slightly  amended,  was  put  to  the  Conference 
for  acceptance  as  a  whole,  the  Chairman  asked  us,  instead  of  merely 
raising  our  hands  as  usual,  to  vote  by  rising  to  our  feet,  and  before  we 
sat  down  again  a  brother  led  us  in  thanksgiving  and  prayer,  which  was 
offered  from  the  hearts  of  all." 

It  was  with  the  express  object  of  preventing  these  recommenda-  Permanent 
tions  from  becoming  a  dead  letter,  that  the  Conference  proposed  planned, 
the  establishment  of  Provincial  Representative  Councils  and  of  a 

*  See  Chap.  XL.  p.  413. 


INDIA-.  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS. 

PART  II.  National  Missionary  Council.  Bishop  Whitehead  calls  this  last  "  a 
1^£l  '  fact  of  immense  significance."  Such  Councils,  he  declares,  "  must 
necessarily  lead  to  large  measures  of  co-operation ;  they  will 
render  violations  of  comity  almost  impossible ;  they  will  make  the 
experience  of  every  large  Mission  available  for  the  whole  of  India ; 
they  will  enable  the  Christian  army  to  concentrate  its  forces  as  it 
has  never  done  before  on  strategic  centres  ;  and  above  all  they 
will  foster  and  intensify  the  spirit  of  unity  and  brotherhood." 

In  pursuance  of  this  plan  ^Representative  Councils  were  quickly 
arranged  for  eight  provincial  areas,  viz.,  Bengal  and  Assam,  Bihar 
and  Orissa,  United  Provinces,  Punjab,  Bombay,  Middle  India, 
Madras,  and  Burma ;  also  a  National  Council,  "  advisory  and  con 
sultative  but  not  legislative  or  mandatory,"  to  consist  (as  after 
wards  amended)  of  three  elected  delegates  from  each  of  eight 
divisions  of  India,  and  eighteen  others  to  be  co-opted  by  them. 

A  highly  satisfactory  body  was  eventually  formed,  comprising 
some  of  the  most  prominent  men  of  the  different  Churches  and 
Societies.  A  few  changes  naturally  ensued  in  the  two  or  three 
years  that  have  since  elapsed ;  but  the  list  for  1915  includes  the 
Metropolitan  (Bishop  Lefroy  of  Calcutta)  as  Chairman,  Dr.  S.  K. 
Datta  as  Vice-chairman,  the  Eev.  W.  E.  S.  Holland  as  Treasurer, 
and  the  Eev.  H.  Anderson  and  Mr.  E.  C.  Carter  as  Secretaries  ; 
also  the  Bishops  of  Bombay,  Chota  Nagpur,  Dornakal,  and 
Madras  ;  and  the  Eev.  A.  J.  Harvey,  Canon  E.  A.  Hensley,  and 
Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester,  of  the  C.M.S. ;  also  Mr.  K.  J.  Saunders,  who 
had  worked  with  Mr.  Eraser  at  Trinity  College,  Kandy.  Three 
ladies  are  members  ;  and  of  the  men,  four  at  least  are  Indians,  viz., 
Bishop  Azariah,  Dr.  Datta,  Mr.  S.  C.  Mukerji,  and  Mr.  K.  T.  Paul.* 

POSSIBILITIES  OF  EUTUBE  UNION. 

p>ut  what  This  great  movement,  the  result  of  the  memorable  Edinburgh 
Indian^ Jd  Conference,  was  designed  to  facilitate  the  Evangelization  of  the 
church  ?  World  by  bringing  the  Missions  into  closer  mutual  fellowship,  and 
enabling  them  to  work  more  definitely  as  allies,  co-operating  where 
possible,  and  avoiding  causes  of  rivalry  and  friction.  The  Edin 
burgh  Conference  itself  had  no  ulterior  purpose.  But  both  at 
Edinburgh  and  in  the  mission  field  it  was  natural — one  may  say 
inevitable — that  men's  minds  should  be  led  by  these  efforts  for 
co-operation  to  look  beyond  them,  and  to  consider  their  bearing 
upon  the  future  Indian  Church.  Must  it  perpetuate  our  Western 
divisions  ?  Was  there  no  hope,  one  day,  of  one  united  Church  ? 

This  question,  indeed,  was  not  now  asked  for  the  first  time. 
Men  of  vision  had  faced  it  before,  and  had  realized  its  immense 
importance.  There  had  been  co-operation  between  some  of  the 
Missions,  though  only  to  a  limited  extent  even  within  the  same 
ecclesiastical  connexion.  Not  only  were  the  two  principal 

*  For  the  last  meeting  of  the  Council,  in  Nov.,  1915,  see  C.M.  Review, 
Feb.,  1016. 


INDIA  :  A  NGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  Mo  VEMENTS.   1 9 1 

Anglican  Societies,  the  S.P.G.  and  C.M.S.,  working  quite  indepen-    PAKT  n 
dently,  but  there  were  separate  and  in  a  sense  rival  Presbyterian   Chap' 16* 
Missions,    Methodist   Missions,  &c.      The   Eoman  Church  itself,  Previous 
with^  all  its  boasted  unity,  worked  through  different  societies  and  opSuou.°" 
religious  orders,  which  did  not  always  manifest  much  readiness  to 
co-operate   with    one   another.      Still,   there   were   cases   of   co 
operation    even  between  different  denominations.     For  instance, 
the  great  Madras  Christian  College,  belonging  to  the  Free  Church 
of  Scotland,  was  supported  to  a  small  extent  by  the  C.M.S.  and  the 
Wesleyan    Society,  each   undertaking   to   provide  one  professor. 
The    friendly  relations,   extending   even   to   a   certain   local   co 
operation,  between  the  S.P.G.  and  Cambridge  Delhi  Mission  and 
the  Baptist  Mission  in  that  city,  was  a  still  more  striking  case. 
But  these  things  had  little  direct  bearing  on  the  great  question, 
What  of  the  future  Indian  Church  ? 

There  had  been  some  attempts  at  union  or  federation  among  a  Local  and 
few  of  the  local  native  Christian  denominations ;  but  it  is  needless  5Srtl 
to  give  particulars  here.  One  important  and  apparently  lasting- 
interdenominational  effort  has  been  the  establishment  of  tho 
South  India  United  Church,  comprising  congregations  connected 
with  several  British  and  American  Societies,  Congregationalist, 
and  Presbyterian  ;  and  a  Presbyterian  Alliance  of  different  Missions 
was  formed  at  Allahabad  in  1911.  The  Anglican  congregations 
had  taken  no  part  either  in  these  or  in  other  similar  schemes  ;  nor 
had  the  Lutherans ;  nor  had  certain  of  the  Baptists.  It  is  quite  a 
mistake  to  suppose,  as  some  do  suppose,  that  it  is  only  Anglican 
Churchmen  who  (besides  the  Bomanists)  raise  obstacles  to  union. 
As  far  back  as  1872,  when  John  Barton  of  the  C.M.S.  read  a  paper 
at  the  Allahabad  Missionary  Conference  on  the  Future  Indian 
Church,  advocating  union,  a  Bengali  Methodist  minister  declared 
that  he  for  one  would  never  let  his  Methodism  be  absorbed ;  he 
hoped  to  be  a  Methodist  in  heaven.* 

In   a   very   interesting  article   in    the   International  Revi&w 
Missions  (April,  1912),  the  Bev.  J.  H.  Maclean,  of  the  U.F.  Scottish  ^wu" 
Church    at    Madras,   discussed    the    whole    subject,    and    gave manzcd- 
particulars  of  various  schemes  and  proposals.     He  pointed  out 
four  different  attitudes  or  classes  of  opinion.     (1)  Some  care  little 
or  nothing  for  organic  union  at  all.     They  are  content  with  the 
existing  variety  of  denominations,  and  only  desire  spiritual  fellow 
ship.     Many  non-episcopalian  Christians  are  of  this  class.     (2)  At 
the  opposite  pole  are  those  who,  like  the  Bomanists,  the  higher 
Anglicans,  the  higher  Lutherans,  and  the  "  close  "   Baptists  or 
"  Brethren,"  insist  that  all  must  join  the  only  true  Visible  Church, 
while  not  agreeing  what  Church  that  is.     Nos.  3  and  4  are  between 
these  two  extremes :  (3)  Some,  says  Mr.  Maclean,  have  for  their 
motto  some  such  words  as  those  of  Bishop  Palmer  of  Bombay, 
"  Not  compromise  for  the  sake  of  peace,  but  comprehension  for 

*  "  Some   Christians  give    the  impression  that   they   have   a   very  small 
Christ."— J.  K.  Mott,  Present  World  Situation,  p.  141. 


192  INDIA:  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS. 

PART  n.    the  sake  of  truth";  they  are  ready  for  definite  sacrifice  in  the 
chappie.   cauge   Qf    organic    union,   but   not   for   intercommunion   between 
separated  bodies, — the  position  of  many  moderate  or  evangelical 
Anglicans;  and  (4)  Some,  viz.,  a  fair  number  of  Anglicans,  as 
well  as  Presbyterians  and   Methodists,  are   ready  for   intercom 
munion  meanwhile,  but  earnestly  desire  organic  union  eventually. 
This  is  a  very  true  account  of  the  varying  opinions  and  desires. 
Attitude          Now  Bishop  Whitehead  of  Madras  has  taken  a  special  interest 
of  Bishop     jn  tnese  questions.     He  was  the  first  Anglican  bishop  to  join  in 
'    one  of  the  United  Decennial  Conferences,  at  Madras  in  1902.     In 
1911,  in  his  Diocesan  Magazine,  he  made  certain  tentative  pro 
posals  for  union,  on  the  basis  of  what  is  called  the  "  Lambeth 
Quadrilateral  "  (i.e.  the  Canonical  Scriptures,  the  Apostles'    and 
Nicene  Creeds,  the  two  Sacraments,  and  the  Historic  Episcopate), 
but  with  extremely  liberal  suggestions  regarding  the  Episcopate ; 
and  these  proposals   were   discussed   in   the   Harvest  Field  (the 
leading  Methodist  periodical  in  India)  by  Mr.  Sherwood  Eddy,  the 
American    Y.M.C.A.    Secretary,  the  Eev.    H.  Pakenham  Walsh 
(S.P.G.,  now  Bishop  of  Assam),  and  others.     Then,  at  Calcutta, 
at  the  memorable  period  already  referred  to,  Bishop  Whitehead 
delivered  a  remarkable  address  to  the  delegates  to  the  National 
Conference,  which  he  afterwards  published.     Mr.  Holland,  who 
was  present,  described  it  in  The  East  and  The  West  (July,  1913). 
His  Appeal  The  Bishop    declared   that   some  of  the  best  authorities  among 
Episcopate   High  Churchmen  in  England  were  not  now  prepared  to  base  the 
'  importance  of  the  Episcopate  in  the  Church  of  Christ  upon  the 
theory  that  "  the  historic  succession  of  the  ministry  is  necessary 
as  a  channel  of  divine  grace  "  ;  basing  this  statement  partly  on  an 
article  by  Dr.  Headlam  in  the  Prayer -Boole  Dictionary,  and  on  one 
by  Dr.  Frere  in  the  Churcli  Quarterly  Review.     At  the  same  time 
he  made  what  Mr.  Holland  calls  "  a  passionate  appeal  "  for  the 
Episcopate,  on  the  ground  both  of  its  ancient  historic  character 
and    of    its   practical   usefulness.      ''This    appeal,"    writes   Mr. 
Holland,  "  made  a  profound  impression.     Coming  away  by  train 
next  day  some   of  the  most  venerated  leaders  of  non-episcopal 
Churches  in  India  confessed  that  the  Bishop's  statement  imposed 
on   them    a  new   and  solemn    responsibility  to  reconsider   their 
attitude  to  episcopacy.     For,  though  the  Bishop's  position  would 
not  pass  unchallenged,  it  at  least  opened  to  them  an  avenue  of 
approach,  which  they  could  take  without  doing  dishonour  to  the 
Spirit  of  Christ  that  was  in  them." 

But  seed  sown  like  this  does  not  spring  up  to  the  harvest  at 
once.  Quite  naturally,  when  the  subject  was  discussed  in  various 
religious  papers  in  India,  all  sorts  of  difficulties  and  objections 
were  urged.  Yet  such  discussions  are  all  to  the  good,  because 
they  keep  the  need  and  the  desirableness  and  the  possibilities  of 
union  before  the  minds  of  Christian  men.  The  remarkable  thing 
is  that  so  little  was  heard  in  England  about  it ;  but  home  contro 
versies  loom  large,  and  hide  much  more  important  matters  in  the 


INDIA-.  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS.    193 

mission  field,— unless,  indeed,  there  be  a  Bishop  of  Zanzibar  to    PART  n 
charge  his  brother-bishops  with  heresy,   and  a  queer  name  like    ch^_16- 
"  Kikuyu  "  to  head  the  columns  of  newspapers  and  appear  in  large 
letters  on  their  posters. 

Bishop  Whitehead  has  acted,  so  far  as  it  is  at  present  possible  but  not 
consistently    with   his   own   words;    and,    moreover,   he   is   not  fifiSS1  °£ 
ashamed  of  "  Kikuyu."     In  fact,  in  his  Diocesan  Magazine,  Feb., 

14,  he  printed  the  whole  "  Kikuyu  "  scheme,  and  wrote,  "  I  do 
not  think  there  is  anything  in  it  that  differs  in  principle  from  what 
has  been  done  in  India  during  the  last  thirty  or  forty  years." 
Here  is  an  illustration  from  the  same  magazine  (April,  1914) :— * 

"On  Friday,  Jan.  9,  I  left  Madras  by  the  mid-day  train  for  Arkonam, 
where  I  held  a  confirmation  at  5  p.m.  in  the  mission  church  belonging  to 
the  Established  Church  of  Scotland,  which  was  very  kindly  lent  to  me 
for  the  purpose  by  Mr.  Silver,  the  missionary  in  charge.  I  am  glad  to 
say  that  the  relations  between  the  Church  of  Scotland  missionary  and 
the  English  chaplain  in  charge  of  the  Europeans  are  worthy  of  Kikuyu 
Mr.  Silver  holds  an  English  service  for  the  European  residents  every 
Sunday,  except  when  Mr.  Brown  visits  the  station,  once  in  a  month, 
when  he  kindly  lends  his  church  to  Mr.  Brown  for  the  Holy  Communion 
and  Evensong." 

The  spirit  thus  displayed  is  not  new.  In  June,  1908,  Bishop 
Whitehead  gave  an  account  in  his  magazine  of  a  tour  in  the 
S.P.G.  Telugu  districts.  At  one  place  he  found  both  S.P.G.  and 
L.M.S.  missionaries  at  work,  with  happy  mutual  relations.  At 
another  L.M.S.  station,  at  the  request  of  the  missionaries,  he  held 
"an  English  service  "  in  their  mission  chapel.  "  It  was  delight 
ful,"  he  wrote ;  "  while  Churchmen  and  Nonconformists  are 
engaged  in  bitter  strife  at  home,  what  a  happiness  that  in  the 
mission  field  we  can  meet  as  friends  and  join  together  in 
worship !  " 

Again,  in  1914,  the  Bishop  was  one  of    the  speakers   at  the  Hig         , 
C.M.S.  Annual  Meeting,  and  he  pleaded  earnestly  for  union  among  at  C.M.S. 
Christians :—  Meeting. 

"  When  I  first  went  to  India  thirty  years  ago  I  was  strongly  opposed  to 
co-operation  with  bodies  outside  the  Church  of  England.  Thirty  years' 
experience  has  made  me  a  complete  convert.  ...  If  we  are  to  do  the 
work  as  God  calls  us  to  do  it,  we  must  have  co-operation  now ;  and  God 
grant  that  we  may  have  unity  at  no  distant  time.  Not  merely  for  the 
sake  of  a  theory,  but  in  the  name  of  those  millions  of  souls  who  through 
our  divisions  are  being  kept  outside  the  Christian  Church,  kept  apart 
from  the  saving  truth  of  the  Gospel,  I  appeal  to  you  all  here  in  England 
to  study  the  things  that  make  for  peace  and  unity."  f 

Bishop  Palmer,  of  Bombay,  has  also  used  notable  words  on  the  views  of 
general  subject  of  union.     In  a  paper  read  by  him,  at  the  request  lS5bay.f 
of  American  missionaries,  at  a  Conference  arranged  by  them  in 

*  See  the  C.M.  Rev.,  April,  1914,  p.  238,  and,  June,  1914,  p.  331. 
t  Ibid.,  June,  1914,  p.  347. 

O 


194  INDIA:  ANGLICAN  CHURCH  AND  UNION  MOVEMENTS. 

PART  n.  1909,  he  said  that  if  it  were  "  half  true  "  that  if  all  foreign  niission- 
chap^ie.  arjes  }eft  in(Jia,  the  Indian  Christians  would  at  once  form  one 
united  Church,  then  we  are  "heavily  responsible  for  thwarting 
our  Lord's  purpose."  "  There  is,"  he  said,  "  only  one  spirit  in 
which  I  can  look  upon  our  disunion,  and  that  is  in  the  spirit  of 
contrition.  Disunion  has  been  caused  by  my  father's  sins  and 
your  fathers'  sins,  and  it  is  maintained  by  my  sins  and  your  sins." 
And  he  added,  "  I  want  to  know  from  my  brethren  now  separated 
from  me  what  are  the  things  on  which  they  lay  most  stress,  from 
which  they  believe  that  they  gain  most  life.  It  may  be  that  I  lack 
those  things,  and  that  I  lack  them  precisely  because  those  who 
have  them  abundantly  are  separated  from  me."  Of  course  he 
went  on  to  remind  his  "  separated  brethren  "  that  they  too  might 
have  something  to  learn  from  him.  But  assuredly  this  is  a  fine 
illustration  of  the  spirit  in  which  the  whole  question  should  be 
approached.  Since  then,  Bishop  Palmer  has  joined  the  National 
Council  before  mentioned,  although  he  acknowledges  that  a  large 
number  of  his  clergy  would  have  preferred  his  not  doing  so 
(see  p.  218). 

Some  United  gatherings  for  prayer  and  spiritual  uplift  are  not  new, 

Gatherings  and  in  recent  years  several  of  the  bishops  have  taken  part  in  them. 
'  There  is  a  remarkable  annual  Convention  at  Sialkot  in  the  Punjab, 
attended  by  2000  people,  mostly  Indian  Christians.  The  Simla 
Convention  has  naturally  been  more  for  the  white  population ; 
and  of  its  meeting  in  1912  an  interesting  notice  appeared  in  the 
C.M.ti.  Gazette  (Oct.,  1912).  Bishop  Lefroy,  then  of  Lahore  and  now 
Metropolitan  of  India,  was  one  of  the  speakers,  and  another  was 
Mr.  EL  B.  Durrant,  who  has  succeeded  him.  Among  others  were 
Mr.  E.  T.  Archibald,  of  the  Children's  Special  Service  Mission, 
and  Commissioner  Booth-Tucker,  the  head  of  the  Salvation  Army 
in  India.  A  missionary  meeting  was  held  at  the  residence  of  the 
Lieut.-  Governor  of  the  Punjab,  at  the  invitation  of  Lady  Dane. 
Among  the  subjects  of  addresses  were  "  Christ  the  Magnet  of  the 
Human  Heart,"  and  "  Christ  the  Alchemist  of  Human  Life." 
Notwithstanding  all  differences,  very  real  as  some  of  them  are, 
men  cannot  help  drawing  together  when  they  draw  near  to  their 
common  Lord  and  Master.  To  adopt  Bishop  Lefroy's  words  in 
his  farewell  sermon  when  leaving  Lahore  for  Calcutta,  "India 
is  conscious  of  the  deep  trouble  of  division,  and  longs  for  some 
one  to  heal  these  chasms  and  cleavages,  and  really  make  her 
one ! "  Yes,  and  if  Christianity  is  to  do  that,  Christians  must 
themselves  be  united. 


CHAPTER   XVII. 
INDIA:   C.M.S.  MISSIONS— GENERAL. 

The  C.M.S.  Staff:  Its  Inadequacy— Increase  of  Women— Deaths  and 
Retirements— Indian  Clergy— Baptisms—Higher  Education— Literary 
Work— Native  Church  Councils. 

<N  examination  of  the  lists  of  foreign  missionaries  in  1899  .PART  11 
and  1914  reveals  the  extent  of  change  in  the  Society's 
India  Missions.  Out  of  208  men  and  39  women  on 
the  roll  in  1899,  72  men  and  14  women  remained  in 
1914.  The  total  figures  in  1914  were  174  men  and 
107  women,  showing  a  net  decrease  of  34  men  and  a  net  increase 
of  68  women.  .This  does  not  count  the  wives,  except  that  one  of 
the  fourteen  women  of  1899,  still  at  work  in  1914,  had  married  a 
missionary  in  the  interval.  Several  other  of  the  present  wives 
were  in  India  in  1899,  but  as  missionaries  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  or 
the  Z.B.M.M. 

With  regard  to  the  increase  of  women  missionaries,  it  is  to  be 
remembered  that  in  the  early  years  of  the  Society's  new  policy  of 
accepting  offers  from  women,  dating  from  1887,  they  had  been 
sent  to  other  fields  where  the  three  Women's  Societies  did  not 
work,  India  being  regarded  still  as  supplied  by  those  Societies. 
Gradually,  however,  the  demand  for  women  was  so  great  from 
India  that  the  C.M.S.  was  obliged,  while  still  availing  itself  to  the 
utmost  of  the  good  work  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  and  Z.B.M.M.,  to  add 
some  of  those  who  wished  to  serve  in  India  and  preferred  C.M.S. 
connexion.  The  Female  Education  Society,  when  wound  up  in 
1900,  also  added  several  wmnen  to  the  C.M.S.  staff. 

The  largest  number  of  men  was  in  1903  and  1906,  in  each  of  Reduced 
which  years  it  was  212,  reckoning  clergymen,  doctors,  and  other  m 
laymen.     Altogether  the  clergy  were  most  numerous  in  1899  and 
1903,  when  there  were  170 ;  the  doctors  most  numerous  in  1911, 
when  there  were  19 ;  and  the  other  laymen  in  1907,  when  there 
were  30.     The  diminution  altogether  is  very  lamentable,  especially 
that  the  clergy  have  dropped  from  170  to  142. (148  in  1915).     As 
the  whole  number  of  C.M.S.  ordained  missionaries  is  now  larger 
than  in  1899,*  it  is  clear  that  other  Missions  have  gained  at  the 

*  This  requires  explanation.  The  whole  number  of  C.M.S.  ordained  (white) 
missionaries  stands  in  the  Eeport  of  1899  as  402,  and  in  1915  as  425,  or 
rather  414  (omitting  the  11  not  yet  sailed),  which  seems  an  increase  of  only 


196 


INDIA  .-   C.M.S.  MISSIONS — GENERAL. 


PART  ii. 


Increase 
of  Women. 


nadequacy 
of  Staff 
illustrated. 


Deaths  in 
the  Field. 


expense  of  India.  All  the  divisions  of  the  Missions  have  suffered 
except  one.  It  must,  however,  be  added  that  there  are  now  some 
twenty  University  "  short-service  men  "  at  work  in  North  India 
colleges,  which  may  fairly  be  set  against  the  decrease ;  but  there 
are  none  in  the  South,  nor  are  they  available  for  general  evange 
listic  work.'"  There  is  also  a  gratifying  increase  in  the  number  of 
Indian  clergymen. 

On  the  other  hand  the  large  increase  in  the  women  mission 
aries  is  a  cause  for  much  thankfulness ;  and  it  must  not  be  for 
gotten  that  the  missionaries'  wives  (125,  a  slight  reduction)  are 
almost  all  doing  excellent  work  also  ;  eight  of  them,  for  instance, 
are  qualified  doctors.  The  immense  importance  of  women's  work 
can  only  be  realized  when  we  remember  that  without  it  one  half 
of  the  population  remains  untouched.  And  the  ignorance  of 
multitudes  of  them  is  startling.  One  woman,  on  being  told  that 
Jesus  Christ,  the  Son  of  God,  had  come  into  the  world,  asked,  "  Is 
He  staying  at  the  hotel,  Miss  Sahib  ?  " 

The  diminished  staff  is  all  the  more  deplorable  when  we  see  the 
need  of  its  being  largely  increased.  For  instance,  when  retrench 
ments  were  ordered  in  1906,  it  was  pointed  out,  as  one  illustration 
of  the  position,  that  out  of  fifty  administrative  districts  in  the 
United  Provinces,  each  containing  a  population  of  a  million, 
seventeen  were  without  an  ordained  foreign  missionary,  and  nine 
had  only  one  each.  To  provide  one  missionary  for  each  50,000, 
925  more  would  be  required.  Six  of  the  districts  were  regarded 
as  definite  spheres  of  the  C.M.S.,  and  these,  with  a  population  of 
nine  and  a  half  millions,  had  four  English  missionaries.  Two  of 
these  districts,  Gorakhpur  and  Basti,  had  between  them  nearly 
five  millions  of  people,  equal  to  the  population  of  London,  and 
greater  than  that  of  Uganda,  and  were  worked  by  three  English 
missionaries.  In  another  district,  there  were  5000  villages  to  be 
visited  by  one  man.  That  was  nine  years  ago,  and  there  has  been 
no  improvement  since. 

The  losses  of  missionaries  by  death  in  the  field  have  removed 
from  the  list  several  well-known  and  honoured  names :  among 
them  Eobert  Clark,  the  pioneer  Church  missionary  to  the  Punjab, 
who  almost  completed  his  fifty  years  of  service,  dying  in  1900 ;  f 
his  able  and  vigorous  wife,  who  survived  him  eight  years  and 
died  also  in  the  field  ;  J  H.  E.  Perkins,  formerly  Commissioner  of 
Amritsar,  who  on  retiring  from  government  service  took  Holy 

12.  But  during  the  period  many  men  still  working  in  N.-W.  Canada  have 
come  off  the  C.M.S.  list,  and  some  in  Japan  and  India  have  heen  transferred 
to  the  Church  of  Canada's  Missions.  The  real  net  increase  of  ordained 
missionaries  is  about  50,  and  yet  India  (apart  from  Ceylon)  has  22  less  in  1915 
than  in  1899.  See  further,  p.  465. 

*  The  Calcutta  Diocesan  Record  lately  called  attention  to  the  intellectual 
quality  of  C.M.S.  men  in  recent  years,  and  gave  a  list  of  nine  douhle-firsts, 
and  several  college  Fellows,  &c. 

t  See  CM.  IntelL,  July,  Oct.,  Nov.,  1900. 

j  See  CM.  Rev.,  Oct.,  1907,  p.  639. 


INDIA:   C.M.S.  MISSIONS— GENERAL.  197 

Orders,  and  gave  some  years  of   valuable  work   to  the    Punjab    PAJlTn 
Mission  ;  *  Alexander  and  Harrison  of  the  Telugu  Mission,  after   ChaP-  "• 
54  and  42  years'  service  respectively ;  Keinber  of  Tinnevelly  and 
J.  H.  Bishop  of  Travancore,  after  45  years;    H.  D.  Goldsmith 
Principal  of  the  Divinity  School  at  Madras ;  H.  F.  Eowlands  and 
Mrs.  Daeuble,  killed  by  the  earthquake  of  1905 ;  C.  S.  Thompson 
pioneer  missionary  to  the  Bhlls ;  T.  Walker  of  Tinnevelly,  faithful 
and  fervent  conductor  of  "  missions  "  ;  P.  H.  Shaul,  of  the  first 
band  of  Associated  Evangelists  in  Bengal ;  Col.  Freeman,  who 
gave  himself  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  the  Parsis  of  Bombay ;  Dr. 
Pennell,  the  medical  missionary  of  Bannu,  and  his  mother,  who 
for  several   years  worked  with  him ;    and  four  other  doctors  in    • 
the   Punjab.     Also  Mrs.   Thomas  of  Tinnevelly,  after  sixty-one 
years  among  the  people  as  wife  and  widow ;  two  Misses  Baker  of 
Travancore,  granddaughters  of  the  first  Henry  Baker  (one  of  the 
earliest   English   missionaries   in   India),   and   daughters   of   the 
second,  who  had  worked  many  years  in  the  Girls'  School  there ; 
and  Miss  S.  Bland,  formerly  of  the  old  F.E.S.,  who  died  in  1914 
after  nearly  forty  years  in  India.     Among  the  younger  women,  two 
ought  to  be  named,  as  daughters  of  successive  Secretaries  of  the 
Society,  Miss  K.  C.  Wright  and  Mrs.  Eleanor  Carr  (nee  Wigram). 

But  India  lost  also  by  retirements,  especially  of  veterans  •—  Losses  by 
T.  E.  Wade,  46   years;    Ell  wood,  and   Beutel  (last   but  one '  of  Retirement< 
the  old  German   missionaries),  42  years;    Baumann,  J.   Brown, 
and  Eichards,  40  years ;  E.  Bateman,  Archdeacon  Caley,  Eales, 
C.  A.  Neve,  W.  A.  Eoberts,  and  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  34  to  36  years ; 
Lash  and  Latham,  over  30  years  ;  W.  H.  Ball,  Dr.  H.  M.  Clark, 
Bishop  Hodges,  J.  H.  Knowles,  and  J.  Stone,  24   to  27  years; 
also  H.  G.  Grey,  twice  withdrawn  from  India  to  take  the  Principal- 
ship  of  Wyciiffe  Hall,  Oxford ;  C.  W.  A.  Clarke,  Principal  of  the 
Noble   College;  J.  P.  Haythornthwaite,   Principal  of   St.  John's 
College,  Agra  (now  Organizing  Secretary  in  London) ;  also  Mrs. 
Durrant,  who  went  out  in  advancing  years  and  worked  earnestly  C.M.S.  Men 
with  her  daughter  for  twelve  years ;  also  H.   J.   Molony,  called  S^6 d 
away  to  be  Bishop  in  Chekiang,  China.    Bishop  Gill  of  Travancore, 
Bishop  Durrant  of  Lahore,  and  Bishop  Waller  of  Tinnevelly  are 
happily  not  lost  to  India.     Of  the  foregoing,  Ball,  Eoberts,  Wade, 
Ellwood,  and  Mrs.  Durrant  have  since  died. 

The    following    C.M.S.   missionaries   have   received   from   the  Kaisar-i- 
Government  the  Kaisar-i-Hind  medals  for  important  services  to  Medallists 
the  people  of  India  :  The  first  class,  gold,  Canon  Sell  of  Madras, 
the   late   Dr.   Pennell  of   Bannu,    Dr.  A.  Neve  of   Kashmir,  the 
Eev.  E.  Guilford  of   Tarn  Taran,   and  the  Eev.  C.  E.  Tyndale- 
Biscoe  of  Kashmir ;  the  second  class,  silver,  Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester 
of  Peshawar,  Dr.  Holland  of  Quetta,  the  Eev.  A.  Outram  of  the 
Bhll  Mission,  the  Eev.  E.  D.  Price  of  the  Gond  Mission,  Miss 
Askwith  of  Tinnevelly,  Mrs.  Cain  of  Dummagudem,  and  the  late 
Miss  Bland  of  Agra. 


See  CM.  Jntell,  Oct.,  1900. 


198  INDIA  .-  C.M.S.  MISSIONS— GENERAL. 

PART  ii.       -The  following  have  been  appointed  by  the  Bishops  Honorary 
chap.^7.   Canons  of  the  respective  dioceses :  the  late  W.  H.  Ball,  and  F.  T. 
Hon.  Cole,  of  Calcutta ;  E.  Sell,  M.  Goldsmith,  and  the  late  F.  W.  N. 

canons.       Alexander>  of  Madras  ;  the  late  W.  A.  Eoberts,  and  E.  S.  Heywood, 
of  Bombay;  H.  U.  Weitbrecht,  E.  F.  E.  Wigram,  E.  Guilford,  of 
Lahore;    W.  Hooper,  H.  B.  Durrant  (now   bishop),  and  E.  H. 
M.  Waller  (now  bishop),  of  Lucknow;  E.  A.  Hensley,  of  Nagpur. 
Indian  The  Indian  clergy  have  in  the  fifteen  years  increased  in  number 

Clergy.  from  142  to  206.*  During  the  period,  146  have  been  ordained,  and 
on  the  other  hand  there  have  been  many  deaths.  Amongst  those 
who  passed  away  were  the  Eev.  Dr.  Imad-ud-din,  the  distinguished 
Mohammedan  maulvi ;  the  Eev.  Kharak  Singh,  the  Sikh  who  had 
become  a  Hindu  and  served  in  the  loyal  Indian  Army  in  the  Mutiny 
campaign ;  the  Eev.  Euttonji  Nowroji,  a  Parsi,  for  many  years  the 
highly  respected  pastor  at  Aurungabad,  after  forty-four  years' 
service ;  the  Eev.  W.  SeetaL  of  Agra,  "  pillar  and  leader  of  the 
Church  "  in  the  United  Provinces ;  the  Eev.  Earn  Charan  Dass, 
the  first  pastor  in  the  Santal  Mission  (though  himself  a  Hindu)  ; 
the  Eev.  I.  Venkatamayya  Eazu,  the  friend  of  General  Haig,  who 
gave  up  government  service  and  laboured  many  years  on  the 
Upper  Godavari ;  Archdeacon  Koshi  Koshi  of  Travancore,  made  a 
D.D.  (like  Imad-ud-din)  for  literary  work,  after  forty-three  years' 
service,  and  his  successor,  Archdeacon  Oomen  Mamen,  after  forty- 
eight  years' ;  and  several  valued  pastors  in  Tinnevelly,  particularly 
the  Eev.  Samuel  Paul,  honoured  by  the  Government  with  the  title 
of  Eao  Sahib  for  important  literary  work ;  the  Eev:  A.  Vedanayagam 
Thomas,  learned  in  the  classics  and  in  seven  different  languages  ; 
the  Eev.  M.  H.  Cooksley,  "  medical  pastor"  at  Mengnanapuram, 
after  forty-two  years'  service ;  and  the  Eev.  Paramanandham 
Gnanakan  Simeon,  B.A.,  for  over  twenty  years  pastor  of  Suvise- 
shapuram,  who,  wrote  Bishop  Williams,  "left  behind  him  a  bright 
record  of  wholehearted  devotion  and  unflagging  zeal."  Two  other 
deaths  of  eminent  Indian  Christians  must  be  mentioned :  Profes 
sor  Samuel  Satthianadan,  a  Cambridge  graduate,  Professor  of 
Philosophy  in  Madras  University  and  Deputy  Director  of  Public 
Instruction,  who  was  perhaps  the  leading  Christian  at  Madras; 
and  Mrs.  Sorabji,  of  Poona,  widow  of  the  Eev.  Sorabji  Kharsedji, 
a  Parsi  clergyman,  and  mother  of  the  brilliant  daughters  so  well 
known  in  England  and  America,  and  herself  a  woman  of  great 
ability  and  influence. 

Indian  Two  Indian  clergymen  are  Archdeacons,  the  Ven.  Ihsan  Ullah 

demons  and  in  the  Diocese  of  Lahore,  and  the  Ven.  Jacob  Chandy  in  Travan- 

canons.       core  .  an(j  ^e  following  are  Canons  of  the  different  cathedrals  :— - 

the  Eev.  D.  L.  Joshi,  of  Bombay;  the  Eev.  Nihal  Singh,  of  Lucknow; 

the  Eev.  Ali  Bakhsh,  of  Lahore  ;  the  Eev.  D.  Anantam,  of  Madras. 

Indian  lay        The  Indian  lay  teachers,  men  and  women,  have  increased  from 

2780  to  3850.     Probably  about  half  of  these  are  in  the  employment 

*  The  increase  is  really  greater  by  seven,  as  retired  Indians  are  not  now 
counted,  as  they  used  to  be. 


INDIA:  C.M.S.  MISSIONS— GENERAL,  199 

of  the  Church  Councils  (1300  in  Tinnevelly  and  Travancore),  and    PART  n. 
the  rest  directly  under  the  Society.     They  have,  no  douht,  their  ^hap.  17. 
faults  and  limitations.     Those  engaged  in  any  one  branch  of  the 
work,  pastoral,  evangelistic,  or  educational,  are  often  not  ready 
to  help  in  other  branches ;  *  and  some  are  apt  to  be  more  polemical 
than  spiritual  in   their  teaching.     But  a  great  many  are  highly 
spoken  of. 

Notwithstanding  the  inadequacy  of  the  missionary  force,  the  Adult 
number  of  baptisms  in  these  latter  years  has  largely  increased.  BaPtisms- 
The  total  number  of  adult  baptisms  reported  in  the  fifteen  years 
was  46,500.     The  average  per  annum  to  1907  was  2500,  and  since 
then  3600 ;  the  most  striking  increase  being  in  the  Punjab,  where 
the  yearly  average  has  risen  from  220  to  830.     These  figures  will 
assuredly  surprise  many  readers  who  have  little  idea  of  the  extent 
of  the  Society's  work  in  India,  or  of  the  fruits  it  is  gathering ;  and 
it  must  be  remembered  that  every  one  of  these  adult  converts  has 
been  carefully  instructed  before  baptism,  and  in  most  cases  had  a 
probation  of   many  months.     And   in   the  South,  where  a  large 
majority  of  the  Christians  are  found,  and  where  many  thousands 
of  them  are  of  the  second  and  third  generation,  the  baptisms  of 
children,  which  are  not  included  in  the  foregoing  figures,  are  even 
more   numerous.     The   total   number   of   baptized  Christians   in  statistics  of 
India  connected  with  the  C.M.S.  in  1899  was  120,295.    The  figure  christians- 
for  1915  is  199,068.     If  catechumens  are  added,  the  former  figure 
becomes  133,749,  and  the  latter  221,423. 

With  numbers  like  these  we  cannot  look  for  many  detailed  individual 
narratives  of  individual  conversions.  Of  the  immense  majority  we  sions.  l~ 
know  nothing ;  and  of  the  interesting  notices  of  the  small  minority 
that  do  come,  many  cannot  get  into  print  for  lack  of  space.  The 
question  is  sometimes  asked,  Why  are  there  now  no  touching 
narratives  of  baptisms  of  Brahmans  who  have  suffered  the  loss  of 
all  things  for  Christ's  sake,  as  there  used  to  be  ?  The  answer  is  that 
the  conversions  of  Brahmans  are  far  more  numerous  than  formerly. 
Just  a  few  (of  Brahmans  or  others)  may  be  mentioned  in  the 
Eeports,  perhaps  with  a  couple  of  lines  each  ;  but  in  former  years, 
each  of  those  cases  would  have  occupied  several  pages,  and  been 
told  of  at  meetings  all  over  the  country.  Such  for  example  as  the 
nephew  and  heir  of  a  chief  Nawab,  giving  up  wealth  and  high 
prospects  for  Christ's  sake ;  the  government  officials  baptized  at 
Madras  in  the  presence  of  hundreds  of  wondering  non-Christians  ; 
the  Mohammedan  doctor  at  Haidarabad ;  the  young  athlete  in 
South  India,  who  had  carried  off  four  first  prizes  in  an  inter-school 
contest,  baptized  by  a  senior  missionary  who  (having  been  born  in 
India)  was  rescued  as  an  infant  from  a  riot  headed  by  the  athlete's 

*  Mr.  Wigram  writes,  "Something  has  been  done  to  remedy  the  defect. 
For  example,  a  good  deal  of  thought  has  been  given  to  the  problem  of  keeping 
the  bazaar-preaching  catechist  fresh  for  what  might  otherwise  become  a 
monotonous  and  depressing  routine  by  giving  him  an  hour  or  two  of  Bible 
teaching  in  the  mission  school," 


200 


INDIA:   C.M.S.  MISSIONS — GENERAL. 


PAET  II. 

Chap.  17. 


Importance 
and  Deve 
lopment  of 
Higher 
Education. 


The  new 
Hostels. 


Literary 
Work. 


grandfather ;  the  devil- priest  in  Travancore  brought  by  his  two 
Christian  sons  ;  the  young  man  in  Mr.  Holland's  Hostel  appointed 
to  a  government  office  in  the  remote  swamps  of  Eastern  Bengal, 
to  baptize  whom  Mr.  Holland  and  Mr.  Tubbs  travelled  1300  miles  ; 
the  two  Brahman  boys  in  a  Tinnevelly  school,  whose  conversion 
was  "  like  an  electric  shock  through  the  town  "  ;  the  Hindu  hermit 
who  in  previous  years  had  persistently  annoyed  the  Christians  in 
church  by  energetic  drumming  outside  ;  the  young  Brahman  at 
Masulipatam,  cursed  by  his  mother,  and  baptized  amidst  great 
excitement ;  and  the  two  Afghan  martyrs  (p.  212). 

The  increased  number  of  baptisms  is  due  chiefly  to  the 
"  mass  movements  "  before  referred  to.  But  a  Church  needs 
educated  leaders ;  and  it  is  therefore  of  great  importance  not  to 
neglect  the  educational  work  which  reaches  the  upper  classes  of 
India.  It  is  good  to  observe  that  there  has  been  large  development 
during  the  fifteen  years.  Although  most  of  the  existing  institu 
tions  are  of  long  standing,  several  have  raised  their  standard  in  the 
16-year  period.  There  are  now  five  First-Grade  Colleges,  the  Noble 
College  at  Masulipatam,  St.  John's  at  Agra,  the  Edwardes  College 
at  Peshawar,  St.  Paul's  College  at  Calcutta,  and  St.  Andrew's  at 
Gorakhpur ;  and  two  Second-Grade  Colleges  at  Tinnevelly  Town, 
and  Kottayam  in  Travancore.  There  are  thirty-five  High  Schools 
for  boys,  and  seven  for  girls ;  fifty-two  Middle  Schools  for  boys, 
and  twenty-four  for  girls  ;  eleven  Industrial  Schools  for  boys,  and 
five  for  girls ;  three  Primary  Boarding  Schools  for  boys,  and  four 
for  girls ;  two  "  purdah "  schools  for  girls ;  and  about  1400 
elementary  schools,  girls',  boys',  and  mixed.  There  are  normal 
classes  and  theological  classes  in  most  of  the  divisions  of  the 
Mission  (linguistic  or  otherwise),  as  at  Lahore,  Clarkabad,  Poona, 
Allahabad,  Calcutta,  Madras,  Masulipatam,  Palamcotta,  Kottayam, 
and  for  the'Santal,  Gond,  and  Bhil  Missions.  Another  class  is 
Hostels,  which  are  attached  to  most  of  the  colleges  and  schools 
(except  the  elementary),  and  which  take  boys  away  from  debasing 
influences  and  give  more  opportunities  for  moulding  character. 
The  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Hostel  at  Allahabad  is  an  important 
new  institution,  founded  by  Mr.  Holland  in  1900  for  students  of 
any  creed  at  the  government  or  other  independent  colleges  there. 
This  is  a  new  method  for  influencing  the  upper  classes,  and  is 
highly  approved  by  the  government  educational  authorities.  This 
Hostel,  and  a  few  other  institutions,  have  been  much  helped  by  the 
"  short-service  men,"  who  have  gone  out  from  our  Universities, 
not  directly  as  missionaries,  but  engaged  by  the  institution  on  its 
own  funds.  At  St.  John's,  Agra,  there  have  been  eight  or  ten 
men  of  good  University  standing  working  together. 

Much  good  literary  work  has  been  done  by  the  Society's 
missionaries  and  some  of  the  Indian  clergy.  Eevision  of  Indian 
Versions  of  the  Old  and  New  Testaments  are  always  going  on. 
Hymn  books  and  minor  publications  are  continually  being  brought 
out  in  almost  all  the  leading  languages.  But  the  most  interesting 


INDIA:  C.M.S.  MISSIONS—GENERAL.  201 

enterprise  of  the  kind  in  our  period  has  been  the  production  of    PAKT  n. 
Commentaries  under  the  auspices  of  the  bishops  as  arranged  bv   ch^_17- 
them  at  their  Synod  in  1900.     The  plan  is  to  write  the  Com-  The  new 
mentary  in  English,  and  then  have  it  translated  into  the  various  tc°£men- 
vernaculars  by   men  competent  in  each   case.     Dr.   Weitbrecht 
S10*6^^  Matthew>  Bish°P  Waller  on  the  Eevelation,  the  late 
Eev.  T.  Walker  on  the  Acts  and  Philippians;  also  the  Eev    H 
Pakenham   Walsh,    of   the  S.P.G.   (now   Bishop   of   Assam)',  on 
bt.  John  s  Epistles.     The  Philippians  and  Eevelation  have  been 
translated  into  Hindi  by  Dr.  Hooper  and  Pundit  Balmukand,  into 
Marathi  by  Canon  Joshi,  and  into  Urdu  by  the  Eev.  Malcolm  Jan  • 
Philippians  also  into  Telugu  by  Canon  Anantam,  and  into  Tamil 
by  Mr.  Walker  himself.     St.  Matthew  has  been  translated  into 
Urdu  by  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  and  into  Hindi  by  Dr.  Hooper      Mr 
Walker's  Acts  and  Bishop  Waller's  Eevelation  have  been  trans 
lated   into    Marathi,  by   Canon    Joshi;    and   Bishop    Pakenham 
Walsh's  Epistles  of  St.  John  into  Marathi  by  the  Eev    D    K 
Shmde,  and  into  Tamil  by  Mr.  G.   S.  D.  Pillay.     The  Eev.   A' 
Crosthwaite  (S.P.G.)  has  written  the  Commentary  on  2nd  Corin 
thians,  and  the  Eev.  W.  H.  G.  Holmes,  of  the  Oxford  Mission  at 
Calcutta,  is  preparing  one  on  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews      Mr 
Walker  was  engaged  on  the  Apocryphal  Books  at   the  time  of 
his  lamented  death.     Dr.  Hooper  has  also  written  an  independent 
Commentary  on  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  and  translated  it  into 
Hindi.     These   and   other   branches  of  the  work,  including   the 
medical    missions,  will   be   further   noticed    under   the   different 
districts. 

The  Native  Church  Councils  in  the  different  provinces  and  Native 
districts  have  continued  for  the  most  part  working  on  the  lines  cSSs 
previously  laid  down  ;  but  there  has  been  some  modification  of 
the  old  plans  in  the  North.  In  the  Punjab,  a  new  scheme  was 
arranged  in  1904,  with  a  view  to  uniting  all  the  work,  European 
and  Indian,  pastoral  and  evangelistic  and  medical,  under  one 
administration.  There  is  a  Central  Council  composed  of  clerical 
and  lay  delegates,  and  certain  official  members,  with  the  Bishop  as 
Chairman  ;  also  District  Councils  and  Pastoral  Committees.  This 
does  not  seem  to  differ  much  from  the  older  system ;  but  it  is  so 
planned  as  to  bring  the  different  nationalities  and  different  depart 
ments  of  work  into  closer  co-operation.  In  the  United  Provinces, 
the  new  body,  formed  in  1911,  is  called  the  Diocesan  Council,  and 
comprises  the  Bishop  and  the  Archdeacon  of  Lucknow,  and 
delegates  from  the  Missionary  Conference,  the  Central  Indian 
Church  Council,  and  the  Diocesan  Board  of  Missions.  All  these 
plans  are  but  preparatory  for  the  future  regular  Synods  for  all 
India.* 

*  A  series  of  articles  on  the  various  Church  Councils  in  C.M.S.  Missions  in 
India  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Revieio  of  July,  Aug.,  Sept.,  1909,  contributed  by 
Messrs.  Shaul,  Butler,  Cole,  Grey,  Waller,  Carr,  and  Meadows. 


CHAPTER  XVIII. 

C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE. 
PUNJAB  AND  SINDH  MISSION. 

The  Field  and  the  Men—  R.  Clark,  Imad-ud-din,  &c.—  Growth  of  the 
Christian  Community—  Amritsar,  Tarn  Taran,  Lahore,  &c.—  The 
Jhang  Bar—  Kashmir  :  School  and  Hospital—  Peshawar  and  Bannu 
-Dr.  Pennell—  Baluch  Mission—  Sindh—  Medical  and  Women's 
Work—  New  Church  Council—  Bishops  Lefroy  and  Durrant—  S.P.G. 
and  Other  Missions. 


PART  n.  MBSMSEfigHE  field  of  the  Punjab  and  Sindh  Mission  is  _  the 
chapes.  HJ||  rjtB  j)iocege  Of  Lahore,  which  comprises  the  civil  Province 
Field  of  the  K|g|  gut  of  the  Punjab  and  the  North-  West  Frontier  Province, 
Slgfl  also  Sindh  (which  is  under  the  Bombay  Government), 
•^^™  and  Baluchistan,  and  protected  States  like  Kashmir. 
The  North-West  Frontier  Province  was  separated  from  the  Punjab 
and  put  under  a  separate  administration  in  1900.  The  Delhi 
district  was  under  Punjab  administration  from  the  time  of  the 
Mutiny  until  King  George's  visit  in  1911,  when  it  was  separated  in 
view  of  Delhi  becoming  the  capital  of  India.  No  mission  field 
presents  greater  variety  of  spiritual  soil  than  this  great  diocese, 
and  none  calls  for  more  skilful  diversity  of  operation. 

its  historic       And  no  Missions  have  greater  historical  interest  ;  for  one  thing, 

interest.      because  of  their  many  links  with  some  of  those  brilliant  English 

men  who  have  served  the  British  Crown  in  India,  the  Lawrences, 

Kobert   Montgomery,  Herbert  Edwardes,  and  a  host  of  others. 

The  succession  of  rulers  not  ashamed  of  their  Christian  faith  has 

still  been   kept   up.      It  may  suffice  to  say  that,  as  our  period 

opens,  we  find  Sir  W.  Mackworth  Young  at   the   head   of   the 

Government.  . 

Robert  The  history,  too,  is  not  a  long  one.     The  C.M.S.  Mission  in 

dark.         1899  wag  not  yet  half  a  CQntUry  old,  and  the  missionary  who 

began  it,  and  had  taken  a  leading  part  in  almost  all  its  develop 

ments,  Eobert  Clark,  was  still  the  chief  leader,  looked  up  to  by 

all  his  colleagues.     He  was  a  Cambridge  Wrangler,  and  the  con 

temporary  there  of  Bishops  G.  E.  Moule,  Koyston,  and  Speechly, 

Christopher   and  David  Fenn,   and   other  devoted   missionaries. 

He  was  the  first  at  Amritsar,  the  first  at  Peshawar,  the  first  in 

Kashmir;   and   he   started   most   of   the  varied  agencies  m  the 


C.M.S.  MissroNS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE.        203 

Punjab.     But  he  died  on  May  16th,  1900,  universally  honoured    PAETII. 
and  revered.*     Mrs.  Clark  survived  until  1907.f  chapes. 

Of  the  97  names  on  the  list  in  1899  (including  34  wives),  31  Losses  by 
are  still  on  it,  but  there  are  three  others  on  it  now  which  were  jSre-and 
then  on  the  O.M.S.  roll  elsewhere,  and  eight  who  were  already  in  ment. 
India  in  other  connexions.  The  losses  in  the  fifteen  years  include, 
by  death  in  the  field,  among  others,  Mrs.  Grime,  the  experienced 
head  of  an  important  Girls'  School  at  Amritsar ;  H.  F.  Eowlands, 
killed  in  the  earthquake  at  Kangra ;  Dr.  Pennell  of  Bannu,  and 
Drs.  Barton,  Barnett,  and  Browne ;  also  Dr.  Smit,  formerly  of 
the  S.P.G.  in  Tinnevelly,  who  was  drowned  at  Fort  Munro  in 
1900;  also  Miss  Nevill,  and  Miss  A.  Eobinson.J  The  losses  by 
retirement  include  Eowland  Bateman,  T.  E.  Wade  (since  dead),§ 
W.  Thwaites,  F.  Papprill,  J.  H.  Knowles,  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  Drs. 
S.  W.  Sutton  and  Summerhayes,  C.  E.  Barton  (since  dead) 
E.  Sinker,  H.  G.  Grey,  W.  F.  Cobb,  A.  H.  Storrs,  C.  H.  A.  Field', 
J.  Tunbridge,  Dr.  Adams,  H.  F.  Beutel,  T.  E.  Coverdale,  Dr. 
Henry  Martyn  Clark,  Miss  Edgley  (since  dead),||  the  Misses 
Farthing  (one  since  dead),  &c.  Some  of  these  have  been  already 
referred  to  in  the  previous  chapter,  and  others  will  be  in  due 
course.  The  Eev.  E.  H.  A.  Haslam,  of  Toronto,  is  lost  to  the 
C.M.S.,  though  not  to  India,  owing  to  the  transfer  of  the  Kangra 
District  to  the  Missionary  Society  of  the  Canadian  Church. 

Among  the  new  names  in  the  period  should  be  mentioned  those  New 
of  the  Eev.  P.  Ireland  Jones,  who  had  been  Secretary  at  Calcutta,  Nl 
and  also  for  two  or  three  years  in  Salisbury  Square,  and  who  was 
Secretary  of  the  Punjab  Mission  for  most  of  the  time  under  review  ; 
Dr.  H.  T.  Holland,  the  medical  missionary  at  Quetta,  brother  of 
W.  E.  S.  Holland;  two  brothers  Wigram  (Marcus  and  Loftus), 
the  latter  a  doctor  whose  health  did  not  permit  him  to  stay  long- 
in  India,  and  who  is  now  Principal  of  Livingstone  College ;  Miss 
E.  F.  Fox,  daughter  of  the  late  Hon.  Sec.,  now  married  to  the 
Eev.  C.  F.  Hall ;  and  Miss  M.  Gomery,  a  doctor  from  Montreal. 

In  numbers  the  clergymen  and  the  laymen  (mostly  doctors)  are 
the  same,  36  and  17,  the  wives  have  risen  from  34  to  42,  and  the 
other  women  from  10  to  32  ;  total  increase,  from  97  to  127. 

The  Indian  clergy  have  increased  from  15  to  23,  notwithstand-  Deaths  of 
ing  several  deaths.     Dr.  Imad-ud-din,  whose  loss  was  especially  clergy, 
severely  felt,  died  only  three  months  after  his  friend  and  spiritual 
father,  Robert  Clark.     He  was  the  famous  Mohammedan  moulvie 
whose  remarkable  conversion  has  often  been  narrated.     He  had 
for  many  years  a  high  reputation  as  a  Christian  preacher   and 

*  See  CM.  Intelligencer,  July,  Oct.,  Nov.,  1900,  and  CM.  Rcvieiv,  Dec.,  1907. 
His  life  was  written  by  his  adopted  son,  Dr.  H.  Martyn  Clark  (published  by  A. 
Melrose,  London,  1907). 

t  See  CM.  Review,  Oct.,  1907,  p.  639. 

$  Also  Miss  Van  der  Pant,  a  most  promising  missionary  nurse,  who  died 
after  a  few  months'  service  in  1905. 

§  See  Dr.  Weitbrecht's  In  Memoriam  of  Mr.  Wade,  CM.  Eev.,  Dec.,  1914. 

II  See  Mr.  Grey's  In  Memoriam  of  Miss  Edgley,  CM.  Eev.,  April,  1915. 


204 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE. 


PART  II. 
Chap. 18. 


and 
Laymen. 


Indian 
Clergy  at 
Lahore 
Cathedral. 


Numbers 
of  Native 
Christians, 


writer,  and  was  invited  to  attend  the  Chicago  Parliament  of 
Eeligions  in  1893,  but  declined,  and  sent  a  paper  instead,  and  a 
list  of  about  100  Moslems  of  standing  who  had  become  Christians. 
He  preached  the  Urdu  sermon  at  the  consecration  of  Lahore 
Cathedral.  Archbishop  Benson  conferred  on  him  the  D.D. 
degree.  He  was  baptized  in  1866,  and  ordained  in  1868.* 
Another  valued  Indian  clergyman,  also  a  convert  from  Islam, 
was  the  Eev.  Qasim  Khan  Nehemiah.  He  was  baptized  in  1864, 
along  with  Moulvie  Safdar  Ali,  and  ordained  in  1887.  The  Eev. 

D.  J.  McKenzie  wrote  :   "  He  was  a  reverent  and  devoted  servant 
of  Christ.     His  great  forte  was  perhaps  individual  dealing  with 
non-Christians."     The  Eev.  T.  Howell,  who  died  lately,  had  been 
the  much-esteemed  pastor  of  the  Lahore  congregation,  and  "a 
doughty  champion  in  Mohammedan  controversy."     He  was  the 
chosen  comrade  of  George  Maxwell  Gordon,  the  "Pilgrim  Mis 
sionary,"  forty  years  ago.     To  these  must  be  added  the  names  of 
two  Indian  laymen,  both  converts  of  Dr.  Duff  at  Calcutta,  whose 
service  was  given  to  the  Punjab  :  Babu  I.  0.  Singha,  the  Nestor 
of  Indian  Christians  in  the  Punjab,  who  was  the  first  head-master 
(for  18  years)  of  the  Baring  High  School  at  Batala ;  and  Babu 

E.  E.  Eaha,  who   was   for   many   years   superintendent   of   the 
Punjab  Eeligious  Book  Society  at  Lahore. 

The  way  in  which  the  Indian  clergy  in  the  Punjab  are  rightly 
put  to  the  front  was  strikingly  illustrated  on  the  Day  of  Inter 
cession  for  Missions  in  1906,  Nov.  29th.  The  whole  service  in 
Lahore  Cathedral  was  conducted  by  Indians.  The  Eevs.  T.  Howell 
and  Aziz-ud-din  read  the  prayers;  the  Eevs.  Paras  Nath  and 
Fazl-ud-din  read  the  Lessons;  and  the  Eev.  Wadhawa  Mull 
preached  the  sermon.  There  was  a  large  congregation  of  both 
English  and  Indians.! 

The  Indian  Christians  connected  with  the  C.M.S.  Punjab  and 
Sindh  Missions  in  1899  numbered,  baptized  5353,  catechumens 
809.  The  corresponding  figures  in  1915  are  20,400  and  4007. 

The  Secretaryship  of  the  Mission  has  been  held  since  Eobert 
Clark's  death  by  H.  G.  Grey,  Dr.  Weitbrecht,  P.  Ireland  Jones, 
E.  Wigram,  and  now  C.  M*.  Gough.  Dr.  Weitbrecht  and  Mr. 
Wigram  were  successively  appointed  Canons  of  Lahore  Cathedral 
by  Bishop  Lefroy ;  and  now  Mr.  Guilford,  by  Bishop  Durrant. 

*  The  story  of  Dr.  Imad-ud-din's  conversion  has  often  been  published.  The 
History  of  C.M.S.  has  many  references  to  him  and  his  work.  See  also  CM. 
Intell.,  Dec.,  1900.  His  Chicago  paper  was  printed  in  the  CM.  IntelL,  Aug., 
1893 

t  Bishop  Durrant  gives  an  interesting  account  of  a  gathering  of  Indian 
clergy  and  lay  workers  at  Tarn  Taran  in  March,  1914,  which  was  attended  by 
eighteen  out  of  the  twenty  C.M.S.  Indian  clergymen  of  the  diocese,  the  one 
ordained  agent  of  the  National  Indian  Missionary  Society,  and  lay  workers  of 
both  Societies  and  of  the  S.P.G.  and  the  Canadian  Church  Mission.  It  was 
partly  a  Conference  and  partly  a  Retreat;  and  the  following  subjects  were 
discussed :  Revival  of  the  Indian  Church  through  the  revival  of  its  leaders  ; 
Conduct  of  Christian  Worship ;  Devotional  Life  of  Clergy  and  People ;  How 
to  Win  Souls  for  Christ ;  How  to  Shepherd  the  Flock. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE.         205 

THE  PUNJAB.  PABTII. 

T  .  Chap.  18. 

In   the   Punjab    Proper,    Amritsar   continues    to   be  the  most  AmrSTar 
varied   centre   of   work,  evangelistic,  educational,    medical.     The 
l>ev.  D  J    McKenzie  has  for  some  years  been  the  missionary  in 
general   charge       There   are  the  Alexandra  Girls'  High  School 
the  Boys  High  School,  and  several  other  educational  agencies,  the 
medical   mission,  &c.,  with  the  care  of  the  Indian  congregation 
and   the   evangelistic   preaching.      The   medical   missionary    Dr 
Browne,  died  in  1913.     He  was  much  valued  and  beloved     « the 
most  selfless  missionary  the  Punjab  has  known  in  this  generation  " 
wrote    Mr.   Wigram*      The    Eev.  G.    Brocklesby    Davis,   M.D 
both  clergyman  and  doctor,  has  shared  in  the  work.     Sir  G    K 
Scott-Moncrieff  wrote  of  Amritsar  in  1902,  «  The  C.M.S.  work  here 
is  splendid.  .  .  .  Nothing  in  the  Report  or  periodicals  gives  one 
any  adequate  idea  of  the  reality." 

At  Tarn  Taran  is  still  Mr.  Guilford,  whose  whole  missionary  Tarn 
career  of  33  years  has  been  spent  there,  and  who  continually  adds  Tarau' 
to  the  universal  respect  in  which  he  is  held  by  the  people  When 
he  and  Mrs.  Guilford  in  1907  returned  to  Tarn  Taran  after  furlough 
shouting  crowds,  triumphal  arches,  fireworks,  and  festivities,  lasting 
four  days,  attested  the  honour  in  which  they  were  held  by  Moslems 
and  Hindus  as  well  as  by  Christians.  So  great  is  Mr.  Guilford's 
influence  that  in  this  sacred  Sikh  city  he  gives  a  weekly  lecture  on 
the  New  Testament  to  the  students  of  the  Sikh  Theological  Col 
lege,  at  the  request  of  the  authorities.  He  has  richly  deserved  the 
gold  Kaisar-i-Hind  medal  conferred  on  him  by  the  Government. t 
The  Narowal  District  with  its  thousands  of  Christians,  where  JNarowai. 
Mr.  Bateman  was  the  moving  spirit  for  so  many  years,  has  been 
cared  for  by  Mr.  Gough  and  Mr.  Hares.  For  some  years  it  was 
disappointing,  the  Christians  manifesting  little  spiritual  life,  and 
Bishop  Lefroy  expressed  grave  anxiety  about  them.  But  in  1909 
he  noted  a  great  improvement,  and  wrote,  "  I  have  not  observed  in 
any  place  such  striking  signs  of  progress."  J  At  Batala,  where  are  Bataia. 

*  See  the  Eev.  J.  A.  Wood's  In  Memoriam  of  him,  CM.  Eev.,  Oct.,  1913. 

t  In  the  C.M.S.  Gazette  of  July,  1910,  there  was  a  striking  account  of  a  visit 
of  120  of  the  village  Christians  from  the  Tarn  Taran  district  to  Lahore  Cathe 
dral,  marching  in  with  their  banner,  "shouting"  the  122nd  Psalm,  and  being 
addressed  by  Bishop  Lefroy.  It  was  as  if  some  Essex  peasants  marched  into 
St.  Paul's. 

+  A  notable  baptism  took  place  at  Narowal  on  Whit  Sunday  (May  19th),  1907. 
The  Eev.  Ihsan  Ullah  (now  Archdeacon  of  Delhi)  had  the  high  and  happy 

TiYM  VI  IfiCfd  r\f   V\Q  i-v-t-i  r7T>-»r*'   1^4«  "U-^^.-i-'U  ^-«rtl««J3- «.  i j.1 .  T        •  •  i ,          . 


name  of  Eahmat  Ullah  ("  the  mercy  of  God  ").  His  Moslem  friends  tried  to 
prevent  the  baptism,  and  after  he  had  been  received  into  the  Church  they  cast 
him  out  altogether,  and  sent  orders  all  round  the  country  that  their  people 
were  to  have  nothing  to  do  with  him.  His  eldest  son  is  now  a  professor  in 
the  C.M.S.  College  at  Peshawar.  Archdeacon  Ihsan  Ullah,  who  had  been 
an  ordained  clergyman  twenty  years  before  this,  told  the  story  of  his 


2o6         C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE. 

PAETII.    the  important  "Baring"  and  «  A.L.O.E."  Schools,  the  former  for 

chapes.  Christian  boys,  and  the  latter  for  non-Christians,  Mr.  A.  C.  Clarke 
and  Mr.  Force  Jones  (who  was  for  a  year  or  two  in  Uganda), 
have  carried  on  the  work.  It  is  interesting  to  find  that  Mr.  S.  K. 
Datta,  so  well-known  in  England  as  a  Travelling  Secretary  of 

ciarkabad  the  Student  Movement,  is  an  old  "  Baring-Ian."  Clarkabad,  the 
'  industrial  Christian  village  planned  by  Robert  Clark,  and  named 
after  him,  has  often  caused  much  anxiety,  but  it  has  worked  much 
more  satisfactorily  of  late  years  under  Mr.  Gough's  and  Mr.  H.  E. 
Clark's  superintendence.  In  fact  it  is  now  the  principal  workshop 
for  the  output  of  trained  teachers  for  the  village  districts  affected 
by  the  mass  movement.  The  Bishop  Lefroy  Training  School  was 
established  there  for  this  purpose,  as  will  appear  presently. 

Multan.  Multan,  long  a  most  discouraging  field,  has  been  more  fruitful 
lately.  Miss  Wadsworth  (formerly  F.E.S.),  and  Dr.  Eleanor 
Dodson  (formerly  of  the  Ludhiana  Mission),  have  laboured  there 
patiently  for  many  years.  So  too  did  Dr.  Wilhelmina  Eger  (also 
F.E.S.)  till  her  retirement— if  it  may  be  called  so,  but  she  is  still 
in  the  field,  helping  as  far  as  her  health  allows.  The  Eev.  A.  H. 
Abigail  has  lately  built  there  what  is  stated  to  be  the  finest  school 
in  the  whole  Mission. 

Lahore.  But  Lahore  is  now  the  official  centre  as  the  capital  ^and  the 

see-city.  The  Divinity  School  has  greatly  developed  since  the 
days  of  its  founder,  Bishop  French,  and  training  men  for  Holy 
Orders  is  but  a  small  part  of  its  activities.*  There  is  a  Hostel  for 
students  generally ;  and  for  most  of  the  time  under  review  there 
was  an  Industrial  School  for  training  Christian  artisans.  Canon 
Wigram  was  long  the  head  of  all  this  work,  and  the  Eev.  J.  A.  Wood 
and  others  have  rendered  important  service ;  particularly  the  Eev. 
J.  Ali  Bakhsh,  also  a  Canon  of  Lahore,  a  convert  from  Islam  who 
has  given  lectures  in  many  parts  of  India,  and  was  in  England  a 
few  years  ago.  A  student  from  whom  much  was  expected, 
Surendra  Nath  Mukarji,  B.A.,  died  in  1902  to  the  sorrow  of  all.  ^  He 
was  a  Bengali  by  parentage,  but  a  Punjabi  by  birth  and  training ; 
"  a  leader  in  everything  pure,  manly,  and  of  good  report  "  ;  "a  first- 
class  cricketer,  and  equally  strong  in  independence  of  character." 
Archdeacon  Ihsan  Ullah  has  lately  taken  charge  of  the  increasing 
city  congregation,  in  succession  to  the  late  Eev.  T.  Howell.  At 
Lahore  also  is  the  Book  Depot,  a  most  important  agency  for  years 
past.  It  was  one  of  the  many  good  gifts  to  the  Mission  of  the  late 
Eev.  F.  H.  Baring,  a  former  missionary,  son_of  Bishop  Baring  of 
Durham,  and  a  munificent  benefactor.  Dr.  Weitbrecht  gave  much 
good  service  in  connexion  with  it ;  and  his  literary  work  has  been 
own  conversion  at  the  Lucknow  Conference.  See  C.M.S.  Gazette,  April, 
1911 

*  In  1903  a  reunion  of  former  students  of  the  Lahore  Divinity  College  was 
held  for  the  first  time,  thirty  years  after  its  foundation  by  Mr.  French.  More 
than  fifty  were  found  to  be  alive  and  at  work.  Twenty-seven  came  together, 
of  whom  seventeen  were  converts  from  Mohammedanism,  including  nine 
clergymen. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OP  LAHORE.        207 

very   important.-     Lahore   is   also   a  centre   for  women's  work,    PARIII. 
under  Mrs.  Inghs  and  Miss  Lighten  (sister  of  Sir  Eoberfc  Lighten)    c^w. 

Another  Indian  clergyman,  the  Rev.  Wadhawa  Mull,  has  the  Asrapur. 
station  of  Asrapur  («  Place  of  Hope  "),  first  started  by  the  late 
H.  K  Perkins ;  and  he  has  made  it  famous  in  the  country  by  hi" 
annual  conference  or  Prem-Sangat,  at  which  Hindus,  Mohamme 
dans,  and  Christians  meet  together,  and  give  addresses  in  turn  on 
their  respective  faiths,  but  no  open  controversy  is  allowed  t  No 
less  than  600  people  have  been  baptized  at  this  village  in  the  last 
four  years.  Bishop  Whitehead  of  Madras  visited  Asrapur  when 
he  was  in  the  Punjab  in  1913,  and  wrote  warmly  of  it.  One  thin" 
he  said  must  be  quoted : — 

"  I  was  very  much  struck  by  the  way  in  which  the  first  Lesson  was  read. 
Ihe  catechist,  instead  of  reading  out  of  a  book,  simply  told  the  story  of 
the  destruction  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah  in  the  language  of  the  people. 
The  congregation  were  far  more  attentive  than  they  would  have  been' 
had  he  read  the  Lesson.  .  .  .  [In  this  way  doubtless]  minor  inaccuracies 
and  local  touches  would  crawl  into  the  stories,  ...  but  the  advantage 
gained  would  far  outweigh  these  defects." 

But  the  principal  centre  of  interest  in  the  last  few  years  in  the  Jhuug  Bar 
Punjab  is  the  district  called  the  Jhang  Bar,  part  of  a  country 
about  180  miles  by  60  lying  between  the  Eivers  Eavi  and  Chenab, 
south-west  of  Lahore,  reclaimed  and  irrigated  by  the  Government] 
and  into  which  thousands  of  "  colonists "  have  poured  One 
village,  with  3000  acres  of  land,  was  allotted  at  the  instance  of 
Colonel  Montgomery,  the  Settlement  Commissioner,  for  Christian 
settlers  only.  Another  Christian  centre  is  called  Batemanabad 
after  the  veteran  missionary  who  began  the  extensive  work  now 
carried  on.  Archdeacon  Ihsan  Ullah,  the  Eevs.  T.  Holden,  H.  E. 
Clark,  Ali  Bakhsh,  Jawahir  Masih,  and  the  Misses  Farthing,  have 
borne  their  part  in  caring  .for  the  Christians  and  evangelizing  the 
non-Christians.  The  settlers  are  mostly  of  the  Chuhra  class,  and 
outside  the  regular  castes,  and  it  is  among  them  that  there  is 
so  striking  a  mass  movement.^  There  are  some  8000  Christians 
in  this  district  connected  with  the  C.M.S.,  while  the  Scottish  and 
American  United  Presbyterians  have  a  larger  number,  and  the 
Salvation  Army  is  also  at  work ;  but  the  latter  causes  much  trouble, 
as  also  do  the  Eoman  Catholics,  by  enticing  Christians  from  other 
Missions,  C.M.S.  included.  Important  as  this  district  has  proved, 

*  See  a  valuable  letter  of  his,  CM.  Intell,  Aug.,  1902. 

t  See  the  deeply  interesting  reports  by  Mr.  Wadhawa  Mull  in  the  C  M 
Review,  Sept.,  1908,  and  Oct.,  1909.  He  has  lately  enlarged  his  church  for  the 
growing  congregation.  I  had  the  privilege  of  laying  the  first  stone  of  it,  when 
I  visited  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Perkins  there  in  1893.  Miss  Kheroth  M.  Bose,  of  the 
C.E.Z.M.S.,  an  Indian  lady  with  a  medical  qualification,  conducts  a  small 
hospital.  She  has  been  awarded  a  silver  Kaisar-i-Hind  medal. — E.S. 

t  On  the  mass  movement  see  Chap.  XV.,  p.  169  ;  also  Bishop  Whitehead's 
articles,  CM.  Review,  Aug.,  1913,  and  The  East  and  The  West,  July  1913 
See  also  Mr.  Bateman's  report,  CM.  InteU^el).,  1901,  and  Mr.  Hall's  article 
CM.  Rev.,  May,  1914. 


208 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LA&OKE. 


PART  11. 
Chap.  18. 

Needs  of 

Village 

Missions. 


Simla  and 
Kotgur. 


Kangra 

Canadian 

Mission. 


it  remains  true  that  baptisms  have  been  more  numerous  in  tho 
older  districts  of  Narowal,  Tarn  Taran,  and  Batala  ;  over  1000 
adults  in  1914.  For  these  Village  Missions  the  urgent  need  is  for 
more  evangelists  and  teachers;  and  happily  a  grant  of  £2000 
made  by  the  Bishops  in  India,  out  of  the  apportionment  to  them 
from  the  Pan-Anglican  Thankoff'ering,  has  made  it  possible  to 
open  the  institution  at  Clarkabad  above  referred  to,  called  the 
Bishop  Lefroy  Training  School,  for  the  training  of  the  humble  but 
useful  class  of  village  readers.  The  people  to  be  influenced  are 
mostly  the  Chuhras,  who  are  not  as  a  body  sweepers  and 
scavengers,  although  those  become  so  who  drift  into  the  towns. 
The  great  majority  have  been,  probably  for  centuries,  the  serfs  of 
the  landowners,  cultivating  the  land  for  them,  and  receiving  pay 
largely  in  kind. 

On  the  lower  Himalayas  are  the  hill-stations  of  Simla  and  Kotgur. 
At  Simla  the  Indian  congregation  consists  mainly  of  clerks  and  ser 
vants  of  the  English  officials  and  others.  In  the  Kotgur  Valley  are 
found  in  the  schools  very  winsome  high-caste  boys,  who  attracted 
the  sympathies  of  Mr.  S.  E.  Stokes,  the  American  gentleman  who 
made  so  deep  an  impression  in  England  a  few  years  ago,  and  who 
was  for  a  short  time  on  the  C.M.S.  staff.  Two  veterans,  Mr.  Bed- 
man  and  Mr.  Abigail,  after  34  and  25  years'  service  respectively, 
are  in  charge  of  these  two  places.  The  new  church  at  Simla,  and  the 
connexion  with  it  of  the  Viceroy  and  Lady  Hardinge,  have  already 
been  mentioned.  Another  hill  station,  Kangra,  has  (as  before 
mentioned)  been  transferred  to  the  new  Mission  of  the  Canadian 
Church.  It  was  here  that  the  disastrous  earthquake  of  1905 
occurred,  when  two  C.M.S.  missionaries,  the  Eev.  H.  F.  Eowlands 
(son  of  W.  E.  Eowlands  of  Ceylon)  and  Mrs.  Daeuble  (widow  of 
a  veteran  German  clergyman)  were  killed,  and  also  another  German 
lady  working  under  C.M.S.  auspices,  while  others  had  narrow 
escapes,  and  much  property  was  destroyed. 


Srinagar 
School, 


KASHMIR. 

At  Srinagar,  in  Kashmir,  the  interest  is  divided  between 
the  educational  and  the  medical  work.  Mr._  Tyndale-Biscoe's 
famous  school  seems  to  grow  continually  in  efficiency,  particularly 
in  its  influence  upon  the  character  of  the  boys,  making  them 
manly,  unselfish,  active  in  all  sorts  of  social  service.  There  have 
not  been  more  than  two  or  three  definite  conversions,  and  we 
pray  and  wait  for  more,  but  meanwhile  a  standard  of  practical 
Christian  living  is  being  set  up  which  must  have  great  indirect 
results.  It  is  good  to  hear  of  one  of  the  young  converts  of  the 
period,  Samuel  Bakkal,  B.A.,  B.T.,  returning  to  Srinagar  to  work  in 
his  own  school.*  A  girls'  school  has  also  been  opened  for  the  boys' 

*  Mr.  Bakkal  has  since  been  with  the  Y.M.G.A.  in  France,  ministering  to 
the  needs  of  the  Indian  soldiers. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE.         209 

sisters.'     The  brothers  Arthur  and  Ernest  Neve,  with  thirty-three    PART  IT 
and  twenty-eight  years'  experience  respectively,  still  carry  on  the   chap-  18' 
hospital,  which  is  a  blessing  to  multitudes  ;  and  their  high  reputa-  and~ 
tion  as  mountaineers  is  not  to  be  despised  as  a  missionary  asset  HosPItal- 
LordCurzon's  eulogy  of  Dr.  Arthur  Neve  at  the  Royal  Geogra 
phical  Society  has  already  been  mentioned.     Each  of  them  has 
published  an  attractive  and  high-class  book  :  Dr.  Arthur  Neve's 
Thirty  Years  in  Kashmir,}  and  Dr.  Ernest's  B^ond  the  Pir  Panjal  t 
Cox    S    Clark,  and  Eawlence,  and   Miss  K.  Knowles,  also 
a  qualified  doctor,  have  shared  in  the  work.§     Miss  Knowles  is 
referred  to  as  doing  "  magnificently  devoted  work  amon^  women 
in  the  city."     At  Islamabad  there  is  a  Women's  Hospital,  at  the  Islamabad 
head  of  which  is  a  Canadian  lady,  Dr.  Minnie  Gomery,  assisted 
by  Miss  Newnham,  a  niece  of  the  Bishop  of  Saskatchewan      The 
general  evangelistic  work  of  the  Mission  was  under  the  charge  of 

S5U  i  J'  5"  Knowles  for  many  years  U1^il  his  retirement  in 
)07,  when  Mr.  Lucey  took  it  until  last  year.  Mr.  Knowles  had 
also  done  important  service  in  the  translation  of  the  Bible  into 
Kashmiri.  The  Old  Testament  was  presented  to  the  Maharaja  in 
full  Durbar  in  1900. 

THE  FRONTIER  PROVINCE. 

Passing  on  to  the  new  Frontier  Province,  we  find  three  centres 
of  work  Peshawar,  Bannu,  and  Dera  Ismail  Khan.  At  Peshawar 
the  chief  agencies  are  the  Edwardes  College,  the  School  and  the 
Hospital.  Of  the  two  former  the  Eev.  H.  J.  Hoare  was  for  rnanv 
years  a  most  able  Principal,  ||  and  he  has  lately  been  succeeded  bv 
the  Eevs.  J.  A.  Wood  in  the  College  and  F.  C.  Long  in  the 
bcnooi,  the  latter  a  recruit  from  New  Zealand.  Of  the  Hospital 
Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester  has  long  been  in  charge.  Among  others 
who  have  helped  in  this  and  other  branches  must  be  mentioned 
the  Eevs.  W.  Thwaites,  A.  E.  Day,  C.  Field,  and  T.  Bomford  the 
brothers  Wigram  (Marcus  and  Loftus),  and  Drs.  Cox  and  Starr 
The  Hon.  Montague  Waldegrave  (son  of  the  late  Lord  Badstocki 
and  brother^  of  the  present  baron)  was  also  for  some  years 
associated  with  the  medical  mission  as  a  volunteer,  and  the  Eev. 
Aziz-ud-din,  an  Afghan  convert,  has  likewise  done  good  service! 

*  Mr.  Tyndale-Biscoe's  Eeports,  published  separately,  are  extraordinarily 
interesting.  See  also  his  accounts  in  the  CM,  Review,  Feb.,  1906  and  April 
1910,  and  in  the  Int.  Eev.  Miss.,  Jan.,  1914.  Also  Mr.  Lucey  on  Education 
in  Kashmir,  CM.  Eev.,  Jan.,  1913. 

t  E.  Arnold,  1913,  12/6. 

J  Fisher  Unwin,  1911,  12/6.  Cheap  edn.,  2/6,  published  by  the  C  M  S  See 
also  his  articles  in  the  CM.  Rev.,  July  and  Sept.,  1914. 

§  An  American  visitor  has  lately  given  the  hospital  a  small  quantity  of 
radium,  worth  many  hundreds  of  pounds. 

||  Mr.  Hoare  preached  a  striking  sermon  on  India's  claims  in  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  on  St.  Andrew's  Day,  1914.  The  sermon  was  printed  in  the  C  M 
Uev.,  Feb.,  1915.  The  story  of  the  college  was  told  in  the  C.M.S.  Gazette, 
v-/c 


t.j  IV/Uo. 


2io         C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE. 

PART  II.  Another  Afghan  clergyman,  the  Eev.  B.  E.  Gauri,  worked  among 
Chapjre.  Moslems  at  Haidarabad,  and  died  there  of  smallpox  in  1911,  only 
a  few  weeks  after  his  ordination.  The  Eev.  Imam  Shah,  a  Moslem 
convert  ordained  more  than  forty  years  ago,  is  still  the  pastor  of 
the  congregation.  Among  his  new  converts  last  year  was  a  learned 
Mohammedan,  an  Arabic  and  Persian  scholar,  who  only  accepted 
Christianity  after  much  reading  and  research.  The  house  sur 
geon  at  the  Hospital,  Dr.  Nazir  Ullah,  is  not  an  Afghan  but  a 
native  of  Kafiristan,  whence  he  was  stolen  when  he  was  a  boy, 
and  eventually  came  into  the  mission  school  and  was  brought  to 
Christ.  He  much  wished  to  carry  the  Gospel  to  his  native  country, 
Kafiristan.  but  it  is  now  part  of  Afghanistan,  and  strictly  closed ;  nevertheless, 
he  went  in  1913,  and,  despite  efforts  to  get  him  to  deny  his  faith, 
and  real  danger  to  his  life  owing  to  his  firmness,  he  returned 
Peshawar  safely.'"'  Both  the  College  and  Hospital  have  had  new  buildings 
college  and  and  large  developments  :  the  Government  giving  good  grants  to 
the  former,  and  a  fine  site  to  the  latter.  The  new  Hospital,  a 
just  reward  to  Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester  for  many  years'  good  work,  was 
opened  in  1905  by  the  Chief  Commissioner,  Sir  H.  Deane,  and  the 
new  College  in  1910  by  the  Bishop  of  Lahore. f  The  College  has 
had  a  great  struggle  lately  to  maintain  its  position  in  the  teeth  of 
the  opposition  of  a  lavishly-furnished  Mohammedan  institution  ;  but 
it  has  come  through  successfully.  Dr.  George  Adam  Smith,  the 
brilliant  Scottish  Professor  and  divine,  visited  Peshawar  in  1903-4, 
and  wrote,  "  I  was  greatly  impressed  by  the  work  of  the  C.M.S.  at 
Peshawar.  1  saw  with  my  own  eyes  much  more  than  I  expected. 
.  .  .  For  one  like  myself,  who  has  long  been  familiar  with 
Christian  Missions  to  Moslems  in  Egypt  and  Asiatic  Turkey,  the 
recent  cases  of  conversion  at  Peshawar  are  very  remarkable,  and 
the  means  by  which  they  have  come  about  open  great  hopes  for 
the  future."  In  1914  Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester  was  lent  to  the  Govern 
ment  for  a  time  to  make  investigations  throughout  India  with  a 
view  to  taking  measures  for  the  prevention  of  tuberculosis,  and  he 
is  still  engaged  in  that  work.J 

Bannu:  Bannu  was  the  scene  of  the  devoted  labours  of    the  late  Dr. 

Dr.  Penneii.  p6nnell.  Since  Pilkington  was  killed  in  Uganda  in  1897,  no 
missionary  career  and  no  death  in  the  field  have  so  appealed  to 
the  mind  and  sympathy  of  the  whole  Church  as  Pennell's.  He 
had  been  a  brilliant  medical  student,  "  the  most  distinguished  of 
his  year,"  said  a  well-known  London  physician.  He  took  gold 
medals  at  his  examinations  for  both  the  M.B.  and  M.D.  degrees. 
He  owed  much  to  his  mother,  a  very  remarkable  woman;  and 

*  See  CM.  Review,  Oct.,  1913,  p.  642,  and  Mercy  and  Truth,  March,  1914. 

t  See  Bishop  Lefroy's  address  on  this  occasion,  on  the  services  rendered  by 
Mission  Colleges,  C.M.  Rev.,  March,  1910. 

J  Dr.  A.  C.  Lankester  preached  in  Christ  Church,  Simla,  on  Sunday,  Oct.  5th, 
1913,  on  "  The  Medical  Missionary  Motive,"  from  the  one  word  "  Inasmuch  " 
(St.  Matt.  xxv.  40).  The  Viceroy  and  Lady  Hardinge  were  present.  The 
sermon  was  printed  in  the  C.M.  Revieiv,  Feb.,  1914. 


CJf.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE.         211 

when  he  dedicated  himself  to  a  missionary  career,  she  resolved  to    PART  n 
go  out  with  him.     They  both  exercised  rare  influence  over  the   0haEi18- 
wild  frontier  tribes  that  resorted  to  his  hospital  at  Bannu  ;  and 
many  converts  from  Mohammedanism  were  the  result  *     Pennell 
was  also  a  very  able  educationist.    He  once  took  the  football  team 
of  his  school  for  a  tour  round  India,  and  they  played  matches 
at   Calcutta,   &c.      At   another   time   he  journeyed  on  a  bicycle 
through  North  India,  in  ascetic  garb,  and  living  like  a  fakir  on 
what  the  people  gave  him  unasked,— which  afforded  him  unique 
opportunities  of  setting  forth  the  Gospel  of  Christ.t     He  and  his 
colleague  Dr.  Barnett  both  died  of  blood-poisoning,  caught  while  Deaths  at 
operating,  m  March,  19124     His  mother  died  at  Bannu  in  1908  Baimu' 
His   own  book,  Among  the  Wild   Tribes   of  the  Afghan  Frontier, 
and  the  Life  of  him  by  his  accomplished  wife  (one  of  the  Sorabii 
family  of  Poona),  to  both  of  which  Lord  Eoberts,  who  was   a 
relative  of  his,  contributed  the  preface,  remain  a  valuable  record 
of  unique  service.     Besides  the  Bannu  Hospital,  there  is  a  branch 
one  at  Thai,  bearing  the  name  of  Lord  Eoberts,  opened  by  the 
Deputy  Commissioner  in -1909.§      The  hospital  at  Bannu,   now 
enlarged  as  a  Memorial  to  Dr.  Pennell,  has  been  under  the  charge 
of  Dr.  Cox,  and  Mrs.  Pennell  has  resumed  the  work  among  women 
which  she  did  in  her  husband's  lifetime  as  a  fully- qualified  doctor 
with  a  London  degree.    Mr.  Marcus  Wigram  being  now  the  clergy 
man  in  charge,  his  wife,  who  also  has  a  London  medical  degree 
gives  additional  help.     The  hospital  has  sustained  another  great 
loss  by  the  death  of  Sister  Ella  Fagg  in  April,  1915.     Mr.  Wigram 
writes,  "  She  was  unrivalled  in  her  knowledge  of  and  love  for  the 
rough  Afghan  women."  || 

At  Dera  Ismail  Khan  also  there  is  medical  work  in  which  Drs  Dera  Ismail 
Somerton  Clark  and  S.  Gaster,  and  now  Dr.  A.  J.  Turner,  have  Khau> 
been   engaged.      At  an   out-station   close   to  the  frontier,  'Sakhi 
Sarwar,  there  is  an  Indian  medical  man,  Dr.  Khairuddin,  a  former 
student  of  the  Lahore  College.     In  the  "  intense  solitude  "  of  the 
work  there,  writes  Mr.  Wigram,  "  he  has  been  cheered  by  more 

*  One  of  his  converts  has  since  been  working  as  an  evangelist  at  Mombasa, 
among  the  Indian  immigrants  in  East  Africa.  See  p.  77. 

f  See  his  own  narrative  of  this  tour,  in  the  C.M.  Intelligencer,  of  May,  July 
Aug.,  Sept.,  1905. 

$  See  Dr.  Harford's  In  Memoriam,  C.M.  Rev.,  June,  1912,  and  Mr. 
Maconachie's  review  of  his  biography,  April,  1914. 

§  The  Indian  doctor  in  charge  of  the  Lord  Koberts  Hospital,  Mihr  Khan 
was  killed  by  a  party  of  raiders  in  Feb.,  1915. 

||  See  Dr.  Cox's  notice  of  Miss  Fagg,  C.M.  Rev.,  July,  1915.  It  is  interesting 
to  add  that  she  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  a  lady  now  living  at  Capetown,  who 
has  done  notable  service  to  the  missionary  cause.  Thirty-five  years  ago,  as 
Miss  Foster,  she  was  working  at  Foochow  under  the  old  Female  Education 
Society,  and  was  the  instrument  of  the  conversion  of  Mrs.  A  Hok,  the  Chinese 
lady  who  came  to  England  to  plead  for  her  country.  It  was  she  also  who 
persuaded  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  to  send  women  missionaries  to  China.  After  her 
marriage  she  went  with  her  husband  to  Tasmania,  and  there  the  present 
writer  met  her  in  1892.  She  sent  three  or  four  women  to  China  from  there  ; 
and  a  younger  daughter  is  now  at  Kutien  working  under  the  C.E.Z.M.S. 


212  C.M.S.   MISSIONS:    DlOCESE   OF  LAHORE. 

PART  IT.    than  one  conversion  and  baptism."    Another  out-station,  Tank,  was 
chap^is.   tke   p0gt   for   many  years   of  an   Indian   doctor,  the  Bev.  John 
Williams,  and  afterwards  of  his  son,  Dr.  Nathaniel  Williams.    Dera 
DeraGhazi  Ghazi   Khan,  where  at  George  Maxwell   Gordon's  instance  the 
Baluch  Mission  was  begun  in  1879  by  A.  Lewis  and  Dr.  Jukes,  and 
where  the  medical  work  was  for  some  years  carried  on  by  Dr. 
Adams  and  others,  has  been  swept  away  by  the  overflowing  of  the 
Indus.     It  has,  indeed,  been  rebuilt  ten  miles  off  as  the  head 
quarters  of   the  district,  but  lack  of  workers  has  prevented  the 
re-establishment  of  the  hospital. 

In  this  Frontier  Province,  with  its  bigoted  Moslem  population, 
there  has  never  been  any  mass  movement.  But  it  is  not  without 
conversions  one  by  one,  and  baptisms  have  been  reported  of 
moulvies  and  of  stalwart  Pathans  from  the  hills.  The  Christians 
in  1914  numbered  323.* 


BALUCH  MISSION. 

The  Mission  to  the  Baluchis  was  begun,  as  already  stated,  at 
Dera  Glia/i  Khan,  and  medical  and  evangelistic  work  was  carried 
on  until  three  or  four  years  ago,  when  the  city  had  to  be  aban 
doned  altogether  owing  to  the  inundations ;  but  meanwhile  in 
1885  the  Eev.  H.  G.  Grey  and  Dr.  S.  W.  Button  went  forward 
into  the  heart  of  Baluchistan,  where  the  British  Government  had 
Quetta.  occupied  Quetta  as  a  military  station  ;  and  highly  interesting  and 
important  work  has  been  done  there  ever  since.  The  Revs.  A.  E. 
Ball  and  A.  D.  Dixey  have  been  the  evangelists  during  most  of 
our  period ;  and  the  medical  mission  has  been  worked  by  Drs. 
Summerhayes,  Holland,  Cox,  Gaster,  and  S.  Clark.  The  Hospital 
suffered  a  great  loss  in  1910  by  the  deatlrof  the  evangelist  attached 
to  it,  Barkhurdar  Khan,f  of  whom  Mr.  Ball  wrote,  "  As  a  contro 
versialist  he  stood  in  the  first  rank  "  ;  and  Dr.  Holland  said  that 
he  preached  Christ  "  not  only  with  his  lips,  but  also  in  his  daily 
life."  Both  Afghans  and  Baluchis  have  been  baptized,  and  also 
Afghan  Chinese  employed  in  the  government  offices.  Two  Afghan  con- 
Martyrs,  verts  suffered  martyrdom  for  their  faith  in  1907-8,  both  being 
caught  just  over  the  Afghan  frontier,  and  on  refusing  to  apostatize 
being  cruelly  put  to  death.  Their  names  were  Abdul  Karim  and 
Nasirullah  Khan,  both  converts  from  Islam.  The  latter  was  buried 
in  a  Moslem  cemetery,  and  Dr.  Holland  and  Mr.  Ball  wished  to  have 
a  brief  service  over  the  grave.  This  was  impossible  in  daylight, 
as  it  would  have  caused  a  disturbance ;  but  the  head  police  official, 
himself  a  Mohammedan,  took  them  and  two  other  converts  to  the 
grave  at  night,  carrying  a  lantern,  and  the  two  missionaries  offered 

*  See  Mr.  Field's  article  on  the  religion  of  the  Pathans,  C.M.  Bev.,  Aug., 
1908. 

t  An  interesting  account  of  his  and  his  brother's  baptism  appeared  in  the 
Annual  Report  of  1896-7,  page  241. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE.         213 

a  short  prayer  each.     Dr.  Holland  wrote,  "  It  was  one  of  the  most    PART  n. 
touching  funeral  services  at  which  I  have  ever  been  present."  ohap^is. 

Mr.  Dixey  has  done  very  important  work  by  his  itinerations  in  in  Kaiat. 
the  semi-independent  territory  of  the  Khan  of  Kalat ;  *   and  an 
Indian  Christian   doctor  there,  an   old  boy  of    the   Baring  High 
School  at  Batala,  helped  in  a  branch  dispensary.     Quetta  also 
offers  many  opportunities  of  usefulness  among  the  troops. 

SINDH. 

Sindh,  with  its  three  stations,  Karachi,  Haidarabad,  and  Sukkur,  Karachi, 
has  for  half  a  century  proved  a  particularly  hard  field ;  but  the 
educational  and  evangelistic  work  has  not  ceased  to  be  carried  on 
faithfully  by  the  brothers  Abigail,  Mr.  A.  E.  Redman,  Mr.  Day, 
and  others.j  Mr.  Ireland  Jones  has  been  at  Karachi  the  last 
three  or  four  years,  since  he  gave  up  the  Secretaryship  of  the 
whole  Punjab  and  Sindh  Mission ;  and  he  has  infused  fresh 
vigour  into  the  High  School.  Sukkur  is  now  under  the  charge  of 
a  Sindhi  clergyman,  one  of  the  dominant  "  Amil  "  class,  the  Eev. 
Tulsidas  Mansukhani,  trained  at  the  Lahore  College.  At  Shikarpur  Shikarpur. 
there  is  an  eye-hospital,  built  and  equipped  by  a  Hindu  banker, 
which  has  been  visited  from  time  to  time  by  Dr.  Holland  of  Quetta, 
who  has  performed  operations  at  the  rate  of  a  hundred  a  day.  The 
banker  died  in  1913,  but  left  a  lakh  of  rupees  (over  £6000)  to 
endow  the  work,  and  his  heir  has  renewed  his  agreement  with  the 
Mission.  Mrs.  Pennell  and  other  doctors  were  there  in  Jan.  and 
Feb.,  1915,  saw  thousands  of  patients,  performed  2164  operations, 
and  sold  1200  copies  of  the  gospels.  The  sale  of  Sindhi  gospels 
is,  indeed,  a  highly  encouraging  feature  of  the  Sindh  Mission  ;  and 
there  are  already  the  beginnings  of  a  real  movement  towards 
Christianity,  partly  owing  to  the  immigration  of  some  affected  by 
the  movement  in  the  Punjab. 


It  will  have  been  seen  that  Medical  Missions  form  a  large  part  The 
of  the  C.M.S.  work  in  the  Punjab.     In  the  Hospitals  at  Amritsar.  M?s!tons  of 
Multan,    Srinagar,    Islamabad,    Peshawar,    Bannu,    Dera    Ismail  the  Punjab. 
Khan,  and  Quetta,  there  are  750  beds,  and  10,700  in-patients 
were  received  in  1913,  besides  many  thousands  of  out-patients. 
Twenty-one  qualified  doctors,  men  and  women,  are  engaged  in 
the  work,  and  ten  English  nurses.     It  is  worth  noting  that  while 
in  the  sixteen  largest  hospitals  in  London  the  average  cost  per 
bed  is  £90,  in  these  Indian  hospitals,  furnished  as  they  are  with 
all  modern  requisites,  it  is  only  £10. 

*  See  Mr.  Dixey 's  interesting  narrative  in  the  CM.  Intelligencer,  March, 
1905,  and  his  articles  on  Baluchistan  generally,  C.M.  Rev.,  Nov.,  and  Dec.,  1908, 
April,  1911,  Aug.,  1915 ;  also  his  visit  to  the  Persian  Gulf,  Oct.,  1907. 

t  See  Mr.  Redman's  article  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1909. 


214 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE. 


PART  II. 

Chap. 18. 

Women's 
Work. 


New 

Punjab 

Council. 


Bishops 
Lefroy  aud 
Durrant. 


Although  the  -C.M.S.  has  now  thirty  women  missionaries  (be 
sides  wives)  serving  in  the  Punjab,  this  Province  has  always  been 
regarded,  as  regards  women's  work,  as  a  field  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S., 
and  a  very  important  share  in  the  enterprise  does  that  society 
take  with  its  fifty  missionaries,  at  Amritsar  and  in  the  surround 
ing  districts,  at  Peshawar,  in  Kashmir,  in  Sindh,  and  at  Quetta. 
Zenana  and  village  visiting,  medical  work,  and  schools,  are  carried 
on  upon  an  extensive  scale.  There  are  twelve  hospitals  with  320 
beds.  The  work  everywhere  is  closely  associated  with  that  of  the 
C.M.S.  One  most  devoted  C.E.Z.  missionary  died  in  1914,  Miss 
S.  S.  Hewlett,  for  thirty  years  superintendent  of  St.  Catherine's 
Hospital  at  Amritsar,  with  its  many  beautiful  auxiliary  works. 
Several  who  are  still  working  are  veterans  of  many  years'  stand 
ing.  Misses  Tuting,  F.  Sharp,  Eeuther,  Jackson,  Dawson,  John 
son,  Warren,  Carey,  Werthmiiller,  have  been  out  more  than 
twenty  years. 

The  new  Council,  which  combines  English  and  Indians  in  the 
administration  of  the  Mission,  has  been  referred  to  in  the  general 
chapter  on  India.  Fuller  information  concerning  it  was  given  by 
Mr.  Grey  in  an  interesting  article  in  the  C.M.  Review  of  August, 
1909.  The  old  Corresponding  Committee  still  continues,  not  only 
as  an  integral  part  of  the  Council,  but  also  for  the  supervision  of 
the  personal  relations  of  the  English  missionaries  with  the  Home 
Committee.  It  comprises  the  Bishop  as  Chairman,  and  several 
independent  lay  members,  soldiers  and  civilians.  Two  or  three 
Indians  have  served  on  it,  including  Dr.  D.  N.  Prithu  Datta,  a 
Medical  Officer  under  Government,  who  has  been  for  many  years 
a  prominent  Christian  in  the  Punjab,  and  represented  the  Diocese 
of  Lahore  at  the  Pan-Anglican  Congress.  He  was  a  convert  in 
the  Narowal  School  under  Mr.  Bateman  forty  years  ago. 

During  the  larger  part  of  the  period  under  review,  the  Bishop  of 
Lahore,  Dr.  Lefroy,  has  been  a  highly-respected  Father  in  God 
to  all  the  missionaries  and  mission  agencies.  The  unfeigned  regret 
expressed  at  his  departure  for  the  Metropolitan  See  of  Calcutta 
was  followed  by  thankful  satisfaction  when  Canon  H.  B.  Durrant, 
C.M.S.  missionary  at  Agra,  and  Principal  of  St.  John's  College 
there,  was  appointed  to  the  vacancy.  He  was  consecrated,  as 
before  mentioned,  at  Simla,  in  August,  1913.  One  of  his  colleagues 
at  Agra  said  of  him  that  he  should  be  classed  with  Duff  and  Carey 
and  French  as  one  of  the  very  few  missionaries  who  "  have  really 
gone  deep  into  the  heart  of  India."  *• 

*  A  particularly  interesting  account  was  given  by  the  Punjab  Mission  News 
of  Bishop  Durrant's  first  ordination,  on  St.  Thomas's  Day  (4th  Sunday  in 
Advent),  1913.  The  ordinands  comprised  one  Englishman,  Hamlet  Clark, 
son  of  Robert  Clark,  for  the  C.M.S. ;  two  Canadians,  W.  A.  Earp  and  F.  S. 
Ford,  for  the  Canadian  Church  Mission  at  Kangra;  and  three  Indians, 
J.  Williams,  Peter  Buta  Singh,  and  Mohammed  Hussain,  the  first  the  son  of 
a  former  C.M.S.  Indian  medical  missionary  and  descended  from  converts  of 
Xavier's  time,  for  work  under  the  National  Indian  Missionary  Society ;  the 
second  a  Sikh  convert ;  and  the  third  a  Moslem  convert,— these  two  for  the 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LAHORE.         215 

In  the  Diocese  of  Lahore  the  S.P.G.  has  one  Mission  of  the 
first  class,  that  in  Delhi  and  in  the  surrounding  district.  It  was 
started  in  1854,  wrecked  in  the  Mutiny  of  1857  (when  the  mis- 
sionaries  were  killed),  and  revived  when  peace  was  restored.  In  Missio 
1877  the  Cambridge  Delhi  Mission  joined  it,  of  which  E.  Bicker- 
steth,  afterwards  Bishop  in  Japan,  was  the  first  Head.  He  was 
succeeded  by  G.  A.  Lefroy,  now  Metropolitan  of  India.  The 
present  head  is  Canon  S.  S.  Allnutt.  The  whole  work,  educa 
tional,  evangelistic,  medical,  &c.,  is  splendidly  organized.  The 
S.P.G.  and  Cambridge  Missions  together  have  a  staff  of  20  men 
and  30  women.  St.  Stephen's  College  has  an  Indian  Principal, 
Mr.  S.  K.  Eudra.  The  S.P.G.  is  also  represented  at  Simla,  at 
Eawal  Pindi,  at  Jammu  in  Kashmir;  and  St.  Hilda's  Society, 
which  is  affiliated  to  it,  has  twenty  deaconesses  and  other  women 
at  Lahore  and  elsewhere. 

In  Delhi  there  is  also  an  old  and  strong  Mission  of  the  Baptist 
Missionary  Society ;  with  which,  as  before  mentioned,  the  S.P.G. 
Mission  has  been  on  most  friendly  terms,  with  co-operation  in 
some  of  the  educational  work. 

The  oldest  Mission  in  the  Punjab  proper  is  that  of  the  American 
Presbyterian  Board,  which  entered  the  country  directly  it  was 
annexed  by  Great  Britain,  and  subsequently  invited  the  C.M.S.  to 
share  in  the  work  of  evangelization.  Its  headquarters  are  at 
Ludhiana,  but  its  College  at  Lahore  is  one  of  the  finest  in  India. 
There  its  distinguished  missionaries,  Newton  and  Eorman,  laboured 
for  many  years  ;  and  the  present  Principal,  Dr.  Ewing,  enjoys  the 
unique  honour  of  being  a  Companion  of  the  Indian  Empire, 
though  an  American  citizen.  Another  American  body,  the  United 
Presbyterians,  has  extensive  village  work  and  the  largest  number 
of  Christians.  There  are  also  the  Episcopal  Methodists,  the  Estab 
lished  Church  of  Scotland,  and  the  Salvation  Army.  The  Eoman 
Church  is  represented  by  the  Jesuits  and  Belgian  Fathers. 

P.S.— The  Eev.  Eowland  Bateman,  whose  retirement  is  men 
tioned  in  this  chapter,  died  on  March  7th,  1916.  He  was  one  of 
the  noblest  of  missionaries  in  India. 

C.M.S.  "The  candidates  hailed  from  three  continents,  and  the  unifying 
power  of  the  Christian  Church  could  hardly  be  better  illustrated  than  in  thus 
bringing  together  in  one  common  rite  one  Englishman,  two  Canadians,  and 
three  Punjabis.  Nor  would  the  natural  gulf  that  severed  the  three  Westerners 
from  the  three  Easterners  have  been  much  more  complete  than  that  which 
would  have  severed  the  three  Easterners  from  one  another  but  for  their 
common  Christian  faith."  (C.M.S.  Gazette,  March,  1914.) 


GHAPTEE   XIX. 


PART]!. 
Chap.  19. 

Bombay 

('.M.S. 
Staff. 


Bishop 
Peel. 


Maniuad. 


C.M.ti.  MISSIONS.-  DIOCESE  OF  BOMBAY. 

WESTERN  INDIA  MISSION. 

The  Staff  and  the  Work— Ruttonji  Nowroji,  Mrs.  Sorabji — The  Parsis 
and  Moslems— The  Bishops  of  Bombay— Other  Missions. 

jIIE  C.M.S.  Mission  in  the  Bombay  Presidency,  or 
rather  in  the  Diocese  of  Bombay  (for  Sindh,  which 
is  in  the  Presidency,  is  in  the  Diocese  of  Lahore) 
has  always  been  one  of  the  smaller  and  weaker  of 
the  Society's  Missions  in  India.  That  it  is  the  only 
one  which  has  a  larger  number  of  clergymen  in  1914  than  it 
had  in  1899  is  a  fact  which  inspires  hope  that  it  may  grow  larger 
as  the  years  go  by.  In  1899  there  were  11  clergymen,  3  laymen, 
and  11  wives,  total  25;  in  1914,  14  clergymen,  no  laymen,  10 
wives,  and  seven  other  women,  total  31.  The  Mission  has  had 
its  share  of  losses  in  the  fifteen  years,  and  only  Canon  Heywood, 
Mr.  Thorne,  and  Mr.  Whiteside  (these  two  having  lately  rejoined 
after  some  years  at  home)  remain  of  the  men  of  1899.  Its  first 
loss  occurred  just  as  the  Centenary  was  being  kept,  as  Mr.  Peel, 
who  had  been  Secretary  for  seven  years  (after  previous  service 
at  Madras),  had  just  been  selected  for  the  new  Bishopric  of 
Mombasa  (formed,  with  Uganda,  out  of  the  previous  Diocese  of 
Eastern  Equatorial  Africa).  His  departure  was  a  real  loss  to 
India.  His  spiritual  power  had  been  recognized  by  Bishop  Mylne, 
who  had  more  than  once  appointed  him  to  give  addresses  at  the 
"  Quiet  Days  "  for  the  clergy  of  the  Diocese.  Mr.  Peel  was  suc 
ceeded  as  Secretary  by  W.  A.  Eoberts,  and  he  in  1905  by  E.  S. 
Heywood,  who  still  holds  the  office.  Both  these  brethren  were 
successively  appointed  Canons  by  the  Bishop,  as  also  was  the 
Eev.  D.  Lucas  Joshi,  the  most  prominent  of  the  Indian  clergy 
in  the  Diocese,  whose  father  was  a  Brahman  convert.  The 
women's  work  has  been  mainly  done  by  the  Zenana  Bible  and 
Medical  Mission,  but  the  C.M.S.,  as  above  shown,  has  now  also 
a  few  women  of  its  own. 

The  stations  occupied  have  been  the  same  as  before,  except 
that  the  headquarters  of  the  work  of  the  Malegam  District  are 
now  at  Manmad,  which  is  on  the  railway.  It  should  also  be 
mentioned  that  Aurangabad,  which  is  in  the  Haidarabad  State, 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  BOMBAY. 

and  was  therefore,  until  recently,  regarded  as  within  the  jurisdic-    PARTII. 
tion  of  the  Bishop  of  Madras,  although  as  a  C.M.S.  station  linked   ch^_19- 
with  Bombay,  is  now  by  the  Bishops'  arrangements  included  in 
the  Bombay  diocese.* 

The  work  in  Bombay,  and  at  Nasik,  Manmad,  Poona,  and  Progress  of 
Aurangabad,  has  gone  on  steadily.  The  baptized  Christians  have  the  Work- 
risen  in  number  from  3100  to  4500,  and  whereas  in  1899  there 
were  SI  adult  baptisms,  the  number  in  1913  was  233.  The  Indian 
clergy  have  increased  from  eight  to  eleven.  One  of  them,  the 
Eev.  Daya  Prasad  Kashav  Shinde,  who  was  a  delegate  from  the 
diocese  to  the  Pan-Anglican  Congress,  was  stabbed  in  the  streets 
of  Nasik  in  1913,  and  severely  wounded.  Both  Brahmans  and 
Mohammedans  manifested  much  sympathy.  The  Divinity  School 
at  Poona,  where  the  Indian  workers  are  trained,  was  for  some 
tame  conducted  by  the  Eev.  L.  B.  Butcher,  who  was  Secretary  of 
the  Student  Movement  in  England  twenty  years  ago. 

Schools  continue  an  important  agency,  particularly  the  Eobert  .Schools. 
Money  School  at  Bombay,  the  Emmanuel  School  for  Girls,  also  at 
Bombay,  and  the  St.  Helena's  School  (a  mixed  school)  at  Poona. 
At  Poona    there  is    now    also    an   Union    High    School,    worked 
jointly  by  the  C.M.S.  and  the  two  Scottish  Presbyterian  Churches 
Nearly  half  the  Christians  in  the  whole  C.M.S.   Mission  are 
villagers  in  the  Aurangabad  District.     The  Mission  there  was  for 
twenty  years  carried  on  by  the  Eev.   Euttonji  Nowroji,  during  ituttonji 
which  time  he  baptized  over  2000  converts  and   their  children.  Nowr°Ji- 
He  was  a  Parsi,  baptized  in  1856,  and  was  highly  respected,  not 
only    by   the   Indian    population    generally,    but    by   the   British 
officers  and  civilians.     He  retired  in  the  first  year  of  our  period 
but  survived  until  1910.| 

The  Parsi  community  also  gave  the  Church  the  Eev.  Sorabji 
Kharsedji  and  his  able  'and  devoted  wife,  parents  of  the  brilliant 
sisters   and  brother  now  so  well-known   in  India,  England,  and 
America.     Mr.  Sorabji  had  died  before  our  period,  but  his  widow  Mrs. 
carried  on  her  important  Victoria  High  School  at  Poona  in  con-  8°™^ 
nexion  with  the  Z.B.M.M.,  which   Society  does   excellent   work 
in  Western  India.     She  died  in  1910.J     One  of  her  daughters  has 
the  St.  Helena  School  for  Parsis,  under  the  C.M.S.      But   the 
Parsis,  perhaps  the  most  advanced  section  of  the  population,  have  Work 
always  been  among  the  hardest  to  reach  with  the  Gospel  message. 
Colonel  Freeman,  who  on  retiring  from  the  Army  joined  the  Society 
in  1894  to  give  himself  to  work  among  them,  died  in  the  first  year 
of  our  period.      The  Eev.  Hector  McNeile,  a  son  of  the  famous 
Hugh  McNeile  of  Liverpool,  and  father  of  several  influential  sons 

*  Bishop  Wbitehead's  journal  of  his  farewell  visitation  of  the  Aurangabad 
district  was  printed  in  the  CM.  Review,  Sept.,  1910. 

t  See  the  striking  In  Memoriam  of  him,  CM.  Bev.,  Feb.,  1911. 

+  See  the  In  Memoriam  of  her,  in  the  same  number.  Her  son,  Mr.  li.  K. 
Sorabji,  is  a  lawyer  at  Allahabad.  He  made  a  powerful  speech  at  the  C.M.S. 
Anniversary  in  1907.  See  the  C.M.S.  Gazette  of  June  in  that  year. 


218 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  BOMBAY. 


PAKT  II. 
Chap. 19. 


Moslem 
Converts. 


The 

Bishops  of 
Bombay. 


Bishop 
Palmer's 

Views. 


Other 

Missions. 


and  daughters  to-day  both  at  home  and  in  the  mission  field,  also 
joined  the  Mission  for  seven  years  in  middle  life  to  work  among 
English-speaking  Indians,  among  whom  the  Parsis  would  be 
conspicuous ;  but  he,  too,  was  disappointed  by  the  defection  just 
after  he  reached  Bombay  of  a  Parsi  convert  baptized  ten  years 
before.  On  the  other  hand,  there  have  been  several  converts  from 
Mohammedanism,  in  one  year  (1904)  fourteen  being  baptized. 
Lectures  to  Moslems  have  been  given  at  Bombay  and  Poona, 
and  public  discussions  held.  In  1910  Maulvi  Ahmed  Masih,  of 
the  S.P.G.  Delhi  Mission,  was  the  Christian  champion.  A  new 
Converts'  Home  for  men  has  lately  been  opened  at  Bombay  by 
Canon  Joshi,  to  which  many  inquirers  and  catechumens  have 
been  brought.  In  1914,  no  less  than  fourteen  of  them  were 
baptized,  including  seven  Brahmans,  a  Moslem,  and  a  Parsi. 
Some  of  these  were  old  boys  of  the  Eobert  Money  School. 

The  Western  India  Mission  is  in  future  to  include  the  Bhil 
Mission,  as  explained  farther  on  (p.  222). 

Bishops  Macarthur,  Pym,  and  Palmer  have  successively  taken 
much  interest  in  the  Mission.  Under  the  auspices  of  the  present 
Bishop  a  Central  Board  was  formed  in  1910,  composed  of  elected 
representatives,  "  to  give  titles  to  clergy,  to  recommend  their  loca 
tions  to  the  Bishop,  to  settle  matters  of  finance,  &c."  A  regular 
Diocesan  Synod  has  since  been  planned,  and  a  draft  constitution 
been  drawn  up  by  a  committee,  on  which  Canons  Heywood  and 
Joshi  and  Mr.  Butcher  have  served.*  When  one  of  the  Repre 
sentative  Councils  designed  to  carry  on  the  work  of  Dr.  Mott's 
"Edinburgh"  meetings  (see  p.  190)  was  formed  for  Bombay, 
Bishop  Palmer  joined  it,  although,  as  he  acknowledged,  nearly  one 
half  of  the  clergy  of  the  diocese  would  have  preferred  his  not  doing 
so.  He  wrote,  "  I  believe  that  at  the  moment  the  limits  of  actual 
co-operation  are  very  narrow,  because  we  do  not  think  sufficiently 
alike  and  do  not  know  each  other  well  enough.  .  .  .  However 
convinced  a  member  of  any  Christian  community  may  be  that  his 
community  is  the  only  true  Church,  I  defy  him  to  deny  that  it 
loses  by  the  absence  from  its  membership  of  many  men  and  women 
whose  Christian  graces  and  powers  he  is  constrained  to  admire."  f 

The  S.P.G.  also  works  in  the  Diocese  of  Bombay,  particularly 
in  the  Ahmadnagar  district.  The  Cowley  Fathers  occupy  Poona, 
and  associated  with  them  are  the  Wantage  and  All  Saints'  Sister 
hoods.  The  American  Board  (A.B.C.F.M.)  is  the  oldest  of  all  the 
Missions,  dating  from  1814,  and  has  lately  celebrated  the  centenary 
of  its  work.  The  Episcopal  Methodists,  the  United  Free  Church 
of  Scotland,  and  the  Z.B.M.M.,  are  also  well  represented.  The 
important  Wilson  College  of  the  Scottish  Mission  at  Bombay  is 
named  after  that  great  missionary,  Dr.  John  Wilson.  In  Gujerat 
the  chief  Mission  is  that  of  the  Irish  Presbyterians.  The  Eoman 
Church  is  strong  in  this  part  of  India. 

*  See  further,  p.  183. 

f  For  further  illustrations  of  Bp.  Palmer's  views  and  attitude,  see  p.  193. 


CHAPTER  XX. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  NAGPUB. 

CENTRAL  PROVINCE,  &c. 

The    Field   and   the    Staff— Jabalpur,    Bharatpur,   Gond    Mission— Bhll 
Mission :  Famine ;  Sickness  and  Death— The  Bhll  Christians. 

[HE  Central  Province  comprises  large  territories  in  the    PARTII. 
middle  of  India  under  the  direct  government  of  the   Chap- 20- 
British  Crown.     Central  India  is  the  name  given  to  New 
the  aggregate  of  protected  native  States,  some  quite  Nagpur.° 
small,  within  and  around   that  extensive  area ;  and 
Eajputana,   to   the  west,   is   another   large   territory   comprising 
smaller  States.     The  British  districts  now  form  the  new  Diocese 
of  Nagpur,  established  in  1903,  and  Bishop  Chatterton's  jurisdic 
tion  extends  to  Anglican  congregations  or  Missions  in  the  native 
States. 

The  C.M.S.  Missions  are — (1)  at  Jabalpur  and  a  few  other  The  Meld 
places  in  the  Central  Province  itself ;  (2)  at  Bharatpur,  the  staff*9 
capital  of  a  small  State  in  Rajputana,  but  only  30  miles  from 
Agra, — these  for  the  regular  Hindu  and  Moslem  population ; 
(3)  at  Mandla  and  other  places,  also  in  the  Central  Province,  for 
fthe  aboriginal  Gond  tribe;  (4)  on  the  borders  of  Eajputana  and 
Gujerat,  for  the  aboriginal  Bhll  tribe.  In  1899  the  staff  consisted 
of  nine  clergymen,  four  laymen,  and  four  wives ;  in  1914,  of 
twelve  clergymen,  one  layman,  ten  single  women,  and  twelve 
wives.  But  the  work  has  extended  a  good  deal  in  the  fifteen 
years,  and  so  far  as  men  are  concerned  the  staff  is  relatively 
smaller.  There  are  now,  however,  five  Indian  clergymen,  and 
the  Indian  teachers  have  increased  from  27  to  104.  Of  the 
workers  of  1899,  nine  are  still  on  the  C.M.S.  roll,  and  of  the 
present  workers  nine  were  on  the  roll  in  1899  ;  but  the  two  nines 
are  not  identical,  as  there  have  been  several  exchanges  with  the 
United  Provinces.  There  have  been  two  deaths,  of  C.  S.  Thompson 
and  Mrs.  Fryer.  The  other  principal  loss  occurred  when  Mr. 
Molony  was  appointed  Bishop  for  Chekiang  in  China. 

In  the  earlier  years  of  our  period,  famine,  cholera,  and  plague 
devastated  the  whole  country,  and  much  of  our  missionaries'  time 
and  strength  was  occupied  with  efforts  to  relieve  the  suffering 
people.     The  Jabalpur  Mission  is  an  old  one  established  in  1855.  Jabalpur. 
It  has  been  mainly  educational,  and  its  High  School  has  earned  a 


220         C.MS.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  NAG  PUR. 

PART  ii.  good  reputation ;  *  but  in  1903  the  number  of  boys  fell  from  600 
chap^2o.  to  g-x  owing  to  the  plague,  which  at  that  time  was  very  severe  in 
North  India.  Village  itineration  has  also  been  carried  on,  and 
the  work  is  generally  of  much  the  same  character  as  in  the  rest 
of  North  India.  The  Eev.  E.  A.  Hensley  (appointed  Canon  of 
Nagpur  by  the  Bishop)  has  been  in  charge  the  greater  part  of  the 

Katni-        time.     Katni-Murwara  is  a  newer  station,  occupied  in  1900  by  an 

Murwara.  Austraijan  Missionary,  Mr.  Holloway.  Subsequently  Mr.  Hack, 
who  is  well-known  in  this  country  for  his  kinema  lectures  at 
O.M.S.  meetings,  was  there,  and  was  singularly  successful  in 
interesting  English  folk  in  that  neighbourhood,  and  also  in  getting 
access  to  the  small  native  States  generally  not  open  to  mission 
aries.  The  C.E.Z.M.S.  has  a  good  staff  at  Jabalpur  and  Katni- 
Murwara.  At  the  latter  place  a  sister  of  Mr.  Bardsley,  the  present 
Honorary  Secretary,  has  laboured  twenty  years. 

Bharatpur.  Bharatpur  was  occupied  by  Mr.  Paterson  in  1902,  and  gradually 
a  small  congregation  was  gathered,  chiefly  of  high- caste  people. 
When  the  plague  was  severe,  the  Indian  doctors  and  police  so 
abused  their  power  that  the  town  revolted,  and  insisted  that  Mr. 
Paterson  should  be  appointed  Plague  Commissioner;  and  the 
result  was  extraordinary.  The  daily  death  rate  dropped  from  33 
to  three,  and  in  less  than  a  month  the  plague  was  wiped  out.  In 
later  years  Mr.  E.  D.  O.  Pioberts,  a  missionary  of  the  Kurku 
Mission  who  had  joined  the  C.M.S.,  was  in  charge,  and  the  work 
continued  hopefully.  "  One  of  its  greatest  assets,"  he  wrote  in 
1915,  "is  the  good  example  of  British  officers  attending  divine 
worship,  and  their  sympathetic  support."  The  congregation 
yearly  draw  up  a  budget  of  their  Church  expenses,  which  includes 
allotments  to  C.M.S.,  Bible  Society,  and  Jews'  Society.  This 
Mission  owes  much  to  Miss  Eowler,  an  honorary  missionary  of 
many  years'  standing,  though  only  on  the  C.M.S.  roll  from  1910. 

Gond  The  Gond  Mission  had  been  started  in  1879  by  the  Kev.  H.  D. 

Williamson,  and  had  given  much  promise  when  our  period  began. 
Mr.  Molony  and  Mr.  E.  D.  Price  were  in  charge,  and  there  were 
four  lay  evangelists,  two  of  them  Australians.  The  year  was  a  good 
one,  there  being  66  adult  baptisms.  Then  came  the  famine,  and 
hospital,  leper  asylum,  orphanage,  &c.,  were  the  agencies  most 
actively  at  work.  In  subsequent  years  the  trials  were  different. 
Many  Gond  Christians  were  led  away  by  the  enticements  of  Hindu 
festivals,  and  excommunication  was  for  a  time  more  frequent  than 
baptism.  Yet  when  Mr.  Molony  left  for  his  new  work  as  Bishop 
in  China,  he  could  report  that  during  his  17  years'  labour  among 
the  Gonds  the  Christians  had  increased  from  60  to  600.  What 
appeared  to  be  a  real  revival  of  true  religion  had  just  taken  place, 
solemn  and  without  excitement,  but  bearing  practical  fruit.  There 
is  now  a  great  demand  for  village  schools.  One  feature  of  the 
Gond  country  is  the  peril  from  wild  beasts.  Mr.  E.  D.  Price  was 
badly  mauled.  Mr.  Price  is  now  the  senior  missionary  to  the 
*  See  Mr.  Keay  on  "  Character  Building,"  CM.  Bev.,  May,  1915. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  NAG  PUR.         221 

Gonds.     The    next    to   him,    Mr.    Hodgkinson,    contributed   an    PAETII. 
interesting  account  of  the  Mission  in  1914.*  ('hap^o. 

BEI!L  MISSION. 

The  Bhlls  are  a  wild  tribe  in  the  jungles  of  Eajputana  and  the  The  Bhiis. 
native  States  north  of  Bombay.     Sir  James  Outram,  the  Bayard 
of  India,  had  tamed  some  of  them  and  made  them  good  soldiers, 
but  none  of  them  had  ever  heard  the  Gospel.     The  Mission  was 
undertaken  in  1880  at  the  instance  of  E.  H.  Bickersteth  (after 
wards  Bishop  of  Exeter),  who  gave  £1000  for  the  purpose.     Just 
then  the  Society  was  in  great  financial  difficulty,  but  one  of  the 
men  kept  back  for  lack  of  funds,  C.  S.  Thompson,  was  accordingly  work  .and 
sent,  and  for  20  years  he  laboured  with  a  self-sacrificing  devotion  ]*?,tl1  ()t'  °- 
never  surpassed  in  any  mission  field.     The  Bhils  in  their  forests  son. " 
and  jungles  kept  out  of  his  way  :  was  lie  not  a  new  government 
official,  sent  either  to  tax  or  to  kill  them  ?     Very  slowly  their  con 
fidence    was    gained,    partly   through    the   dispensary   and    the 
schools.     But  when  the  20  years  were  nearly  over,  at  the  begin 
ning   of   our  period,  there  were  only  16    Christians.     Then  the 
famine  ensued,  more  severely  in  Eajputana  than  anywhere  else. 
Mr.  Thompson  wore  himself  out  in  his  desperate  efforts  to  save 
life,  and  lost  his  own.     Cholera  had  followed  in  the  wake  of  the  Famine  and 
famine,  and  he  was  struck  down  when  far  out  in  the  jungle   and  choler:l- 
died  under  a  tree,  May  19th,  1900. 

Other  missionaries  also  suffered,  including  those  who  came  from 
distant  parts  to  help  the  little  band,  one  of  whom  was  Mr.  Foss 
Westcott  of  the  S.P.G.,  now  Bishop  of  Chota  Nagpur.  Among 
the  C.M.S.  men  was  Arthur  Outram,  who  as  grandson  of  Sir 
James  was  appropriately  working  among  the  Bhlls.  f  He  and  his 
wife,  who  had  emulated  Thompson  in  the  unshrinking  devotion 
with  which  they  fought  the  famine  and  the  cholera,  were  "  carried 
out  of  the  country  just  in  time  "  to  save  their  lives.  Dr.  Browne, 
who  came  from  the  Punjab,  found  J.  C.  Harrison  "  in  a  state  of 
collapse  from  lack  of  food"  ;  and  Browne  and  his  wife  both  fell 
ill,  as  also  did  E.  P.  Herbert.  One  of  the  rescuers  at  this  terrible 
time  was  a  Christian  soldier,  Sergeant  J.  S.  McArthur  of  the  King's 
Own  Borderers,  then  at  Cawnpore. 

They  did  not  suffer  in  vain.     Contributions  for  relief  came  from  Bhiis 
all  parts  of  India,  and  from  England  and  America,  and  thousands  £St.het 
were  thus  kept  alive  ;  and  from  that  time  the  Mission  advanced. 
The  people  came  to  see  who  were  their  true  friends,  and  what  was 
the  motive  of  such  self-sacrifice ;  and  in  1902  87  converts  were 
baptized  after  long  and  careful  instruction.     Many  orphans  also 
were  taken  charge  of  and  brought  up  as  Christians.     In  1904  the 
Hindu  revenue  collector  in  the  State  of  Idar  said,  "  I  marvel  at 

*  See  CM.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1914. 

t  Mr.  Outram  was  awarded  the  silver  Kaisar-i-Hind  medal  for  his  famine 
services. 


222  C.M.S.    MISSIONS:    DlOCESE   OF  NAG  PUR. 

PART  n.  the  change  wrought  in  this  people.  I  knew  these  jungles  as  good 
chaj^o.  hiding-places,  whence  the  Bhils  came  out  to  slay  and  loot.  Now 
there  is  peace  and  quietness."  "Nothing,"  he  added,  "but 
Christianity  could  bring  about  such  a  transformation."  Eevival 
meetings  in  1909  issued  in  the  putting  away  of  many  heathen 
customs.* 

For  some  years  Mr.  Birkett  has  been  the  chief  missionary,  and 
Mrs.  Birkett,  being  a  qualified  doctor,  has  rendered  most  useful 
service,  Eajput  chiefs  resorting  to  her  hospital  as  well  as  the  Bhil 
peasants.  The  Orphanage  has  been  superintended  by  Miss  Bull, 
who  has  been  more  than  20  years  in  work  of  the  kind,  in  earlier 
years  at  Benares.f  The  Eev.  G.  0.  Vyse  and  Miss  Eose  Carter 
have  been  in  the  Mission  all  through  our  period.  Mr.  Vyse  was 
ordained  on  the  spot  on  the  occasion  of  one  of  Bishop  Chatterton's 
much- valued  visits. 

The  Bhll  Mission,  or  rather  the  Bhil  Church,  is  worked  on 
exceptionally  simple  lines.  Mr.  Birkett,  in  the  CM.  Review,% 
described  it  as  illustrating  the  methods  urged  by  Mr.  Eoland  Allen, 
in  his  notable  book  on  Missionary  Methods.  No  one  interested  in 
the  subiect  should  miss  Mr.  Birkett's  letter  and  article.  The  first 
Bhll  Church  Council  was  held  in  May,  1907.  Mr.  Birkett  wrote : 
"  The  Bhils  overcame  their  shyness,  and  many  stood  up  to  speak. 
We  had  no  Church  questions  before  us,  but  they  discussed  the 
formation  of  bands  of  voluntary  workers  to  evangelize  the 
heathen,  the  simplification  of  the  language  of  the  Prayer  Book, 
and  Bhll  marriage  customs.  .  .  .  It  made  them  feel  that  they 
were  united  with  the  whole  Church." 

By  recent  arrangement  between  the  Bishops  of  Nagpur  and 
fre  Bombay,  the  Bhll  Mission  is  now  to  be  in  the  latter's  jurisdiction. 
to  Bombay- ft  jg  nearer  to  Bombay  than  to  Nagpur  and  Jabalpur,  and  the 
language  of  the  country  is  Gujerati,  which  is  largely  spoken  in 
Bombay  Diocese. 

Christian         The  Christians  at  Jabalpur  and  the  other  stations  among  the 
Stymu~      Hindus  have  increased  in  our  period  from  280  to  884,  besides  73 
at  Bharatpur ;  in  the  Gond  Country,  from  360  to  650,  not,  how 
ever,  all  Gonds,  but  including  Hindus  of  the  town  stations;  and 
in  the  Bhll  districts,  from  16  to  480. 

The  S.P.G.  has  a  Mission  at  Ajmere  under  an  Indian  clergyman. 
The  Eev.'  Tara  Chand  was  in  charge  for  many  years.  The  Scottish 
Episcopal  Church  has  a  Mission  at  Chanda.  The  U.  F.  Church 
of  Scotland  is  at  Nagpur.  The  American  Episcopal  Methodists 
are  active  here  as  everywhere;  and  there  are  several  smaller 
Missions,  British  and  American  and  German  and  Swedish. 

*  An  interesting  account  of  a  Bhll  Christian  mela,  with  a  "baby  show," 
written  by  Mrs.  Hensley,  appeared  in  the  C.MS.  Gazette,  Sept.  1908. 
t  Miss  Bull  alas  1  was  lost  in  the  torpedoed  Persia  on  Dec.  30th,  1915. 
J  C.M.  Rev.,  Sept.,  1912,  p.  569.     Mr.  Birkett  also  commented  on  Mr.  Allen  s 
book  more  fully  in  Dec.,  1912. 


Other 
Missions 


CHAPTER  XXI. 
G.M.8.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  Luc  KNOW. 

UNITED  PROVINCES. 

The  Field  and  the  Work— Deaths  and  Retirements— Native  Clergy  in 
Important  Posts— Mr.  Perfumi— St.  John's  College,  Agra  -Allahabad 
Hostel— Lectures  to  Educated  Hindus— The  Christian  Community— 
The  Bishops. 

|HE  territory  in  Northern  India,   now  officially  called    PARTII. 
the  "United  Provinces  of  Agra  and  Oudh,"  was  in   ch^_21- 
1899  still  the  "North-West  Provinces."     The  name  Area  of  the 
North- West  had  been  given  to  it  sixty  years  earlier,  M 
before  the  annexation  of   the  Punjab  had  extended 
British  India  far  further,  and  it  had  retained  the  title  for  fifty 
years  more  despite  the  consequent  inappropriateness.    The  change 
to  the  present  title  came  in  1902.     In  the  following  year  came 
also  an  ecclesiastical  change.     A  new  diocese  was  formed  for  the 
Central   Province   and   the   territories    comprised    in    the   name 
Central  India,  which  had  been  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Calcutta  ; 
and  the  C.M.S.  Missions  in  the  area  of  the  new  diocese,  which 
had  been  linked  with  those  of  the  North- West  Provinces,  were 
now  put  under  a  new  Corresponding  Committee,  with  the  new 
Bishop  of  Nagpur,  Dr.  Eyre  Chatterton,  as  Chairman. 

The  Society's  Missions  in  the  United  Provinces  have  a  greater  Unity  of 
unity  than  those  in  Bengal  or  the  Punjab.  Practically  all  the  the  Work< 
work  runs  on  the  ordinary  lines,  and  only  two  languages,  Hindi 
and  Urdu  (which  is  in  a  sense  a  dialect  of  Hindi)  are  used. 
One  result  is  that  the  missionaries  can  change  places  readily  as 
furloughs  and  retirements  occur  and  new  men  arrive,  which  is  an 
advantage,  although  it  prevents  the  identification  of  a  man  with 
a  particular  station,  and  makes  the  movements  of  one  and  another 
hard  to  trace  in  the  Annual  Eeports.  Mr.  Zenker,  the  last  of  the 
noble  band  of  C.M.S.  German  missionaries,  has,  during  the  whole 
time,  continued  at  Muttra,  and  now  looks  back  over  fifty  years' 
service ;  and  Mr.  J.  J.  Johnson,  the  expert  in  Sanskrit  lore, 
remains  at  Benares  after  thirty-five  years,  though  he  has  travelled 
from  time  to  ti  me  to  other  parts  of  India  to  meet  and  confer  with 
Brahman  pundats.  Dr.  Hooper,  wTho  joined  the  mission  fifty-three 
years  ago,  still  lives  in  the  hills,  at  Mussoorie,  diligent  as  ever  in 
literary  work ;,  find  four  ladies  have  all  through  our  period  been 


224  C.M.S.   MISSIONS:   DlOCESE   OF  LUCKNOW. 

PART  IT.  working  at  the  same  stations,  Miss  Bedford  at  Benares,  Miss 
chapel.  gtratton  at  Muttra,  Miss  A.  F.  Wright  at  Agra  (and  before  at 
Amritsar),  and  Miss  Luce  at  Azamgarh,  after  23,  23,  25,  and  18 
years  already.  But  almost  all  the  rest  have  been  in  different 
places  at  different  times.  The  Sikandra  Orphanage  has  had  six 
heads  in  the  fifteen  years,  and  Jay  Narayan's  School  at  Benares 
apparently  as  many.  On  the  other  hand  the  nearly  continuous 
work  of  Mr.  Haythornthwaite  and  Mr.  Durrant  at  St.  John's, 
Agra,  and  of  Mr.  Carpenter  and  Mr.  Waller  in  the  Divinity  School 
at  Allahabad  have  been  a  great  advantage.  The  Secretaryship  of 
the  whole  Mission  was  held  by  Mr.  Gill  until  his  appointment  to 
the  Bishopric  of  Travancore,  and  for  short  periods  by  Mr.  Wright, 
Mr.  Hall,  and  Mr.  Warren,  until  Mr.  Waller  took  it ;  and  he  has 
now  been  followed  by  Mr.  Harvey.  It  should  be  mentioned  here 
that  the  Secretary  has  to  manage  Z.B.M.M.  affairs  as  well  as  those 
of  C.M.S.  Another  office  which  is  sometimes  combined  with  the 
Secretaryship  is  the  Chairmanship  of  the  Indian  Church  Council, 
involving  visits  to  distant  congregations. 

The  staff :  Of  the  88  names  on  the  list  in  1899  (including  33  wives)  only  28 
Sire- ai  d  were  still  on  it  in  1914,  but  eleven  others  on  the  present  list  are  of 
merits.  persons  then  in  India,  either  in  other  C.M.S.  Missions  or  in  other 
connexions,  including  zenana  missionaries  since  married  to  C.M.S. 
men.  Three  of  those  on  both  lists  do  not  stand  for  continuous 
work,  but  belong  to  men  or  women  who  have  rejoined  after  some 
years  of  absence.  Some  of  the  apparent  losses  during  the  period 
are  not  real  ones,  as  they  include  Bishops  Gill  and  Durrant  and 
Waller,  and  Mr.  Holland  and  two  or  three  others  only  moved  to 
other  Missions.  Mr.  Haythornthwaite,  too,  is  now  in  office  at  home. 
Among  the  real  losses  are  eight  by  death,  including  A.  H.  Wright 
after  45  years'  service,  and  Miss  Bland  after  nearly  40  years' ;  also 
W.  B.  Collins  and  H.  V.  Birney,  who  had  worked  over  20  years.* 
Among  the  retirements  were  those  of  A.  W.  Baumann  (35  years), 
W.  Latham  (32  years),  J.  P.  Ellwood  (40  years  f),  J.  W.  Hall  (27 
years,  besides  service  as  Organizing  Secretary  at  home),  and 
W.  McLean  and  W.  G.  Proctor  (23  years  each),  also  of  J.  M. 
Challis,  and  A.  E.  Bowlby,  who  did  good  service,  though  not 
for  such  long  periods  ;  also  J.  N.  Carpenter  and  J.  A.  F.  Warren 
(24  and  22  years),  and  Miss  Bedford  and  Miss  Luce  (23  and. 
19  years) ;  also  Mrs.  and  Miss  E.  Durrant,  the  mother  and  sister 
of  the  present  Bishop  of  Lahore.  Mrs.  Durrant  was  a  sister 
of  Bishop  E.  H.  Bicker steth  of  Exeter,  and  widow  of  a  former 
Director  of  the  C.M.  Children's  Home.  She  went  out  with 
her  daughter  in  advancing  age  in  1894,  worked  earnestly  for 

*  Also,  in  May,  1915,  the  Rev.  A.  E.  Johnston  passed  away  at  a  nursing  home 
in  Dublin.  He  was  a  brilliant  Dublin  University  man,  who  worked  for  14 
years  ending  in  1902,  chiefly  at  the  Allahabad  Divinity  School.  He  was  then 
invalided  home  ;  but  in  1913  he  went  out  again,  to  Gorakhpur.  He  was,  how 
ever,  soon  sent  home  again  ill.  See  Mr.  Durrant's  In  Memoriam  of  him, 
CM.  Bev.,  July,  1915.  t  Since  deceased,  1916. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  Luc  KNOW.        225 

twelve  years,  and  then  retired  in  weak  health,  and  died  in  1911.    PART  u. 
Among  other  ladies  who  did  excellent  work  for  some  years  were   chaZi,21 
Miss  Tottenham,  daughter   of   Captain  Tottenham  of    Mildmay, 
and  Miss  Major,  a  highly-esteemed  honorary  worker.     The  net 
loss  is  only  two,  from  88  to  86  ;  but  the  clergy  are  reduced  from 
37  to  27,  while  the  women  missionaries  have  increased  from  18  to 
32,  besides  which  some  marriages  to  Z.B.M.  ladies  have  added  good 
zenana  visitors  and  school  teachers  to  C.M.S.  ranks.    The  Women's 
Work  in  the  United  Provinces  is  mostly  done  by  the  Z.B.M.M. 
The  C.E.Z.M.S.  had  two  or  three  ladies,  but  transferred  them  to 
the  C.M.S.,  and  the   C.M.S.  gained   five   more   by   taking   over 
members  of  the  defunct  F.E.S.     Among  the  ladies  always  belong 
ing  to    C.M.S.,  Miss  Anna  B.  Davis  should  be  mentioned,  who 
has  with  great  devotion  lived  among  the  people  as  a  Christian 
sister. 

Among  the  gains  of  the  United  Provinces  was  the  transfer  from  Lucknow 
Bengal  of  two  men  who  had  worked  together  at  Bhagalpur  Mr 
C.  G.  Mylrea  and  Mr.  S.  K.  Morse,  in  1903-4.  The  former  was 
commissioned  to  begin  a  new  mission  to  Mohammedans  at  Luck- 
now,'"'  and  the  latter  took  the  High  School  there.  This  city  was 
the  scene  of  the  important  conference  on  Mohammedan  Missions 
held  in  1911. 

The  diminution  in  the  number  of  English  missionaries  has  been  Indian 
partly  compensated  for  by  the  appointment  to  posts  previously  J^'^*"  t 
occupied  by  them  of  Indian  clergymen  of  good  standing,  some  of  Post"!  a' 
whom  have  been  trained  in  an  "  English  class  "  at  the  Allahabad 
Divinity  School.     Such  are  the  Rev.   Canon   Nihal  Singh,  B.A., 
Allahabad  District ;  Eev.  J.  Qalandar,  B.A.,  Faizabad ;  Eev.  S.  J. 
Edwin,  B.A.,  Principal  of   the   Divinity  School;  Eev.   J.  S.   C. 
Banner jee,  B.A.,  Bulandshahr ;  Eev.  J.  N.  Mukand,  B.A.,  Mussoorie 
and  Dehra  Dun. 

Among  the  new  recruits  of  the  period  one  must  be  especially  Bev.  L. a. 
mentioned,  the  Eev.  L.  C.  Perfurni.  He  was  a  Carmelite  monk  Perfumi. 
working  as  a  missionary  in  Travancore.  His  experience  of  the 
C.M.S.  Indian  Christians  there  corrected  the  unfavourable  account 
he  had  received  of  them  from  his  Eoman  colleagues,  and  a  new 
estimate  of  the  character  of  Protestant  missionaries  was  gained  by 
intercourse  with  Mr.  J.  H.  Bishop.  His  mind  gradually  opened 
to  the  truth,  and  a  terrible  railway  accident  and  other  incidents 
brought  him  nearer  to  his  Divine  Lord.  Eventually  he  came  to 
England,  was  received  by  Prebendary  Fox,  was  for  a  term  at 
Wycliffe  Hall  under  Mr.  Grey,  and  was  received  into  the  Anglican 
Church  by  Bishop  Moule  of  Durham  ;  and  in  1904  he  returned 
to  India  as  a  C.M.S.  missionary,  and  has  done  most  devoted  and 
faithful  work  in  the  villages  of  the  Meerut  district,  from  the  low- 
caste  population  of  which  many  converts  have  lately  come. 

In  the  Agra,  Bulandshahr,  Aligarh,  and  Meerut  districts  there 

*  See  Mr.  Mylrea's  article  on  Lucknow  as  a  Mohammedan  centre,  in  the 
Moslem  World,  Jan.,  1913. 

Q 


PART  II. 

Chap.  21. 


Meerut. 


Agra. 


Girls' 

Schools. 


St.  John's 
College. 


226        C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  Luc  KNOW. 

has  been  a  movement  among  the  low-caste  or  out- caste  people.* 
So  numerous  have  been  the  candidates  for  baptism  that  the 
catechists  have  had  to  neglect  their  usual  village  preaching  in 
order  to  instruct  them;  and  some  700  were  baptized  after 
careful  examination  and  preparation  in  1914.  The  Meerut  Mis 
sion  kept  its  Centenary  in  1915,  with  "  most  inspiring  "  services 
and  meetings.  "  There  were  lots  of  British  Territorials  present." 
Agra  is  interesting  as  the  scene  of  the  earliest  O.M.S.  work  in 
India.  In  1813  Daniel  Corrie  arrived  there  as  East  India  Com 
pany's  chaplain,  accompanied  by  Henry  Martyn's  convert,  Abdul 
Masih.  This  influential  ex-Moslem  was  supported  by  a  grant 
from  the  C.M.S.,  before  any  English  missionaries  were  sent  out. 
He  made  a  good  many  converts  at  Agra.  He  was  afterwards 
ordained  by  Bishop  Heber.  The  Centenary  of  that  work  being 
begun  was  kept  by  the  Indian  Christians  of  Agra  on  June  10th, 
1914.  But  Agra  generally  stands  in  our  thoughts  for  educational 
work,  and  very  remarkably  has  it  progressed  in  that  respect  during 
our  period.  The  Queen  Victoria  School  for  Christian  Girls,  under 
Miss  A.  R  Wright,  has  achieved  important  spiritual  results.!  Miss 
Wright  was  for  a  few  years  assisted  by  her  late  sister,  Miss  K.  C. 
Wright.  The  elementary  girls'  schools  superintended  by  Miss 
Bland  came  under  the  C.M.S.  when  the  F.E.S.  was  "  wound  up," 
and  well  rounded  off  the  female  educational  work.  But  St. 
John's  College  shows  the  most  striking  development.  Under 
Mr.  Haythornthwaite's  principalship,  department  after  depart 
ment  was  added  to  it,  and  munificent  gifts  (many  thousand  pounds) 
from  the  Kev.  Arthur  Davies,  a  member  of  the  staff,  together  with 
handsome  government  grants,  made  possible  a  complete  range  of 
new  buildings,  which  were  opened  by  the  Viceroy,  Lord  Hardinge, 
on  Jan.  9th,  19144  St.  John's  is  now  the  largest  of  C.M.S.  educa 
tional  institutions.  There  are  some  300  students  in  the  College, 
now  under  Mr.  Davies,  and  over  600  boys  in  the  Collegiate  School 
under  Mr.  Norman  Tubbs.§  A  district,  twenty-two  miles  by  ten, 
with  a  large  village  population,  has  been  assigned  to  the  school,  to 
interest  the  Christian  boys  in  evangelistic  work.  It  has  been  in 
charge  of  the  Rev.  Dina  Nath,  a  Brahman  by  birth.  ||  The 
missionaries  have  been  singularly  successful  in  engaging  Oxford 
and  Cambridge  men  for  the  staff  on  the  "  short  service  ''  system, 
and  as  many  as  a  dozen  have  been  at  work,  some  with  first- 
class  degrees  and  some  with  the  honour  of  being  "  Old  Blues" 

*  See  Mr.  Tubbs's  letter,  CM.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1914. 

t  Miss  Wright  gave  an  account  of  her  school  in  the  CM.  Rev.,  Jan.,  1511, 
in  an  article  entitled,  "Our  Younger  Indian  Sisters." 

I  See  G.M.  Rev.,   May,  1914,    p.  261.      On  the   recent   expansion  of   the 
College  and  its  great  work,  see  Mr.  Haythornthwaite's  article,  March,  1914 ; 
also  Mr.  Davies,  on  "  Character  Building,",,  May,  1915.     See  also  Mr.  Tubbs's 
article  on  "The  Indian  Student,"  CM.  Rev.,  March,  1909. 

§  A  remarkable  speech  by  Mr.  Tubbs  on  his  work,  at  the  Albert  Hall  m 
May  1913  was  printed  verbatim  in  the  C.M.S.  Gazette,  June,  1913. 

II  Mr.  Dina  Nath  has  been  with  the  Y.M.C,A.  in  France,  ministering  help 
to  the  Indian  soldiers. 


C.M.S. 


DIOCESE  OF  Luc  KNOW.       227 


s* 


• 

School  attached  to  it  For  most  of  our  period  the  PrincipalCs 
Col'lf;.  ^  n6^'  Wh°  ha^atejygone  to  Calcutta  to  assist  inlhe 

Thlv?  \r  W  ^  fT  ,  6ad  1S  the  ReV'  Dr'  Garfield  Williams 
Theie  are  High  Schools  at  several  other  stations.  The  one  at 

Jaunpur  lost  its   head-master,  Rai  Sahib  P.  N.  Ghosh   in  1912 
We  hear  little  of  these  Indian  lay  schoolmasters  so  we  may  well 
note  what  was  said  of  him.     He  had  filled  his  post  f  orty  e  S 
years.     <  His  devoted  life  of  service  and  his  wonderful  example  o 
zeal  and   self-sacrifice   have   been   an   inspiration   to  the  whde 

K^ffi  ?  /™Yia'  HiS  funeral  Was  an  extraordinary 
sight,  Hindus  and  Moslems  vying  with  the  Christians  in  payin- 
their  respect  to  his  memory. 

r«\n?7  d??^F?tA£i?¥  Peri°d  haS  been   the   Oxford  andHOSteiat 
Cambridge  Hostel  at  Allahabad,  planned  and  worked  for  son  e  Allahabad- 
years  by  the  Bev.  W    E.   S.  Holland.      Other  Hostels   areTor 
particular  classes  of  boys  (generally  Christians)   in   the    CMS 
Colleges  and  High  Schools,  but  this  one  was  established  as  an 
independent   institution   where   the    Society  had  no  educational 
agencies  (except  the  Divinity  School),  with  the  definite  object  of 
receiving  youths  studying  at  the  government  and  Hindu  Colleges  • 
and  100  of  these  are  in  residence.     Many  more  would  come  if 
there  were  room  for  them.     The  influence  aimed  at  is  not  sained 
through   the   medium  of    secular  teaching,    but   personally   and 
socially,  not  excluding  the  athletics  so  important  in  India  for  the 
morale  of  the  students;  and  the  Christian  instruction  takes  the 
form  of  Bible  reading  with  individuals  alone,  such  only  as  ask  for 
it,  which  the  great  majority  do.     Mr.  Holland  and  his  colleagues 
nave  therefore  spent  many  hours  on  most  days  in  this  personal 
^  individual  teaching.     The  result  upon  the  student's  mind  is 
manifest,  and  though  there  has  so  far  been  only  one  baptism  it 
cannot  be  doubted  that  good  fruits  will  be  gathered  in  course  of 
time,  perhaps  after  some  years  and  in  distant  places,  as  has  so 
otten    been  the  case  with   College  and   High   School   students 
Hostel  has  succeeded,  like  St.  John's  College,  in  enlisting 
'short-service  men,"  some  of  whom  have  become  full  missionaries 
towards.      The    Government    educational    authorities    highly 
*  See  Mr.  Baju's  article  on  Mr.  Drew,  CM.  Rev.,  Jan.,  1915. 


228        C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  LUCKNOW. 

PART  ii.  approve  of  the  Hostel  system  in  the  interest  of  the  moral  guardian- 
chapjn.  gbip  an(j  improvement  of  the  students,  and  large  grants  have  been 
made  for  the  buildings  erected  by  Mr.  Holland  from  time  to  time. 
The  foundation  stone  of  the  final  block  was  laid  in  1910  by  the 
Metropolitan  of  Calcutta,  Dr.  Copleston,  assisted  by  eight  other 
Bishops,  when  they  met  to  arrange  the  allocation  of  the  Pan- 
Anglican  grant  to  India.  Since  Mr.  Holland's  removal  to  Calcutta, 
the  Wardens  have  been  the  Eevs.  A.  C.  Pelly  and  V.  G.  H.  Shaw.* 
Divinity  The  Divinity  School  at  Allahabad  represents,  of  course,  a  totally 
different  branch  of  educational  work.  Under  Mr.  Carpenter  and 
Mr.  Waller  it  has  continued  its  former  excellent  service.  Canon 
Nihal  Singh  rendered  important  help  for  a  time,  and  so  did  the 
Eev.  J.  Qalandar;  and  now  the  Principal  is  an  Indian  clergyman, 
the  Kev.  S.  J.  Edwin,  B.A.,  with  the  Eev.  E.  T.  Howard  assisting. 
European  Allahabad  also  supplies  an  illustration  of  the  way  in  which  the 
co-opera-  ;gurOpean  an(j  «  Anglo-Indian  "  community  can  be  interested  in 
the  Missions  in  their  neighbourhood,  and  help  to  support  them. 
In  1907  an  Allahabad  Missionary  Association  was  formed,  which 
has  done  much  in  this  way.f  And  here  must  be  mentioned  the 
very  great  services  rendered  to  the  Mission  by  Sir  George  Knox, 
Judge  of  the  High  Court,  a  brother  of  the  Bishop  of  Manchester. 
He  has  been  a  true  friend  for  half  a  century. 

Lectures  A  different  class  of  measures  for  influencing  non- Christian 
imiians!ted  students  and  old  students  with  the  Gospel  message,  and  also 
Christians  with  Christ's  claim  on  them  for  service  is  public 
lectures  and  addresses,  such  as  the  Eev.  G.  T.  Manley  gave  during 
his  two  years  in  India  in  1902,  or  Dr.  Mott  and  Mr.  Sherwood 
Eddy  in  their  tours  round  the  country.  Mr.  Manley 's  lectures  on 
Science  and  Eeligion  drew  great  audiences ;  and  all  these  efforts 
combine  in  producing  that  Christian  element  in  the  atmosphere  of 
educated  thought  and  feeling  which  is  silently  working  a  real 
revolution  in  India.  Lectures  and  addresses  were  also  given  at 
Allahabad  (and  probably  other  places)  by  the  present  Bishop  of 
Winchester  (Dr.  Talbot,  then  Bishop  of  Southwark)  %  and  Bishop 
Taylor  Smith  during  their  visits  to  India  in  1909-11.  Special 
mission  services  for  the  deepening  of  spiritual  life  were  held  by 
Mr.  Walker  of  Tinnevelly  in  1905.  But,  naturally,  addresses  by 
Indian  or  other  Asiatic  Christians  are  still  more  effective  ;  _  and 
among  those  who  have  given  them  were  two  Japanese  Christians, 

*  Concerning  the  Hostel  system  see  Mr.  Holland's  article  in  the  CM.  Rev., 
July  1909.  On  the  actual  work  at  Allahabad  see  his  journal  letters, 
CM  Rev  May  and  June,  1910;  and  Mr.  Norman  Tubbs's,  March,  1909. 
For  the  account  of  the  first  convert,  see  Mr.  Tubbs's  narrative,  May,  1908.  A 
very  interesting  account,  also,  of  a  tour  taken  by  Mr.  Holland  and  Mr.  Tubbs 
as  Christian  fakirs,  accompanied  by  three  Indian  Christians,  appeared  in  the 
CMS  Gazette,  Feb.,  1910.  They  greatly  enjoyed  the  experience,  living 
exactly  like  the  natives,  but  did  not  think  it  would  be  a  wise  course  as  a 
permanence. 

t  See  C.M.S.  Gazette,  April,  1908,  p.  114. 

t  Bishop  Talbot  gave  a  most  interesting  address  to  the  C.M.S.  Committee 
on  June  7th,  1910,  describing  his  visits  to  the  Missions  in  India. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  Luc  KNOW.       229 

the  Eev.   Dr.  Motoda,  a   clergyman   of   the   Nippon    Sei-kokwai    PAETII. 
(Anglican),  and   the   Eev.  T.  Harada,  a   Congregationalist,  who   ch^i.21- 
made  a  great  impression  in  1905  by  their  testimony  to  the  influence 
of  Christianity  in  Japan. 

The  Indian  Christians  in  the  United  Provinces  connected  with  The  imiiau 
the  C.M.S.  have  increased  during  the  period  from  4400  to  7700.  commu-n 
The  adult  baptisms  in  the  fifteen  years  have  been  about   1900.  '«<*• 
It  is  an  illustration  of  the  little  detailed  information  that  comes 
from  the  greatly  extended  line  in  all  the  C.M.S.  Missions,  and  of 
the  consequent  misconception  that  baptisms  of  Brahmans  and 
Mohammedans  are  now  rare,  that  in  1907  Mr.  McLean  reported 
that  during  the  sixteen  years  he  had  then  been  at  Agra  twenty- 
three  Brahmans  and  twenty-nine  Mohammedans  had  been  bap 
tized  in  that  district  alone.     The  Indian  clergy  have  increased 
from  eight  to  fifteen.     The  large  area  over  which  the  congrega 
tions  are  scattered  has  been  a  disadvantage  to  the  Church  Council 
system.     It  is  hoped  that  the  new  organization  referred  to  in  the 
previous  chapter  may  be  more  successful. 

The  United  Provinces  have  beyond  their  northern  borders  the  Nepal, 
country  of  Nepal,  which  no  missionary  is  allowed  to  enter.  But 
the  Gospel  has  been  carried  thither  by  a  Gurkha  soldier,  a  bands 
man,  who  has  undergone  severe  persecution  from  his  fellows.  He 
has  attached  himself  to  the  C.M.S.  Gorakhpur  Mission,  and  has  a 
letter  of  commendation  from  the  Bishop  of  Lucknow.* 

Of  other  Missions  in  the  United  Provinces  the  strongest,  by  far,  other 
is  that  of  the  American  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  especially  M 
in  Oudh.     The  London   Missionary   Society  has  worked  in  and 
near  Benares  for  nearly  a  century.     The  Baptists  and  Wesleyans 
are  also  there.     At  Allahabad  the  American  Presbyterian  Board 
has   an   important   college.     The   chief   S.P.G.    Missions   are   at 
Cawnpore  and  Eoorkee.     The  former  is  a  great  centre  of  valuable 
work,  with  a  large  staff  of  men  and  women.     It  is  only  second  to 
Delhi  as  a  great  concentrated  Mission. 

As  an  illustration  of  combined  work  may  be  mentioned  the  new  Language 
North  India  Language  School  for  Missionaries.     At  its   second  St 
session,  in  1914,  at  Lucknow,  sixty  missionaries  assembled,  repre 
senting  twenty  different  societies.  The  majority  were  American  Pres 
byterians  and  Methodists,  but  the  C.M.S.  sent  two,  and  the  S.P.G. 
three.     The  lecturers  were  both  European  and  Indian  ;  the  former 
being  Mr.  Mylrea  of  the  C.M.S.  and  Mr.  Greaves  of  the  L.M.S. 

Bishop  Clifford,  who  had  been  Bishop  of  Lucknow,  that  is  of  g;?£°£8and 
the  United  Provinces,  since  1893,  following  on  a  service  of  nearly  westcott. 
twenty  years  in  Bengal  under  the  C.M.S.,  retired  in  1910,  having 
laboured  in  India  thirty-six  years.     He  was  a  true  friend  of  the 
Mission  and  the  missionaries,  and  his  departure  was  deeply  felt. 
His   successor,    however,  Bishop   G.    H.    Westcott,  was  warmly 
welcomed,  and  has  been  no  less  a  valued  leader  and  fellow-helper. 

*  See  the  Rev.  J.  F.  Pembcrton's  interesting  account,  C.M.  Eev.,  Jan.,  1915. 


CHAPTEE   XXII. 


PART  II. 

Chap.  22. 


Field  and 
btaff. 


Baptisms. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:    DIOCESE  off  CALCUTTA. 
BENGAL  AND  BIHAE. 

Lack  of  Men— Baptisms—Calcutta  :  Colleges,  &c.— The  Old  Church— 
K.  C.  Banerjea- Burdwan— Nadiya  District— Mr.  Monro's  Mission 
— Santal  Mission— Other  Societies. 

;HE  Missions  in  this  Province  comprise— (1)  Calcutta, 
with  Burdwan ;  (2)  the  Nadiya  District ;  (3)  the 
Santal  Mission ;  (4)  Bhagalpur.  The  two  latter  are 
now  in  the  new  Province  of  Bihar  and  Orissa.  Cal 
cutta  is  naturally  a  centre  for  important  institutions. 
The  Nadiya  and  Santal  Missions  are  rural.  Burdwan  and  Bhagal 
pur  are  isolated  towns. 

No  C.M.S.  Mission  in  India  has  suffered  more  from  the  lack  of 
adequate  reinforcements  in  recent  years.  Losses  have  been  heavy, 
and  they  have  only  partially  been  replaced.  In  1899  the  staff 
comprised  32  clergymen,  7  laymen,  21  wives,  and  5  other  women, 
total  65  ;  in  1914  of  25  clergymen,  4  laymen,  20  wives,  and  9 
other  women,  total  58.  Five  of  the  1899  band  have  been  trans 
ferred  to  other  parts  of  India.  The  reduction  of  the  men  from  39 
to  29  is  serious.  On  the  other  hand  the  Indian  clergy  have  risen 
from  15  to  29,  and  the  lay  teachers  from  336  to  376. 

All  the  work,  evangelistic,  educational,  pastoral,  has  gone  on 
much  as  in  previous  years,  and  there  is  little  to  report  that  is  of 
special  interest.  This  does  not  mean  that  there  is  no  progress, 
but  it  cannot  be  exactly  stated  in  figures,  as  in  several  years  the 
returns  were  very  defective,  no  doubt  owing  to  the  multitudinous 
work  falling  on  the  diminished  staff.  In  ten  out  of  the  fifteen 
years  the  adult  baptisms  were  1540,  and  if  for  the  other  five  years, 
for  which  no  figures  came,  we  may  venture  to  take  the  same 
average, — and  this  having  regard  to  the  particular  years  missing 
is  a  low  estimate, — we  have  2500  for  the  whole  period.  Of  these, 
1600  would  be  in  Santalia,  550  in  and  around  Calcutta,  180 
in  the  Nadiya  district,  and  170  in  the  Bhagalpur  district.  Many 
of  the  congregations  being  old  ones,  the  baptisms  of  children  were 
numerous ;  and  the  total  increase  of  the  baptized  Christians  was 
from  11,000  to  15,000. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  CALCUTTA.       231 

CALCUTTA  AND  BUEDWAN.  PAETII. 

Chap.  22. 

At  Calcutta,  naturally,  the  institutions  loom  largest.  And  one  Calcutta, 
of  them  may  be  said  to  be  the  most  important  development 
of  the  Bengal  Mission  in  the  fifteen  years.  This  is  St.  Paul's 
College.  The  Society  had  a  College  at  Calcutta  in  former  years,  college  aud 
founded  in  1866  by  Mr.  Barton,  of  which  Dr.  Dyson  was  long 
Principal ;  but  it  was  closed  in  1880  for  lack  of  men  to  carry  it  on, 
the  building  being  used  for  the  Divinity  School.  It  was  revived 
on  a  small  scale  in  1900-2,  and  for  some  years  it  did  a  quiet  but 
good  work  under  the  Eev.  E.  F.  Pearce.  In  1908  new  buildings 
for  it  were  opened  by  Bishop  Copleston,  and  in  1914,  further 
enlargement  by  Lord  Carmichael,  Governor  of  Bengal.  It  is  now 
a  first-grade  college;  and  there  is  hostel  accommodation  for  125 
students.  In  the  meanwhile,  the  Divinity  School  was  conducted 
by  Mr.  Lockett,  and  justified  its  existence  by  the  number  of 
Bengali  clergy  and  evangelists  whom  it  trained,  as  shown  by  the 
figures  already  given.  Subsequently  Mr.  Pearce  was  transferred 
from  the  College  to  become  Principal  of  this  Divinity  School,  and 
it  was  proposed  to  close  the  former  and  have  merely  a  Hostel 
instead  as  at  Allahabad.  To  set  this  going  Mr.  Holland  came 
to  Calcutta,  and  the  result  of  his  energetic  representations  was  a 
resolution  to  continue  the  College  and  have  the  Hostel  too.  Ho 
took  the  Principalship,  and  obtained  from  Government  no  less  than 
£10,000  for  new  buildings ;  and  now  St.  Paul's  College,  as  it  is 
called,  is  worked  by  him  and  three  Cambridge  men  on  the  C.M.S. 
staff,  with  the  prospect  of  "  short-service  men  "  to  help  as  at 
Allahabad.  St.  Paul's  School,  formerly  known  as  the  Christian  christiau 
Boys'  Boarding  School,  has  long  been  one  of  the  best  agencies 
in  the  Mission.  It  was  for  several  years  the  work  of  Mr.  C.  B. 
Clarke,  and  then  of  Mr.  Ealand,  who,  after  being  sent  home  ill, 
with  great  devotion  went  out  for  a  year  at  the  risk  of  his  health 
and  was  then  again  invalided  home.  Its  repeated  success  in 
athletic  competitions  not  only  gave  it  a  high  reputation,  but  showed 
the  superior  stamina  and  morale  of  Christian  boys.  In  1903  it 
won  the  Elliott  Challenge  Shield,  and  the  five  cups,  open  to  all 
Bengal,  and  most  of  the  prizes  also,  although  the  boys  were  only 
nine  in  number  among  82  competitors.  This  is  justly  regarded  as 
real  missionary  work. 

The  Girls'  High  School  was  for  many  years  most  happily  Women's 
carried  on  by  Miss  Neele,  but  she  retired  in  1901  after  37  years' 
service.  Her  assistant,  Miss  Alice  Sampson  (one  of  four  daughters 
given  to  India  by  the  late  Eev.  J.  B.  Sampson  of  York),  succeeded 
her,  and  has  been  at  the  helm  ever  since,  and  she  is  now  the 
senior  C.M.S.  missionary  in  Bengal,  having  32  years  to  her  credit. 
She  is  assisted  by  two  women  graduates,  one  from  Girton  with  a 
Dublin  Degree,  and  one  from  Melbourne  University.  Two  women 
who  have  done  good  service  all  through  our  period  are  Miss 
Wolley  and  Miss  Farler  (the  latter  now  in  Santalia).  But  the 


Evange 


listic  Work 


ge 
W 


232  C.M.S.   MISSIONS:    DlOCESE   OF  CALCUTTA. 

PART  ii.    bulk  of  the  women's  work  in  the  Bengal  Mission  is  done  by  the 

chap.22.    c.E.Z.M.S.,  which  has  more  than  30  ladies  on  its  staff,  some  of 

whom  have  served  20  and  30  years.     Miss  Dawe,  Miss  Hensley, 

Miss   Evans,  Miss   Harding,   Miss   Sandys,  Miss  Bristow,  Miss 

Boileau,  bear  well-known  and  honoured  names. 

Evangelistic  work  has  not  been  neglected  in  Calcutta,  as  the 
number  of  baptisms  already  mentioned  shows  ;  but  with  a  small 
staff  its  difficulty  is  enhanced  by  the  variety  of  languages  spoken 
in  the  city.  Bengali,  Hindi,  and  Hindustani-speaking  people 
must  all  be  dealt  with  separately.  Hindustani  is  the  Mohammedan 
tongue  ;  and  the  special  Moslem  Mission,  formerly  associated  with 
the  name  of  the  Eev.  Jani  Alii,  was  for  some  years  carried  on  by 
the  Eev.  A.  Stark,  a  devoted  Eurasian  or  Anglo-Indian  missionary 
who  died  in  1903.  The  variety  of  work  may  also  be  illustrated 
from  the  following  note  of  some  of  the  baptisms  in  one  year : — A 
Brahman  devotee  and  his  whole  family;  two  young  high-caste 
Bengalis ;  three  Moslems  from  the  Punjab,  one  of  them  an 
Afghan  ;  a  Nepalese  woman  ;  two  men  in  the  Leper  Asylum  ;  six 
inmates  of  the  Home  for  homeless  women.  When  Bishop 
Welldon  confirmed  100  Indian  candidates  on  one  day  in  the 
cathedral,  there  were,  doubtless,  even  more  varieties  among  them. 
The  Christian  congregations  in  Calcutta  and  its  suburbs  are 
under  the  pastoral  charge  of  Indian  clergymen,  some  of  whom 
are  also  prominent  in  the  educational  institutions,  and  one  in 
literary  work.  Two  are  graduates  of  Calcutta  University,  the  Eevs. 
Joseph  Pran  Nath  Biswas,  B.A.,  and  Kedar  Nath  Basu,  M.A.* 

For  the  "  Old  Church,"  with  its  English-speaking  congregation 
and  varied  parochial  activities,  the  Society  had  for  many  years 
provided  an  incumbent,  and  when  our  period  began,  the  Eev. 
Herbert  Gouldsmith,  now  Eector  of  Bishopwearmouth  and  Canon 
of  Durham,  occupied  the  post.  Afterwards  the  Eev.  Stuart  H. 
Clark,  a  son  of  Eobert  Clark  of  the  Punjab,  was  in  charge.  The 
patronage  has,  since  1907,  reverted  to  the  local  Trustees,  and 
the  C.M.S.  is  no  longer  responsible.  This  sphere  of  service,  a 
very  interesting  one,  is  now  filled  by  the  Eev.  F.  B.  Hadow,  who 
was  for  a  short  time  a  C.M.S.  missionary  in  the  Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan,  and,  before  that,  had  been  an  Assistant  Secretary  at  home 
for  Work  among  the  Young. 

The  Secretaryship  of  both  the  C.M.S.  and  C.E.Z.M.S.  Missions 
secretaries.  wag  held  in  the  earlier  years  of  our  period  by  W.  H.  Ball,  whom 
Bishop  Welldon  appointed  a  Canon  of  the  Cathedral.  He  retired 
in  1908,  and  died  at  home  in  the  following  year.  Since  then  the 
Eev.  E.  T.  Sandys,  a  missionary  of  25  years'  standing,  has  filled 
the  office.  He  is  a  son  of  Timothy  Sandys,  who  laboured  at 
Calcutta  from  1830  to  1871,  and  his  mother' was  a  sister  of  Bishop 
Stuart. 

The  death  in  1907  of  the  acknowledged  leader  of  the  Bengali 

*  There  was  an  interesting  article  on  the  Evangelization  of  Calcutta  by  the 
Rev.  E.  T.  Sandys,  in  the  C.M.  Eev.,  July,  1909. 


Pastoral 
Work. 


The  Old 
Church. 


The 


Mr.  K.  C. 
Baiierji. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  CALCUTTA.       233 

Christians  of  all  Churches  and  denominations,  Mr.  Kali  Charan    PART  11. 
Banerji,  must  not  be  passed  over  without  notice.     He  was  an    ch^_22- 
M.A.  of    Calcutta    University,  a    distinguished    barrister,   and    a 
devout  and  large-hearted  Christian.     He  was  for  nearly  twenty 
years  one  of  the  most  highly  respected  members  of  the  Indian 
National  Congress  ;  and  Mr.  Andrews  says  that  "  if  his  health  had 
not  failed,  he  would  have  been  elected  President  by  the  votes  of 
Hindus  and  Mohammedans."     "  His   life   falsifies  the  statement 
that  an  Indian  who  becomes  a  Christian  is  lost  to  the  national 
cause."  * 

Burdwan,  which  is  a  town  70  miles  from  Calcutta,  has  always  Burdwan. 
been  a  discouraging  field.  The  climate  is  especially  trying,  and 
since  the  days  of  J.  J.  Weitbrecht  (1830-52)  the  missionaries 
have  constantly  had  to  be  changed  owing  to  their  health  failing. 
Miss  Harding,  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  at  the  neighbouring  village  of 
Mankar,  seems  alone  to  have  been  able  to  last  many  years.  It  is 
not  missionaries  only  who  suffer.  Mr.  C.  B.  Clarke  wrote  in 
1907  :  "  There  seems  no  hope  of  continuity  in  our  work.  In  my 
three  years  here  I  have  seen  five  judges,  four  collectors,  four 
doctors,  and  three  station-masters."  And  in  that  very  year  the 
Commissioner,  Mr.  J.  H.  Bernard  (a  member  of  the  Calcutta 
Corresponding  Committee)  and  his  wife  and  sister  all  died  within 
36  hours.  There  is  a  small  congregation  of  70  souls. 

NADIYA  DISTRICT. 

The  Nadiya  or  Krishnagar  district  is  a  country  with  hundreds  The  Nadiya 
of  villages  and  a  teeming  population,  among  whom  there  are  some  christlans- 
5700  Christians  connected  with  the  C.M.S. ,  scattered  in  65 
villages.  They  are  ministered  to  by  nine  Indian  pastors ;  and 
there  are  14  brick  churches,  and  35  schools  used  also  for  worship. 
Bishop  Lefroy  confirmed  337  candidates  in  1914.  The  people 
are  externally  prosperous,  being  mostly  very  small  farmers ;  and 
though  their  Christian  life  is  not  of  the  highest  type,  Mr.  Bradburn 
testified  that  they  are  "  immeasurably  superior  to  their  non- 
Christian  neighbours  and  are  looked  up  to  by  them.  ...  As  for 
the  women,  the  difference  between  Christians  and  non-Christians 
of  the  same  status  is  so  great  as  to  make  a  comparison  almost 
impossible."  One  of  the  chief  difficulties  of  the  Mission  is  the 
constant  efforts  of  the  Koman  Catholic  missionaries  to  entice  the 
people  away  by  almost  open  bribery.  At  the  time  of  the  unrest  in 
Bengal,  there  were  efforts  by  the  agitators  to  influence  them,  but 
the  Indian  teachers  were  loyal,  and  enabled  them  to  resist. 

The  missionaries  have  been  chiefly  engaged  in  the  schools  of  The  staff, 
various  kinds,  boarding,  high,  industrial,  training,  and  an  orphan 
age,  and  the  evangelistic  work  is  not  vigorous,  as  may  be  gathered 
from  the  fact  of  there  being  only  (as  it  appears)  about  170  adult 
baptisms  in  the  fifteen  years.  It  was  in  this  district  that  the  first 
*  Renaissance  in  India,  p.  116. 


234       C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  CALCUTTA. 

bands  of  Associated  Evangelists  worked  which  were  started  in 
1889 ;  but  that  branch  of  the  Mission  has  not  been  maintained. 
All  the  first  three  members  of  the  band,  Lefeuvre,  Donne,  and 
Shaul,  and  those  who  followed  them,  were  gradually  absorbed  in 
the  regular  work  of  the  stations.  Mr.  Shaul  laboured  20  years, 
and  died  in  1909  from  the  after-effects  of  a  blow  on  the  head 
received  in  a  riot  three  years  before.  Mr.  Noakes,  at  one  time  the 
leader  of  the  band,  is  now,  after  20  years'  service,  in  charge  of  the 
Training  Institution  at  Krishnagar.  Mr.  Kamcke  and  Mr. 
Hickinbotham  have  other  work.  Of  other  missionaries  in  the 
Nadiya  district,  Mr.  Bradburn,  who  did  such  good  work  in  foster 
ing  the  employment  of  Christian  boys  in  the  East  India  Railway 
workshop,  came  home  after  22  years'  service,*  and  Mr.  Oharlton 
and  Mr.  Hewitt  also  retired  after  careers  of  similar  length.  Mr. 
Butler,  who  retired  in  1910  after  an  equal  span  of  work,  and 
became  a  Vicar  in  Dorset,  has  lately  gone  back  to  India.  Mrs. 
Charlton,  who  was  a  daughter  of  the  Eev.  T.  Eichardson,  the 
founder  of  the  Bible  and  Prayer  Union,  died  in  the  district  in 
1902.  She  was  buried  in  Indian  fashion,  without  a  coffin,  in  the 
Indian  dress  she  loved  to  wear.  No  more  devoted  missionary  has 
by  life  and  word  preached  Christ  in  India. 

Mr.    t  There  was  one  important  extension  in  the  sixteen  years.     In 

Mission.  1905,  Mr.  J.  Monro,  the  former  Chief  Commissioner  of  Police  in 
London,  who  had  started  an  independent  family  mission  at 
Eanaghat  in  the  south  part  of  the  Nadiya  district,  on  his  return  to 
England  transferred  it  and  its  buildings  and  plant  to  the  Society, 
together  with  his  son,  the  Eev.  Dr.  C.  G.  Monro,  and  two  ladies  ; 
but  Dr.  Monro  retired  after  six  years'  further  service.  His  medical 
mission,  which  had  been  highly  successful,  is  now  an  integral  part 
of  C.M.S.  work;  and  the  women's  side  of  it  is  done  by  a  qualified 
doctor  from  Melbourne  University,  Miss  E.  Good,  and  a  trained 
nurse,  both  sent  by  the  Victoria  Association.  A  medical  man  sent 
from  Canada,  Dr.  Archer,  has,  after  a  few  years'  service,  joined  the 
new  Mission  of  the  Canadian  Church  at  Kangra  in  the  Punjab. 

BIHAE  :  SANTAL  MISSION,  &c. 

Santai  _  The  hilly  country  known  as  the  Santal  Parganas,  in  which  is 
theSSstaff.  carried  on  the  Mission  to  the  aboriginal  Santals,  is  now  in  the  new 
Province  of  Bihar.  This  is  another  village  mission,  worked  in 
much  the  same  way  as  that  in  the  Nadiya  district.  It  has  lost  all 
the  missionaries  of  1899 — the  veterans  J.  Brown  and  Blaich,  and 
Marcus  Brown,  Etheridge,  Jackson,  and  Hughesdon — excepting 
Mr.  Cole  (made  Canon  of  Calcutta  by  Bishop  Welldon)  with  his  42 
years'  experience,  and  Mr.  Jessop,  who  was  sent  out  by  Mr.  E. 
Clifford  of  the  Church  Army  in  1888,  and  joined  the  C.M.S.  in 
1895.  Among  the  missionaries  who  have  gone  out  in  our  period 

*  Mrs.  Bradburn,  who  as  Miss  Highton  was  a  C.E.Z.  missionary,  had  died 
a  few  years  earlier.     She  was  a  sister  of  the  second  Mrs.  H.  E.  Fox. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  CALCUTTA.       235 

are  the  Eev.  and  Mrs.  H.  E.  Holmes,  both  graduates  of  Melbourne  PAKT  ir. 
University,  sent  forth  by  the  Victoria  Association.  He  is  now  chap" 22' 
chairman  of  the  Church  Council. 

The  Santal  Christians  connected  with  the  C.M.S.  have  increased  The 
in  the  fifteen  years  from  4000  to  6500 ;  the  adult  baptisms,  as 
already  stated,  having  been  about  1600.  The  majority  of  the 
Christians  are  now  settled  in  the  distant  colony  of  Santalpur,  in 
British  Bhutan,  far  to  the  north.  There  were  seven  native 
pastors  in  1914,  and  in  Feb.,  1915  Bishop  Lefroy  ordained  two 
more.  The  earliest  Santals  ordained  died  within  our  period, 
except  one  who,  unhappily,  had  to  be  deprived  of  his  orders 
by  the  Bishop  in  1905.  But  before  this  there  was  a  Hindu  by 
birth,  Earn  Charan  Dass,  in  fact  the  first  convert  in  the  Santal 
country  in  1864,  who  was  ordained  in  1876  as  the  first  pastor 
for  the  people  then  rapidly  joining  the  Church ;  and  he  too  died 
in  1908. 

The  other  C.M.S.  Mission  in  Bihar  has  its  headquarters  at  the  Bhagaipur. 
important  town  of  Bhagaipur  on  the  Ganges,  where  the  work  is 
of  the  usual  evangelistic,  educational,  and  pastoral  character.  Mr. 
Mylrea  and  Mr.  Morse  were  working  there  in  the  earlier  years 
of  our  period,  and  since  then  the  Eevs.  J.  A.  Cullen  and  H.  Perfect 
have  been  the  missionaries  in  charge.  A  very  able  man  of 
singular  linguistic  attainments,  a  Polish  Jew,  the  Eev.  Max 
Gerson,  was  at  Bhagaipur  for  a  time  for  Mohammedan  work ; 
but  he  died  after  an  operation  for  appendicitis  in  1911. 

A  very  striking  picture  of  the  extent  of  Bihar  and  the  paucity 
of  missionaries  was  given  by  Mr.  Morse  in  1904.  He  imagined  Auimagi- 
an  Indian  Missionary  Society  sending  missionaries  to  England.  parison.m 
Two  men  are  located  at  Derby  and  open  a  school,  an  orphanage, 
a  dispensary,  and  a  leper  asylum.  At  Nottingham  there  are  120 
converts  with  a  lay  agent  to  minister  to  them,  and  one  of  the  Derby 
men  visits  them  once  a  month.  And  there  is  an  out-station  at 
Keswick,  near  the  borders  of  a  closed  heathen  country  called 
Scotland  (Nepal),  where  a  few  converts  are  visited  about  every 
two  months.  If  England  is  not  converted  very  quickly,  is  there 
any  wonder  ? 

The  S.P.G.  Missions  in  and  around   Calcutta  are  carried  on  other 
mostly  by  Indian  clergymen ;  but   Bishop's   College,  under  Dr.  in  Bengal. 
Gee,  is  an  important  institution  now  nearly  a  century  old.*     The 
Oxford  Mission  is  an  independent  body,  which  has  worked  nobly 
both  in  the  city  and  in  Eastern  Bengal,  f     The  present  Bishop  of 

*  See  Hist.  C.M.S.,  Vol.  I.,  p.  188  :  also  an  article  by  the  present  writer  on 
Bishop  Daniel  Wilson,  C.M.  Intell.,  Sept.,  1902.  It  has  now  been  transformed 
from  a  university  collega  into  a  central  Anglican  Theological  College  under 
the  Bishops ;  and  there  are  arrangements  under  which  C.M.S.  students  may 
have  the  benefit  of  it. 

t  An  interesting  History  of  the  Oxford  Mission  for  its  first  twenty  years, 
by  Mr.  G.  Longridge,  was  published  in  1901,  and  reviewed  in  the  C.  M.  Intell. 
of  May  in  that  year. 


236       C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  CALCUTTA. 

PART  II.  Madras,  Dr.  Whitehead,  was  its  Head  for  some  years.  It  carries 
chafL.22.  on  a  valuable  paper  called  The  E^hany,  which  appeals  with  force 
and  success  to  the  educated  Hindu.  Most  of  the  chief  British 
Missionary  Societies  are  represented  at  Calcutta ;  and  the  Baptists 
have  taken  a  leading  place  ever  since  the  days  of  Carey.  The 
great  College  founded  by  Dr.  Alexander  Duff  is  now  happily 
carried  on  by  the  Established  and  United  Free  Churches  of 
Scotland  in  combination.  The  Established  Church  has  also  an 
interesting  Mission  at  Darjeeling  and  Kalimpong. 

The  largest  S.P.G.  Mission  in  this  part  of  India  is  in  the  Chota 
Nagpur  district  among  the  aboriginal  Kols ;  but  the  German 
Gossner  Mission  is  still  larger.*  Chota  Nagpur  has  a  bishop  of  its 
own,  now  Dr.  Foss  Westcott.  The  Scottish  U.F.  Church  and 
the  "Indian  Home  Mission"  (originally  Swedish)  are  working 
among  the  Santal  people.  Several  smaller  Missions  are  in  the 
new  Province  of  Bihar. 

It  may  here  be  added  that  the  S.P.G.  has  a  Mission  in  Assam, 
with  a  new  bishop,  Dr.  Pakenham  Walsh.  The  Welsh  Calvinists 
have  also  interesting  work  there,  and  in  1905  had  a  revival  parallel 
with  that  in  Wales. 

*  On  the  effect  of  the  War  upon  this  Mission,  see  Appendix. 


CHAPTEE   XXIII. 
C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESES  OF  MADRAS,  DORNAKAL, 

AND    TlNNEVELLY. 

Diocese  of  Madras— Bishop  Cell— Canon  Sell  and  the  Goldsmiths— The 
Satthianadan  Family  —  Zion  Church  —  Nilgiri  Mission  —  Telugu 
Mission  :  The  Mass  Movement — Dummagudem — The  Noble  College 
—Diocese  of  Dornakal  :  Bishop  Azariah's  Work — Haidarabad — 
Tinnevelly  :  Mr.  Walker,  Tinnevelly  College.  Women's  Work, 
Tinnevelly  Church— Bishops  Morley,  Williams,  and  Waller. 

HE  South  India  Missions  of  the  C.M.S.  comprise  five    PART  n. 

different   fields,  viz.,    (1)  the    city    and   environs   of   (;h:^23- 

Madras ;    (2)   the   Nilghiri    Hills ;    (3)   part   of   the  The  Field. 

country  of  the  Telugu-speaking  people ;  (4)  Tinnevelly; 

(5)  Travancore  and  Cochin.  Numbers  1  and  2  are 
usually  taken  together,  and  this  order  we  will  follow ;  the  other 
three  separately.  Numbers  1,  2,  3,  4  are  in  the  legal  Diocese  of 
Madras,  but  Tinnevelly  is  now  a  conventional  diocese  with 
Madura.  Part  of  the  Telugu  Mission  is  in  the  new  Diocese  of 
Dornakal,  which  lies  outside  the  legal  limits  of  the  Diocese  of 
Madras.  Number  5  is  an  independent  diocese. 

The  venerable  Bishop  Gell  resigned  the  bishopric  of  Madras  in  Bishop 
the  Centenary  year,  after  37  years  of  active  episcopal  service.  He 
did  not  leave  the  country,  but  died  at  Coonoor  three  years  later. 
His  was  the  longest  episcopate  in  India  ;  and  he  had  ordained 
more  clergy  of  the  native  races  than  any  other  bishop  in  the 
world.  He  was  deeply  revered  for  his  high  Christian  character ; 
and  a  non- Christian  paper,  the  Hindu,  called  him  "  a  saintly 
personage,  shedding  a  benign  influence  all  around,  .  .  .  witness 
ing  to  the  beauty  of  his  faith."  Bishop  Whitehead,  who  succeeded 
him,  has  proved  equally  a  true  Father  in  God,  and  in  particular 
has  been  conspicuous  for  his  large-hearted  sympathy  with  all 
Christian  work. 

In  the  Diocese  of  Madras  the  S.P.G.  has  extensive  Missions  other 
among  both  the  Telugu  and  the  Tamil  peoples.  Its  Telugu  work 
is  chiefly  in  the  Cuddapah  and  Kurnool  districts.  Its  Tamil 
work  is  spread  all  over  the  country  south  of  Madras,  and  is  in 
fact  the  continuation  of  the  old  S.P.C.K.  Missions  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  particularly  in  the  Tanjore  and  Trichinopoly  districts. 
The  Trichinopoly  College  is  an  important  institution. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS  :  DIOCESE  OF  MADRAS,  &*c. 


The  largest  Telugu  work  is  that  of  the  American  Baptists, 
'  where  there  has  been  a  great  mass  movement  for  several  years. 
Also  the  Canadian  Baptists  and  the  American  Lutherans  have 
important  Missions;  and-  the  L.M.S.  one  of  very  old  standing. 
In  the  Tamil  country  are  the  Wesleyans,  the  Leipsic  Lutherans, 
the  American  (Dutch)  Eeformed  Church,  and  (in  Madura)  the 
A.B.C.F.M.  Tinnevelly  is  divided  between  the  S.P.G.  and  C.M.S. 

In  the  Kanarese  country  the  Basel  Mission  is  the  most 
important,  known  for  its  great  industrial  work.  In  Mysore  the 
Wesleyans  are  strong,  and  the  L.M.S.  The  American  Episcopal 
Methodists  have  spread  over  many  of  these  districts. 

Special  mention  should  be  made  of  the  Madras  Christian  College 
of  the  U.F.  Church  of  Scotland,  which  under  Dr.  W.  Miller  gained 
immense  influence  over  South  India,  and  to  which  the  C.M.S.,  and 
other  Societies,  have  made  a  regular  contribution.  Also  of  the 
new  Christian  College  for  Women  at  Madras,  begun  in  1915  under 
the  Principalship  of  Miss  Eleanor  McDougall ;  in  which  six  British 
Societies,  one  Canadian,  and  five  American  are  co-operating. 

MADEAS. 

canon  Sell.  One  of  our  real  veterans,  Edward  Sell,  who  in  1899  had  been 
34  years  in  India,  was  then  Secretary  for  all  the  Southern 
Missions,  and  has  continued  so  since,  to  the  thankful  satisfaction 
of  the  Society.  As  is  well-known,  he  is  one  of  the  first  authorities 
on  Mohammedanism,  and  one  of  his  numerous  works  on  that 
subject,  The  Faith  of  Islam,  is  a  classic.  He  received  the  gold 
Kaisar-i-Hind  Medal  in  1905.  He  was  appointed  by  the  new 

The  Bishop  a  Canon  of  Madras  Cathedral  in  1901,  along  with  Mr. 

Goldsmith.  Malcolm  Goldsmith,  whose  length  of  service  is  only  seven  years 
less.  Mr.  H.  D.  Goldsmith,  who  was  for  over  20  years  Principal 
of  the  Divinity  School  at  Madras,  died  in  1907  at  Bangalore,  quite 
suddenly,  having  been  taking  part  in  open-air  preaching  only  a 
few  hours  before.  He  had  gone  to  Bangalore  with  a  view  to 
permanent  work  among  the  Moslems  of  Mysore.  Notwithstand 
ing  much  opposition,  large  audiences  attended  his  public  lectures ; 
but  his  death  brought  that  campaign  to  a  close.  An  Indian 
agent,  however,  is  still  there.  Meanwhile,  the  Divinity  School, 
under  Mr.  E.  A.  L.  Moore,  has  continued  to  prepare  excellent 
men  for  the  ministry,  many  of  whom  have  taken  good  places  in 
the  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Theological  Examinations,  including 
first  classes  "  with  distinction  in  Hebrew." 

Besides  the  Divinity  School,  the  one  institution  in  Madras  for 
which  the  Society  is  responsible  is  the  Harris  School  for  Moham 
medans,  originally  started  in  1856  in  pursuance  of  a  legacy  from 
an  aunt  of  Lord  Harris  for  the  purpose.  For  some  years  it  was 
Mr.  Sell's  sphere  of  labour,  and  an  able  Tamil  clergyman  from 
Ceylon,  J.  S.  Peter,  was  headmaster.  Canon  M.  Goldsmith  is 
now  Principal.  All  the  rest  of  the  missionary  work  is  in  the 


Harris 
School 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS-.  DIOCESE  OF  MADRAS,  &c.      239 

hands  of  the  Indian  Church  Council,  of  which   the  Rev.  W.  D.    PART  n. 
Clarke  is  Chairman.     Mr.  Clarke,  who  is  a  Tamil,  has  been  Pastor   ch^_23 
of  Zion  Church  for  twenty  years,  having  succeeded  his  father-in-  JJ°rj^jfan 
law,   the   highly-esteemed   W.    T.    Satthianadan,   in    1893.     The  church!a 
Christian  cause  in  Madras  owes  much  to  the  Satthianadan  family. 
Of  Mrs.  Clarke's  two  brothers,  one  was  pastor  of  another  of  the 
C.M.S.   congregations  in  Madras  ;  and  the  other  was  Professor  The  sat- 
Samuel  Satthianadan  (M.A.,  LL.M.,   LL.D.),  of  the  Presidency 
College,  who  was  a  Cambridge  man  and  one  of  the  most  influential 
Christians  in  India,  and  was  well-known  in  England  and  America. 
He  did  much  literary  work,  particularly  in  The  Christian  Patriot, 
a  leading  Indian  newspaper  of  Madras.*    He  was  President  of  the 
Y.M.C.A. ;  connected  with  the  chief  religious  societies  ;  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  National  Missionary  Society ;  and  the  first  Indian 
Christian  given  a  seat  on  a  C.M.S.  Corresponding  Committee.    He 
was  twice  married  :  first  to  the  first  Indian  woman  novelist,  Miss 
Krupabai  Khisty,  and  secondly  to  the  first  Indian  woman  accorded 
the  M.A.  degree  in  Madras  University,  Miss  Karnalo  Krishnamma. 
Both  brothers  died  in  1906, — the  Professor,  in  Japan,  on  his  way 
home  from  delivering  lectures  at  Harvard  and  Yale  Universities. f 

Of  Zion  Church,  which  is  entirely  self-supporting,  and  which  is  Zion 
the  centre  of  all  kinds  of  good  work,  most  interesting  accounts  c 
are  sent  'to   England   regularly  by  Mr.  Clarke.     The  Preachers' 
Association  may  be  specially  mentioned,  which  consists  of  laymen 
who  voluntarily  go  out  on  preaching  tours.     After   the   C.M.S. 
Centenary,  the  Indian  Christians  raised  a  thankoffering  of  some 
£250,  and  with  this  fund  repaired   and  enlarged  an  old  school 
and  made  it  a  Centenary  Hall,  in  which  many  public  meetings 
have  since  been  held.     In  another  hall,   built  as  a  memorial  to  Public 
W.  T.  Satthianadan,  a  remarkable  meeting  was  held  when  Queen 
Victoria  died,  a  notice  of  which  is  worth  quoting  even  in  so  con 
densed  a  summary  as  this  : — 

"  The  Archdeacon  of  Madras  presided.  The  Eev.  John  Satthianadan 
spoke  of  the  Queen  as  a  child  ;  the  Rev.  J.  S.  Peter  dwelt  on  her  virtues 
as  a  wife  ;  Mr.  E.  S.  Hensman  [whose  wife,  also,  is  a  Satthianadan] 
described  her  qualities  as  a  mother  ;  Mr.  P.  T.  Tharyan,  her  benevolence 
and  sympathy  for  the  poor  and  distressed  ;  Mr.  Paul  Peter  expatiated 
on  her  qualities  as  a  sovereign ;  Professor  S.  Satthianadan  presented  her 
as  an  ideal  woman  ;  and  the  Rev.  H.  G.  Goldsmith  as  a  Christian." 

Other  meetings  in  Madras  have  been  reported  from  time  to 
time ;  among  them  revival  meetings  conducted  by  Mr.  Sherwood 
Eddy,  Dr.  J.  E.  Mott's  Students'  Conventions,  lectures  to  educated 
Hindus  by  Bishop  Whitehead,  and  the  Tamil  Christian  Congress 
held  periodically  for  all  denominations,  which  also  is  in  fact  a 
Convention.  But  most  important  was  the  Decennial  Missionary 

*  A  very  interesting  and  instructive  article  by  him  on  the  Native  Christian 
Community  in  India  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Intell.  of  Sept.,  1900. 
t  See  Mr.  Clarke's  In  Memoriam  of  him,  C.M.  Intell.,  July,  1906, 


PART  11. 

Chap.  23. 


Bank 
Failure. 


Christians 
at  Madras 
University 


Dr.  Mur 
doch  . 


The  Hill 
Missions. 


240      C.M.S.  M issioArs :  DIOCESE  OF  MADRAS,  &>c. 

Conference,  which  having  already  been  held  at  Allahabad,  Calcutta, 
and  Bombay,  met  at  Madras  in  December,  1902.  It  was  notable 
for  the  presence  of  Dr.  Whitehead,  the  first  Anglican  Bishop  to 
attend  any  of  these  great  united  gatherings. 

Another  event  of  the  period  must  be  referred  to  which  caused 
much  distress.  This  was  the  failure  of  Arbuthnot's  Bank,  by 
which  the  Church  Councils  and  many  individual  Christians  lost 
considerable  sums.  The  calamity,  however,  brought  the  Christian 
community  to  its  knees,  not  only  in  prayer,  but  in  fresh  dedica 
tion ;  and  several  developments  of  good  work  were  the  result. 
Although  Zion  Church  lost  Es  5000,  which  had  been  raised  for 
the  enlargement  of  the  church,  the  congregation,  instead  of 
murmuring,  set  to  work  and  raised  another  Es  5000  for  the 
purpose. 

The  number  of  Christians  at  Madras,  connected  with  the 
C.M.S. ,  was,  2140  in  1899,  and  has  increased  to  2800.  The 
number  of  adult  baptisms  in  our  period  is  reported  as  710,  but 
about  a  third  of  these  would  be  in  the  Nilgiri  and  Wynaad 
districts. 

The  reports  of  the  Madras  University  give  striking  evidence  of 
the  educational  progress  of  the  Christians  of  South  India.  In 
1907,  out  of  8370  persons  who  had  graduated  up  to  that  date, 
667  were  Christians,  or  one-twelfth ;  whereas  the  proportion  of 
Christians  to  the  population  at  that  time  was  one  in  35.  And 
be  it  remembered  that  the  great  majority  of  them  are  low-caste 
people. 

The  death  must  be  mentioned  in  passing  of  Dr.  Murdoch, 
Secretary  of  the  Christian  Vernacular  Literature  Society,  a  well- 
known  figure  at  Madras,  who  did  more  than  any  other  man^  to 
promote  the  production  of  Christian  and  useful  books  in  Indian 
languages. 

THE    NlLGIBI    AND    THE    WYNAAD. 

In  the  Nilgiri  Hills  and  in  the  Wynaad,  both  far  to  the  south 
west  but  separated  by  70  miles,  good  work  has  been  carried 
on  from  Ootacamund  as  a  centre.  Mr.  Lash  was  in  charge  for 
several  years,  but  he  retired  in  1909  after  35  years'  service,  chiefly 
in  Tinnevelly.  Mr.  A.  N.  C.  Storrs  was  also  in  charge  for  a  time, 
and  in  later  years  Mr.  Moorhouse.  There  have  been  several 
baptisms  year  by  year,  especially  among  various  aboriginal  hill- 
tribes.  Of  these  the  chief  is  the  Toda  tribe,  and  the  first  Toda 
convert  to  Christianity  was  baptized  in  1904,  a  fruit  of  the  faithful 
work  of  Miss  Ling  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.,  a  veteran  of  over  thirty 
years'  service,  to  whom  has  been  awarded  the  Kaisar-i-Hind  gold 
medal.  A  year  or  two  later  some  Toda  women  were  received  into 
the  Church,  also  owing  to  her  efforts.  Many  converts  have 
been  gathered  in  the  Wynaad,  about  200  of  them  through  the 
labours  of  a  specially  devoted  lay  evangelist,  Mr.  Devasagayam 


C.M.S.  Miss  JONS:  DIOCESE  OF  MADRAS,  &c.      241 

Satfchianadhan,   who  died  in  1912,  and  to  whom  a  most  striking    PAKT  n. 
testimony  was  borne  by  Mr.  Moorhouse.     There  are  some  1600   ch^i23 
converts  altogether.     This  Mission  is  little  known  to  the  C.M.S. 
circle,  but  has  very  interesting  points. 

TELUGU  MISSION. 

The  C.M.S.  Telugu  Mission,  in  the  country  between  the  Eivers  Teiugu 
Kistna  and  Godavari,  has,  from  its  foundation  by  Eobert  Noble  2£STV 
and  H.  W.  Fox  in  1841,  illustrated  the  combination  of  two  different  iect 
missionary  methods.  Noble,  during  the  whole  of  his  unbroken  24 
years'  service,  conducted  the  High  School  now  called  the  Noble 
College,  which  has  yielded  an  unusual  number  of  high-caste  con 
verts,  perhaps  25,  mostly  Brahmans.  Fox  began  the  extensive 
village  work  which,  in  recent  years,  has  added  thousands  of 
Christians  to  the  Church.  But  converts  must  be  weighed  as  well 
as  counted.  Many  of  those  gained  in  the  Noble  College  have 
been  the  leaders  of  the  Christian  community,  some  as  clergy  and 
some  as  lay  members.  Only  in  recent  years  have  low-caste  or 
put-caste  villagers  taken  a  good  place  as  leaders  and  teachers. 
That  they  now  do  so  is  a  cause  of  great  thankfulness  ;  and  the 
strong  appeals  of  the  Bishop  of  Madras  for  the  vigorous  evan 
gelization  of  the  "  depressed  classes  "  are  largely  based  upon  his 
experiences  among  these  peasants. 

But  the  C.M.S.  has  failed  to  respond  to  this  appeal,  so  far  as  The  staff. 
British  missionaries  are  concerned.  The  sixteen  clergymen  and 
two  laymen  of  1899  (with  seven  wives)  have  become  in  1914 
twelve  clergymen  and  no  laymen,  but  with  nine  wives  and  one 
single  woman.  Of  the  25  workers  of  1899,  eight  remained  in  1914. 
The  losses  by  death  have  included  the  veterans  Alexander  and 
Harrison,  after  54  and  42  years'  service  respectively  ;  Goodman, 
22  years  ;  *  and  two  promising  recruits,  Maule  and  Hamshere,  both 
Gospellers  at  the  London  ordination,  like  so  many  of  their  Islington 
fellow-students;  and  by  retirement,  J.  E.  Padfield  (30  years), 
J.  Stone  (24  years),  C.  W.  A.  Clarke  (now  of  Scarborough,  21 
years),  H.  W.  Eales  (35  years). 

The  Indian  clergy,  however,  have  increased  from  17  to  42,  and  Indian 
the  lay  teachers  from  290  to  620.     Of  the  earlier  ordained  men,  Clergy- 
Brahmans  from  the  Noble  College,  only  three  remained  in   1899, 
Ganugapati  Krishnayya,  ordained  in  1871  ;  Atsanda  Sabbarayadu, 
ordained   1885  ;   and  Dhanavada  Anantam,  ordained  1889  ;    also 
two  of  the  first  three  humble  Mala  Christians  admitted  to  the 
ministry,  Marumudi  David  and  Kandavilei  Peter,  ordained  together 
m  1884.     Of  Marumudi  David,  who  died  in  1911,  Mr.  Panes  wrote, 
'  In  life  and  work  he  was  an  example  to  us  all."     Only  one  of  all 
these  is  on  the  list  to-day,  Mr.  Anantam,  who  has  been  engaged 

*  See  the  In  Memoriam  articles  in  the  C.M.  Rev.  on  Mr.  Harrison  in  Nov 
109,  and  on  Mr.  Alexander  and  Mr.  Goodman,  in  Oct.,  1'Jll. 


242      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  MADRAS,  &c. 

PABT  ii.    in  important  educational  and  literary  work,  and  has  been  appointed 
chap._23.   b    Bishop  Whitehead  a  Canon  of  Madras  Cathedral. 

The  increased  number  of  Indian  clergy  and  teachers  has  enable* 
both  the  evangelistic  work  and  the  pastoral  care  of  the  converts 
to  be  supplied,  however  inadequately,  and  the  result  is  seen^n  the 
growth  of  the  Church.  There  were  9200  adult  baptisms  in  our 
period  and  the  total  numbers  increased  from  11,700  to  28,000, 
besides  some  7000  catechumens.  At  the  same  time  the  workers 
are  not  numerous  enough,  so  great  is  the  demand  from  the  villagers 
Mass  Move- themselves  to  be  taught.  In  one  district  alone  there  were  501 
ment-  applicants  from  villages  widely  scattered,  very  few  of  whose  names 
it  was  possible  to  put  down,  as  there  was  no  one  available  to  send 
and  instruct  them.  Some  Missions  would  have  counted  them  all 
and  left  them  without  teaching,  but  the  larger  English  Missionary 
Societies  never  do  that.  Great  numbers,  however,  have  been 
received,  instructed,  and  after  a  probation,  sometimes  of  two  years, 
baptized,  as  the  figures  given  above  show.  There  was  an  interest 
ing  baptismal  service  at  Khammamett  in  February,  1910,  when 
the  present  Bishop  of  Winchester  (then  of  Southwark)  was  touring 
the  district  with  Bishop  Whitehead,  and  himself  baptized  35^of 
the  127  admitted  that  day.  It  should  be  added  that  similar  m- 
tatherings  have  occurred  in  the  S.P.G.  Telugu  districts,  and  they 
have  been  much  larger  in  the  field  of  the  American  Baptists.  ^ 

One  promising  feature  is  the  coming  forward  of  the  Sudras  in 
the  villages,  who,  though  counted  low-caste  in  North  India  are 
comparatively  high-caste  in  the  South,  particularly  the  Aellaias. 
Only  a  few  years  ago  the  movement  was  almost  wholly  among 
the  Malas  and  Madigas,  but  when  in  1907  Bishop  Whitehead 
visited  the  country,  he  baptized  102  Sudras  at  one  time  ;  and  two 
months  later  76  more  were  admitted,  while  hundreds  besides 
were  asking  to  be  taught.  The  Bishop's  confirmation  tours 
have  also  been  occasions  of  much  blessing.  Striking  pictures 
are  drawn  of  candidates  walking  30  and  40  miles  to  be  present, 
carrying  their  children  in  their  arms.*  In  this  work  Mr.  Panes, 
Mr  Eales,  Mr.  Peachey,  and  Mr.  Tanner  have  had  a  large 
share,  succeeding  to  that  once  carried  on  by  Alexander,  Harrison, 
and  Stone.  The  Ellore,  Bezwada,  and  Eaghavapuram  distn 
have  all  been  affected  by  the  movement. 

Dumma-          Dummagudem,  where  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cain  have  laboured  for  40 
gudem.          ears  is  in  a  different  part  of  the  country,  and  quite  isolated.     1 
was  occupied  with  a  view  to  reaching  the  ^oi  abon^nes,  bni  they 
have  proved  timid  and  suspicious,  and  the  bulk  of  the  1600  Chris 
tians  now  in  the  district  are  Telugu  Malas.     The  veteran  mission 
aries  are  assisted  by  two  C.E.Z.  ladies,  and  since  Eazu  s  death  t 

*  See  Bishop  Whitehead's  own  accounts,  in  the  CM.  IntelL,  March,  1905, 

at  ^f^IDY^KS:^who  began  this  Mission  under  General 
Haig  more  than  half  a  century  ago,  died  in  1906.  A  most  interesting  account 
of  him  was  sent  by  Mr,  Cain.  See  CM.  Bev.,  Feb.,  1907- 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  DORNAKAL.      243 

by  another  Indian  pastor.     Mrs.  Cain,  who  as  Miss  Davies  was    PART  n. 
sent  from  Melbourne  by  the  late  Mr.  Macartney  forty  years  ago,    Ch!£i23< 
has   been  successful   in   promoting   industrial   work   among   the 
women,  and  the  Government   have  conferred   on  her  the  silver 
Kaisar-i-Hind  medal.    The  Bishop  of  Dornakal  visited  this  remote 
station  (for  the  Bishop  of  Madras)  at  Christmas  1914,  and  con 
firmed  135  candidates. 

The  Noble  College  at  Masulipatam,  the  Training  Institution  The  Noble 
there,  the  High  Schools  at  Bllore  and  Bezwada,  and  the  many  other  College< 
schools  of  various  kinds,  have  all  pursued  their  usual  course.  The 
Training  Institution,  so  long  the  work  of  Mr.  Padfield,  and  latterly 
of  Mr.  Panes,  is  just  now  superintended  by  the  Eev.  Kantayya 
Ganugapati,  a  graduate  of  Madras  University,  whose  stipend,  it  is 
interesting  to  notice,  is  provided  by  the  New  Zealand  C.M.  Associa 
tion  ;  and  Bezwada  High  School  was  conducted  for  a  time  by 
Canon  Anantam.  Since  Mr.  0.  W.  A.  Clarke's  return  home  in 
1907,  Mr.  Penn  has  been  Principal  of  the  Noble  College,  assisted 
by  Mr.  G.  E.  Ennis.  Mr.  Sherwood  Eddy  has  more  than  once 
rendered  valuable  service  by  coming  from  Madras  to  give  addresses 
to  ^the  students ;  and  when  Mr.  Manley  was  in  India,  he  too 
visited  the  Noble  College  and  spoke  on  the  Atonement  and  on  his 
own  conversion.  The  latter  lecture  caused  keen  inquiries  as  to 
what  he  was  before,  "  a  Hindu  or  a  Mohammedan,"  and  it  was  a 
useful  lesson  for  the  students  to  learn  that  nominal  and  real 
Christianity  are  two  very  different  things.  The  baptism  of  a 
Brahman  student  in  1905  caused  great  excitement  and  bitterness, 
but  not  the  emptying  of  the  school  as  in  former  times.  Eugby 
School  still  maintains  a  "  Eugby-Fox  Master  "  in  the  Noble  College, 
raising^  over  £300  a  year  for  the  purpose,  as  it  has  done  for  five 
and  thirty  years.  A  curious  fact  is  mentioned  in  connexion  with 
the  High  School  at  Ellore.  An  old  soldier,  now  a  local  Eajah,— 
not  a  Christian, — has  translated  the  Gospels  of  St.  Matthew,  St. 
Luke,  and  St.  John  into  "rhythmical  Telugu,"  with  a  preface 
which  a  Christian  might  have  written.* 

The  Sharkey  Memorial  School  for  Girls  (a  "  middle  school ")  is 
superintended  by  the  only  C.M.S.  woman  missionary  in  the  Telugu 
Mission,  Miss  Staunton  Batty.  The  rest  of  the  women's  work  is 
done  by  about  a  dozen  ladies  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S. 

DIOCESE  OF  DORNAKAL. 

The  Diocese  of  Dornakal  has  a  special  interest  as  the  sphere  of  New 
the  first  Indian  bishop.     It  comprises  a  large  area  in  the  south- 
eastern  part  of  the  native  State  of  Haidarabad,  the  State  some 
times  called  the  Nizam's  Dominions.      Within  the  diocesan  area 
there  is  a  population  of  two  millions,  mostly  Telugu-speaking. 

The  C.M.S.  Mission  in  the  diocese  has  for  its  centre  the  town 

*  C.M.S.  Report,  1015,  p.  156. 


244      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  DORNAKAL. 

PART  ii.  of  Khammamett,  which  was  occupied  as  an  extension  of  the 
chapes.  Telugu  Mission  in  1888.  Mr.  Panes,  Mr.  Peachey,  Mr.  Tanner, 
and  Mr.  Woodhouse  were  successively  missionaries  in  charge; 
and  in  1913,  when  the  Diocese  of  Dornakal  was  formed,  Mr.  Grans- 
wick,  of  the  New  South  Wales  Association,  was  there.  There 
were  five  Telugu  pastors  under  him,  and  100  lay  teachers,  working 
in  75  villages.  The  baptized  Christians  were  then  3384,  with  1451 
catechumens.  The  returns  a  year  later  were,  baptized  4271, 
catechumens  2372;  and  there  were  seven  pastors  and  115  lay 
teachers.  Mr.  Cranswick  has  gone  back  to  Australia,  and  the 
Eev.  Anthony  B.  Elliott  has  succeeded  him. 

The  Tinnevelly  Missionary  Society,  of  which  Bishop  Azariah 
was  himself  virtually  the  founder  some  years  ago,  is  also  working 
in  the  diocese;  and  there  is  a  small  Diocesan  Mission  at  the 
Singareni  Collieries,  which  is  conducted  by  a  Tamil  missionary 
supported  by  St.  Mark's,  Wellington,  N.Z. 

The  Bishops  in  India  have  appealed  for  an  endowment  for  the 
Bishopric  of  Dornakal  of  Es  100,000  (£6660),  and  one-fourth  of 
this  was  raised  immediately  in  India.  They  thought  it  important 
that  the  first  Indian  bishop  should  not  look  for  his  maintenance  to 
English  Missionary  Societies. 

Work  of  Bishop  Azariah  held  his  first  ordination  on  Feb.  16th,  1913,  when 
Azariah.  eignt  Indians  received  deacons'  orders.  The  accounts  that  have 
come  of  his  work  and  influence  have  given  full  assurance  that  God 
has  blessed  him  and  made  him  a  blessing ;  and  this  not  in  his 
own  diocese  only,  for  besides  being  an  independent  bishop  in  a 
country  not  under  direct  British  rule,  he  is  also  assistant-bishop 
to  the  Bishop  of  Madras,  and  in  that  capacity  travels  all  over 
South  India.*  Mr.  Cranswick,  while  still  working  under  him, 
wrote  most  warmly  of  "  our  dear  bishop."  He  wrote  in  November, 
1913,  "  He  has  been  a  constant  help  and  inspiration.  It  is  always 
a  joy  to  do  work  with  and  for  him."  He  described  an  eighty  miles' 
journey  to  visit  a  Sudra  village  where  there  were  inquirers.  "  The 
people  came  to  us  in  great  crowds,  and  sat  in  the  moonlight 
enraptured  by  the  story  of  Christ.  ...  I  enjoyed  very  much  the 
Bishop's  beautifully  simple  parabolic  teaching  to  these  babes  in 
Christ."  The  Bishop  and  Mr.  Cranswick  went  together  to  a 
Y.M.C.A.  Camp  for  Telugu  young  Christian  men,  and  "  lived  a 
common  life  with  seventy  of  them";  also  to  Haidarabad  and 
Secunderabad  to  conduct  conventions.  Mr.  Cranswick  also  de 
scribed  a  first  Diocesan  Summer  School,  held  at  Khammamett, 
and  attended  by  all  the  clerical  and  lay  workers  in  the  diocese. 
It  lasted  six  days,  services,  meetings,  and  classes  going  on  all  day 
from  7  a.m.  Bishop  Azariah  preached  every  night,  gave  lectures 
on  preparation  for  baptism,  and  conducted  Bible  classes, — helped 
in  these  last  by  two  Indian  clergymen.  Mrs.  Azariah  took 
women's  meetings,  along  with  two  C.E.Z.  ladies.  After  the 
school  was  over  there  was  a  baptismal  service  in  the  river,  when 

*  See    p.  182. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  TINXEVELLY.      245 

115  catechumens  were  received  into  the  Church.     The  clergy  were    PART  IT. 
in  the  water  two  hours.    "  The  scene  was  indeed  an  Apostolic  and   Cliap' 23> 
primitive  one.  .  .  .  We  Europeans  almost  felt  that  we  formed  the 
one  discordant  feature.  .  .  .  The  Rev.  A.  Andrew,  of  the  S.P.G. 
Telugu  Mission,  greatly  assisted  by  interpreting  for  those  who 
were  not  able  to  speak  in  Telugu."  *    In  January,  1915,  the  Bishop 
of  Madras  visited  the  diocese,  and  took  part  in  a  similar  baptismal 
service  ;  and  he  wrote,  "  It  was,  I  imagine,  very  like  that  by  the 
banks  of  the  river  Jordan,  where  John  was  baptizing."  f 


HAIDARABAD. 

It  remains  to  speak  of  Haidarabad,  the  capital  of  the  Nizam's  Haida- 
territory.  There  was  formerly  a  Madras  Diocesan  Mission  there,  rabad< 
and  Mr.  M.  Goldsmith  had  been  lent  to  that  Mission  for  a  time  to 
carry  it  on,  its  purpose  being  to  reach  educated  Mohammedans  ; 
but  it  was  transferred  to  the  C.M.S.  in  1901.  Mr.  Goldsmith  was 
Assisted  for  a  time  by  Canon  AH  Bakhsh,  whom  we  have  met  in 
the  Punjab.  Another  Moslem  convert,  an  Afghan,  B.  R.  Gauri, 
was  ordained  for  this  post  in  1911,  but  died  in  a  few  weeks  of 
smallpox.  Interesting  baptisms  have  occurred  from  time  to  time  ; 
among  them  a  Mohammedan  doctor  and  his  family,  and  the  son 
of  a  Persian  merchant  at  Bushire.  In  1903,  an  Oxford  man,  the 
Rev.  Norman  Miller,  was  sent  to  join  this  Mission,  but  he  died 
soon  after  reaching  Haidarabad.  He  was  a  very  choice  man,  and 
his  loss  was  deeply  felt.f  His  place  was  taken  in  1905  by  the 
Rev.  G.  E.  Brown,  a  graduate  of  Sydney  University,  sent  by  the 
New  South  Wales  C.M.  Association,  who  has  taken  charge  of 
the  Mission  since  Canon  Goldsmith  returned  to  the  Harris  School 
at  Madras. § 

TlNNEVELLY. 

Tinnevelly  as   a  mission  field   is  divided,  as   is   well   known,  Tinneveiiy 
between  the  C.M.S.  and  S.P.G.      The  S.P.G.  work  at  Nazareth 
and  Tuticorin  is  very  interesting.     The  C.M.S.  Mission  has  in  our 
period   gone  on  its  way  steadily  and  quietly,  with  scarcely  any 
changes  other  than  those  of  the  mission  staff.     In  1899  the  C.M.S.  TIlft  stnff« 
had  ten  clergymen,  one  layman,  ten  wives,  and  three  other  women, 
every  one  of  them  with  some  years'  experience.     In  1914,  five  of 
the  ten  clergy  were  still  at  work,  and  the  one  layman,  and  there 
were  two  clerical  recruits.     Of  the  three  women,  one  remains  and 
eight  others  have  joined ;  but  of  these,  three  were  already  in  the 

*  See  the  whole  account,  C.M.  Rev.,  May,  1914. 

t  See  C.M.S.  Gazette,  May,  1915. 

t  See  the  memorial  notices  of  him,  by  the  Rev.  G.  Foster  Carter,  of  Oxford, 
and  Canon  Goldsmith,  in  the  C.M.  Intelligencer,  May,  1904. 

§  An  article  by  Mr.  Brown  on  the  work  among  Mohammedans  at  Haidara 
bad  appeared  in  the  Moslem  World,  Jan.,  1912, 


246     C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  TINNEVELLY. 


PART  II. 
chap. 23. 

Deaths. 


Rev.  T. 
Walker. 


Women's 
Work: 


country   under   the   C.E.Z.M.S.,    and   have   been   transferred   to 
C.M.S. 

The  Mission  has  lost  by  death,  from  the  staff  of  1899,  the  Eevs. 
T.  Walker,  T.  Kember,  and  J.  0.  M.  Hawkins,  Mrs.  Thomas,  and 
Mrs.  E.  S.  Carr ;  also  the  Eev.  H.  E.  L.  Newbery,  who  went  out 
in  1901,  and  died  in  1903.  Mrs.  Thomas  was  the  venerable  widow 
of  the  Eev.  John  Thomas,  who  founded  the  Megnanapuram 
Christian  village  in  1838,  and  died  in  1870.  She  never  left  that 
interesting  home,  and  survived  him  thirty  years,  "  a  mother  in 
Israel"  to  the  last.  Her  daughter  continued  with  her,  and  is 
now  herself  the  mother  in  Israel,  having  superintended  the  Elliott 
Tuxford  School  for  nearly  half-a-century.  Mrs.  Eleanor  Carr, 
who  was  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Wigram,  the  C.M.S.  Honorary  Secre 
tary,  joined  the  Punjab  Mission  in  1891,  and  afterwards  married 
Mr.  Carr  and  came  to  Tinnevelly.  Mr.  Kember  had  laboured  in 
Tinnevelly  45  years,  and  had  long  been  Principal  of  the  Pre- 
parandi  Institution  for  training  catechists  and  pastors,  the  work 
formerly  done  by  Bishop  Sargent.  But  the  greatest  blow  of  all 
was  the  death  of  Mr.  Walker  in  1912,  when  at  the  height  of  his 
usefulness  after  27  years'  service.  He  had  been  Chairman  of  the 
Tinnevelly  Church  Council,  almost  an  episcopal  post,  with  nearly 
50  clergymen  under  him  and  hundreds  of  lay  teachers  ;  but  he 
had  handed  this  charge  to  Mr.  Carr,  and  given  himself  to  evange 
listic  work,  to  training  Tamil  candidates  for  ordination,  and  to 
holding  special  missions  in  many  parts  of  India,  for  which  service 
his  high  spiritual  character  specially  fitted  him.*  He  had  also 
done  fine  literary  work  by  contributing  to  the  Indian  Church  Com 
mentaries  those  on  the  Acts  and  the  Epistle  to  the  Philippians.f 
He  died  while  actually  taking  a  convention  at  Masulipatam.J 
The  Mission  also  lost  heavily  by  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Arthur 
Storrs  and  Mr.  E.  A.  Douglas  ;  and  four  other  workers  were 
transferred  to  other  Missions. 

Three  members  of  the  Mission  have  held  the  same  posts  all 
through  our  period :  Mr.  Carr  and  Miss  Thomas,  as  already  men 
tioned,  and  Mr.  Schaffter  as  Principal  of  the  College  in  Tinnevelly 
Town.  Mr.  Key  worth,  who  has  now  been  in  India  40  years  (but 
the  first  ten  under  the  Christian  Literature  Society)  was  for  most 
of  the  time  leader  of  the  itinerating  band  of  evangelists,  and  Mr. 
Breed  was  for  several  years  in  charge  of  the  outlying  district  of 
North  Tinnevelly.  But  Mr.  Ardill  and  Mr.  Scott  Price  have  been 
in  turn  in  various  posts  during  the  furloughs  of  others. 

The   C.E.Z.M.S.  has  had  about  a  dozen  ladies  in  Tinnevelly. 

*  See  a  very  impressive  paper  by  him  in  the  C.M.  IntelL,  Aug.,  1903. 

f  See  an  account  of  these  Commentaries,  C.M.  Rev.,  Jan.  and  Feb.,  1913. 

J  See  the  remarkable  memorial  notices  by  Mr.  Carr,  Mr.  Cranswick,  and 
Bishop  Williams,  C.M.  Rev.,  Nov.,  1912.  An  admirable  biography  entitled 
Walker  of  Tinnevelly  has  been  compiled  by  his  fellow-worker,  Miss  Wilson- 
Carmichael,  and  has  lately  been  published  by  Morgan  and  Scott.  It  is  a 
beautiful  picture  of  a  beautiful  life.  See  the  Rev.  G.  B.  Durrant's  review  of 
it  in  the  C.M.  Rev.,  Feb.,  1916. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  TINNEVELLY.      247 

One  of  them,  Miss  Wilson-Carmichael,  is  well-known  for  her  PARTII. 
remarkable  books,  Things  as  They  Are,  Lotus  Buds,  &c.,  and  for  ch^£i23- 
her  beautiful  work  in  rescuing  and  caring  for  "  temple  children."  |^rcak^r 
Another,  quite  a  veteran  now,  Miss  Swainson,  has  been  thirty  College, 
years  in  India,  and  her  work  for  the  deaf  and  dumb  has  gained 
her  the  silver  Kaisar-i-Hind  medal.  But  one  of  the  most  important 
examples  of  women's  work  in  all  India,  the  Sarah  Tucker  Institu 
tion,  an  old  C.M.S.  school  re-organized  and  enlarged  by  Mr.  Lash 
about  1870,  and  carried  on  for  several  years  by  the  C.E.Z.M.S., 
was  taken  over  again  by  the  C.M.S.  in  1901 ;  three  of  the  ladies, 
Miss  Askwith,  Miss  Naish,  and  Miss  Walford  coming  on  to  the 
Society's  staff,  and  being  joined  in  the  following  year  by  Miss 
E.  E.  Howard.  Miss  Walford  is  now  Principal.  The  Institution 
is  now  a  "  Second-Grade  College,"  and  is  much  valued  by  the 
Government  educational  authorities  for  its  training  of  Christian 
school-mistresses ;  and  it  has  several  subsidiary  departments. 
Miss  Askwith,  now  detached  from  the  Sarah  Tucker  College,  is  a 
veteran  of  34  years'  standing,  and  a  Kaisar-i-Hind  medallist  for 
her  splendid  educational  and  philanthropic  work,  especially  among 
the  blind,  in  connexion  with  which  she  has  been  a  pioneer  in  the 
matter  of  types  and  codes.  This  work  she  is  still  carrying  on. 

Most  of  the  institutions  are  at  Palamcotta  :  the  Sarah  Tucker, 
the  Preparandi  Institution,  the  High  Schools,  Model  Schools, 
Blind  Schools,  &c. ;  and  there,  too,  is  done  all  the  multifarious 
work  connected  with  the  numerous  pastorates  scattered  over  the 
province.  But  there  is  one  institution  in  Tinnevelly  Town,  where 
the  great  temple  of  Siva  is,  viz.,  the  Tinnevelly  College,  a  "  Second-  Tinnevelly 
Grade  College  "  with  its  High  School  attached,  and  altogether  c 
nearly  1000  young  men  and  boys  under  instruction.  Here  Mr. 
Schatfter  has  laboured  for  35  years,  and  the  wonder  is  that  the 
College  should  have  produced-  converts  to  Christ  in  that  purely 
heathen  town  dominated  by  that  temple.  Yet  so  it  is,  case  after 
case  having  been  reported.  But  the  influence  of  such  institutions 
is  much  wider  than  the  number  of  baptisms  would  suggest.  Let 
one  illustration  be  given.  In  the  debating  society  of  the  College  its  re- 
the  subject  on  one  occasion  was  "  Doctors."  One  student 
declared  it  was  the  highest  of  professions,  being  like  the  work  of 
Christ;  whereupon  another  said,  "But  who  can  be  compared 
with  Christ  ?  Did  He  ever  try  a  case  and  fail  ?  How  about  the 
doctors  ?  Did  He  ever  charge  one  cash  for  healing  the  sick  ? 
How  about  the  doctors  ?  "  Both  speakers  were  Brahmans,  and 
both  were  loudly  applauded ;  and  this  is  the  estimate  of  our  Lord 
which  is  gradually  permeating  India,  and  will  one  day  work  a 
tremendous  revolution.  The  gradual  effect  upon  the  Brahman 
mind  is  shown  in  another  way.  Mr.  Schaffter  wrote  in  1900  that 
while,  20  years  before,  a  separate  bench  had  to  be  provided  for 
the  Brahman  boys  to  sit  on,  he  had  just  seen  "  a  pariah  Christian 
student,  a  first-class  matriculate,  walking  down  the  chief  Brahman 
street  with  a  Brahman  student  on  each  side,  one  with  his  arm 


24cS      C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  TTNNRVELLY 

PART  ii.    locked  in  the  Christian's,  the  other  holding  an  umbrella  over  the 
chapes,   party,  both  intent  on  a  note-book  on  the  lesson  of  the  day  which 
the  Christian  was  carrying." 

One  feature  of  the  school's  influence  is  illustrated  by  the 
following :  Mr.  Schaffter's  son,  Dr.  C.  M.  Schaffter,  has  joined  the 
C.M.S.  Persia  Mission.  Before  he  left  Tinnevelly,  the  masters 
and  boys  gave  him  a  pleasant  "  send-off,"  and  made  speeches  in 
eight  languages,  Tamil,  Telugu,  Malayalam,  Kanarese,  Marathi, 
Persian,  Hindustani,  Sanskrit.  "  Many  of  the  students_  cannot 
understand  each  other's  mother-tongue,  but  English  is  their 
common  language." 

There  are  "  middle  schools  "  in  outlying  towns  and  villages,  as 
well  as  the  ordinary  ''vernacular  schools."  Two  Brahman  boys 
in  one  of  them  were  baptized  in  1905,  to  the  amazement  of  the 
community.* 

The  Native  The  Church  in  Tinnevelly  has  continued  to  grow.  It  comprises 
rchi  some  96,000  Christians,t  of  whom  32,000  are  in  the  S.P.G.  dis 
tricts  (including  some  9000  in  Madura) .J  The  48,000  baptized 
Christians  in  the  C.M.S.  districts  in  1899  have  grown  to  64,600, 
with'  5000  catechumens.  The  adult  baptisms  in  our  period  were 
10,388.  The  Indian  clergy  now  number  72,  of  whom  43  are 
connected  with  the  C.M.S.,  which  is  a  falling  off  from  the  49  of 
1899,  the  deaths  not  having  been  balanced  by  the  new  ordina 
tions^  The  C.M.S.  lay  agents  have  increased  from  940  to  1040, 
and  there  appear  to  be  about  500  belonging  to  the  S.P.G.  The 
Church  Council  system,  as  re-arranged  by  Mr.  Barton  when  he 
visited  Tinnevelly  in  1890,  has  worked  very  well,  and  in  1911  the 
Council  released  the  Society  entirely  from  grants  to  the  pastoral 
work  of  the  Church,  as  the  local  contributions,  about  £2500  a 
year,  were  sufficient  to  maintain  the  clergy,  catechists,  and 
teachers,  and  the  Church  expenses.  The  Church  contributes 
regularly  to  the  Bible  Society,  S.P.C.K.,  and  Jews'  Society,  and 
in  1905  'it  sent  a  special  offering  of  £500  to  the  C.M.S.  Ma.ny  of 
the  pastors  are  now  veterans  in  the  service  of  the  Church.  The 
Chairman  of  the  Dohnavur  Circle  Committee  was  ordained  forty 
years  ago. 

Two  or  three  of  the  native  clergy  who  have  died  have  been 
noticed  in  a  previous  chapter  (p.  198).  In  another  chapter  (p.  164) 
was  mentioned  the  Tinnevelly  Missionary  Society  and  its  work  in 

*  For  the  work  of  the  Children's  Special  Service  Mission  among  the 
Christian  children  of  Tinnevelly,  see  Mr.  R.  T.  Archibald's  interesting  account, 
G.  M.  Intelligencer,  April,  1905. 

t  The  figures  of  the  Societies.  The  Indian  Church  Directory  gives  100,000 
as  the  total. 

J  The  Rev.  J.  A.  Sharrock,  of  the  S.P.G.,  has  written  an  interesting  book 
on  the  Missions  in  Tinnevelly  and  the  Tamil  country  generally,  entitled  South 
Indian  Missions,  published  by  the  S.P.G. 

§  There  has  been  a  lack  of  new  ordinations  owing  to  the  closing  of  the 
Divinity  School  on  Mr.  Walker's  death.  It  is  now  being  reopened. 


Pentlan(l- 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  Ti  AWE  FELLY.      249 

the  Telugu  Country/"  and  also  the  fact  that  the  new  Bishop  of    PART  n. 
Dornakal,  Mr.  Azariah,  is  a  Tinnevelly  man,  and  was  educated   Chap-  23- 
in  ^  the  Tinnevelly  Oollege.f     The   remarks,  however,  as   to   the 
spiritual  condition  of  the  Christian  Church  in  India  apply  in  a 
general  way  to  Tinnevelly.     Certainly  the  Tinnevelly  Christians 
have  had  unusual  advantages  through  the  frequent  "  missions  " 
held  by  Mr.  Walker,  and  also  by  Mr.  Eddy. 

The  present  Bishop  of  Winchester,  Dr.  Talbot,  visited  Tinnevelly  Bishop 
when  he  was  in  India  in  1910,  being  the  first  English  diocesan  Tfnn 
bishop  ever  seen  there.     A  crowded  meeting  was  held  in  the  Cen 
tenary  Hall  at  Palamcotta,  when  the  Eev.  Manikam  Asirvatham, 
one  of  the  senior  pastors,  read  an  address  sketching  the  history 
of  the  ^  Mission.     "  The  Bishop's  reply  was  full  of  sympathy  and 
appreciation.     Plain  practical  truths,  sound  wholesome  advice,  all 
marked   by   sincere   Christian    love,   ran    through   the    Bishop's 
speech,  and  caused  it  to  make  a  deep  impression  on  the  hearers." 

Lord  Pentland,  Governor  of  Madras,  in  response  to  an  address  Lord 
from  the  Christians  of  Tinnevelly  when  he  visited  Palamcotta  in 
March,  1914,  spoke  warmly  of  the  "  splendid  work  "  of  the  Mission, 
particularly  of  the  philanthropic  efforts  of  Miss  Askwith  and 
Miss  Swainson;  and  congratulated  the  Church  on  its  own 
Missionary  Society,  and  on  the  appointment  of  the  Bishop  of 
Dornakal.  J 

It  remains  to  add  that  Bishop  Morley,  who  presided  over  the  Bishops 
conventional  diocese  of  Tinnevelly  from  its  formation  in  1896,  wmSms 
retired  in  1904  in  consequence  of  Mrs.  Morley's  health.  He  was  aml  Waller. 
much  esteemed  by  all  tho  people,  and  at  a  crowded  meeting  in  a 
new  hall,  which  had  been  built  to  commemorate  the  C.M.S. 
Centenary,  a  handsome  gift  was  presented  to  him  by  the 
Christians  of  both  the  C.M.S.  and  S.P.G.  districts.  He  was  suc 
ceeded  by  Archdeacon  A.  A.  Williams  of  Madras,  who,  after  a  ten 
years'  episcopate,  in  which  he  won  the  same  esteem,  died  in 
1914.  §  He  is  succeeded  by  the  Eev.  E.  H.  M.  Waller,  already 
mentioned  as  one  of  the  C.M.S.  missionaries  in  the  United 
Provinces,  and  for  the  past  two  or  three  years  one  of  the 
Secretaries  in  Salisbury  Square.  During  the  interval  the  Bishop 
of  Dornakal  has  exercised  episcopal  functions  all  over  Tinnevelly. 
Mr.  Waller  was  consecrated  at  Calcutta  on  Advent  Sunday,  Nov. 
28th,  1915. 

*  Concerning  this  Society,  see  the  CM.  Intelligencer,  Jan.,  1905,  and  the 
C.M.  Review,  Sept.,  1908.  The  latter  account,  a  most  interesting  one,  is  by 
Mr.  Azariah  himself,  now  the  Bishop  of  Dornakal. 

t  A  graphic  account  of  the  visit  paid  by  Bishop  Azariah  to  Tinnevelly  soon 
after  his  consecration  appeared  in  the  CM.  Review  of  November,  1913.  The 
enthusiasm  of  his  welcome  was  quite  extraordinary. 

t  See  the  whole  speech,  C.M.  Rev.,  Oct.,  1914. 

§  See  the  In  Memoriam  of  Bishop  Williams,  C.M.  Rev.,  Sept.,  1914. 


CHAPTEE   XXIV. 


PAUT  ii. 
Chap. 24. 


Retrospect 
of  the 
Mission. 


The 
Bishops. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:  DIOCESE  OF  TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN. 

Christian  Population  of  the  Two  States— The  Anglican  Bishops— Mission 
Staff  and  Native  Clergy— Deaths— Ten  Years'  Confirmations— Caste 
and  Out-Caste—Educational  Institutions— The  Syrian  Churches: 
Revival  Movements,  Syrian  Bishops  and  Dr.  Mott,  Remarkable 
Meeting  at  Calcutta. 

EAVANCOEE  and  Cochin  are  two  semi-independent 
protected  States,  and  the  rulers  have  shown  enlighten 
ment  in  their  policy  in  many  ways.  Nowhere  in  India 
has  caste  feeling  been  stronger,  but  there  is  an  official 
toleration  of  Christianity  which  much  struck  Sir 
Valentine  Chirol  of  the  Times  when  he  visited  the  two  States  in 
1906.  The  fact  is  that,  owing  to  the  existence  of  the  ancient 
Syrian  Church,  there  is  a  larger  Christian  population  in  Trayan- 
core  and  Cochin  than  in  any  other  part  of  India,  and  the  Syrians 
are  among  the  best  educated  and  most  prosperous  of  the  people. 
Out  of  a  population  of  4,347,000,  about  one-fourth  are  professing 
Christians,  and  of  these,  705,000  are  Syrians  or  «  Eomo-Syrians  "  ; 
this  latter  term  signifying  those  who,  though  belonging  by  descent 
to  the  ancient  Church,  have  joined  (or  their  forefathers  joined)  the 
Church  of  Eome;  and  288,000  Eomans  whose  forefathers  were 
heathen.  The  Protestant  Christians,  158,000,  include  82,000 
Tamil-speaking  people  in  the  South,  who  are  the  fruit  of  the 
L.M.S.  Mission,  and  the  C.M.S.  Malayalam  people  in  the  North 
and  in  Cochin,  reckoned  by  the  Census  of  1911  as  56,000.  The 
remainder  are  partly  Salvationists,  many  of  them  seceders  from 
the  L.M.S. ,  and  partly  attached  to  various  free-lance  Missions, 
which  cause  much  bewilderment. 

The  Travancore  and  Cochin  Mission  is  one  of  the  Society  s 
oldest,  having  been  begun  in  1816  at  the  request  of  the  British 
Besident,  Colonel  Munro,  with  a  view  to  reviving  the  life  of  the 
ancient  Syrian  Church.  When,  after  twenty  years,  that  purpose 
was  still  unfulfilled,  the  Mission  turned  to  the  non- Christian 
population,  and  from  that  time  it  prospered ;  and  the  result  has 
been  much  spiritual  movement  within  the  old  Church  also. 

The  Anglican  Bishopric  of  Travancore  and  Cochin  was  founded 
in  1879.  The  first  Bishop,  Dr.  Speechly,  was  succeeded  in  1890 
by  Bishop  Hodges,  who  was  still  in  office  when  our  period 
commenced.  He  had  been  Principal  of  the  Noble  College  at 


C.MS.  MINIONS:  TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN.    251 

Masulipatam,  and  of  Trinity   College  at  Kandy.     He  retired  in 
1905,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Eev.  Charles  Hope  Gill,  whom    ( 
we  have  already  met  as  C.M.S.  Secretary  in  the  United  Provinces. 

In  1899  the  mission  staff  comprised  twelve  clergymen,  with  ten  The  CJM.S. 
wives,  and  three  women  missionaries.     In  1915  there  were  nine  staff- 
clergymen,  with  five  wives,  and  eight  women  missionaries.     Of 
the  25   of   1899,    eight   remained  in    1914.     The   diminution   of 
numbers  has  been  more  than  compensated  for  by  the  increase  of 
Indian  clergy  from  24  to  34  notwithstanding  several  deaths  ;  and 
the  lay  teachers  have  also  increased  from  557  to  687. 

The  losses  in  the  mission  staff  by  death  have  cut  off  several  Deaths : 
links  with  the  early  years  of  the  Mission.  Just  before  our  period  FamHyf1 
began,  Mrs.  Henry  Baker  had  died,  the  widow  of  the  second 
Henry  Baker.  Her  daughter,  who  was  carrying  on  the  Girls' 
Boarding  School,  also  died  in  1901.  From  the  beginning  the 
Baker  family_  have  been  conspicuous  in  the  mission  ranks.  The 
first  and  second  Henry  Baker,  and  both  their  wives,  had  died 
before  the  Centenary,  and  three  of  the  former's  daughters  had 
been  wives  of  other  missionaries.  In  1899  there  were  two  Bakers 
on  the  staff,  Misses  M.  F.  and  Isabel,  daughters  of  the  second 
Henry  Baker ;  and  when  the  former  died  in  1901,  another  of  her 
sisters,  Annie,  joined,  but  she  also  died  in  1912.  It  is  hard  to 
measure  the  indebtedness  of  the  Mission  to  all  these  ladies.  Mrs. 
Bellerby  also,  formerly  of  the  C.E.Z.M.S.  in  Ceylon,  died  in  1912. 
But  the  greatest  loss  came  by  the  death  in  1913  of  the  veteran 
J.  H.  Bishop,  a  Cambridge  man  sent  out  in  1867,  and  one  of  the  J.  H. 
most  faithful  and  humble-minded  of  missionaries.'"'  Among  the  B 
Indian  clergy  who  have  died  were  Archdeacons  Koshi  Koshi  and 
Oornen  Mamen,  both  good  and  able  men,  each  after  about  half-a- 
century's  service.  Mr.  Koshi  received  from  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  the  D.D.  degree  for  his  important  work  in  the  revision 
of  the  Malayalam  Bible,  f  Also  the  two  next  in  seniority,  the  Revs. 
•Jacob  Tharian  and  Kunengheri  Koratha,  the  latter  of  whom  had 
done  much  translational  work  in  Malayalam,  including  parts  of  the 
S.P.C.K.  Commentary;  also  the  Rev.  Arnpallur  Ezekiel  David, 
Mr.  Bishop's  much-valued  colleague.  In  1906  was  reported  the 
death  of  a  Brahman  convert,  S.  Satiadasan,  whose  baptism  in  1876 
was  recorded  in  the  G.M.  Intelligencer  in  several  pages  of  large 
type.  Brahman  baptisms  were  much  rarer  in  those  days. 

The  losses  by  retirement  include,  besides  Bishop  Hodges,  three 
veterans  of  over  30  years'  standing,  W.  J.  Richards,  J.  Caley,  and 
C.  A.  Neve  (brother  of  the  Neves  of  Kashmir),  all  three  men  of 
great  influence,  not  only  in  the  Mission  itself,  but  also  among  the 
Syrian  Christians  ;  also  A.  F.  Painter  and  C.  E.  R.  Romilly,  after 
24  and  20  years'  service. 

Of  the  present  staff  one,  F.  Bower,  who  went  out  with  J.  H.  Veterans. 

*  See  the  Eev.  W.  S.  Hunt's  In  Memoriam  of  him,  CM.  Eev.,  Oct.,  1913. 
t  Seethe  very  interesting  accounts  of  him  by  Mr.  Painter  and  Dr.  Richards, 
C.M.  IntelL,  March,  1900. 


252    C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN. 


PART  II. 
Chap.  24. 


Work  of 

Native 

Chucch. 


Ten  years 
Confirma 
tions. 


Caste  find 
Ont-oaste. 


Bishop  in  1867,  can  look  back  on  nearly  half-a-century's  labour, 
and  Archdeacon  J.  J.  B.  Palmer,  Mr.  Bellerby,  and  Mr.  F.  N. 
Askwith,  have  over  20  years  at  their  credit. 

The  greater  part  of  the  regular  pastoral  and  evangelistic  work  is 
in  the  hands  of  the  Native  Church.  Nowhere  has  the  Church 
Council  system  worked  better  than  in  Travancore.  There  has 
been  continuous  progress  in  numbers.  The  32,000  baptized 
Christians  in  1899  have  become  52,000  in  1914,  besides  4000 
catechumens.  The  adult  baptisms  in  the  period  have  numbered 
15,546.  A  striking  comparison  was  made  so  long  ago  as  1900. 
Ten  years  had  then  elapsed  since  Bishop  Hodges  and  Bishop 
Tucker  had  been  consecrated  together.  Everybody  knew  of  Bishop 
Tucker's  wonderful  confirmations  in  Uganda.  There  had  been 
7580  in  the  ten  years.  How  many  candidates  had  Bishop  Hodges 
confirmed  in  Travancore  ? — 7461 !  But  how  few  had  noticed  that ! 
It  was  a  reminder  that  while  Christendom  is  rejoicing  in  the 
triumphs  of  the  Gospel  in  new  Missions,  the  older  ones,  almost 
unnoticed,  are  gathering  equal  fruit. 

About  two-thirds  of  the  Christians  connected  with  the  C.M.S. 
are  of  out-caste  origin.  Nowhere  else  in  India  could  one  have  so 
truly  called  these  "depressed  classes"  the  "oppressed  classes," 
and  this  has  undoubtedly  helped  to  foster  what  has  been  almost  a 
mass  movement.*  A  grant  from  the  Pan-Anglican  Thankoffering 
has  been  most  useful  in  meeting  this  movement.  Mr.  Hunt 
writes  :  "  In  some  twenty  stations  land  has  been  acquired,  chiefly 
for  sites  for  buildings;  over  sixty  schools  have  been  built  or 
improved,  and  others  have  been  furnished  or  equipped;  thirty 
teachers'  houses  have  been  built,  as  also  two  hostels ;  scholarships 
have  been  provided  for  36  boys  at  the  Cambridge  Nicholson 
Institution,  and  for  58  boys  and  girls  at  boarding  schools." 

But  caste  converts  are  not  few.  At  an  interesting  confirma 
tion  at  Trichur  in  1902,  out  of  70  candidates,  only  nine  were 
of  the  "  depressed  classes."  Travancore  is  famous  for  the  com 
plexity  of  the  caste  system,  and  representatives  of  many  castes 
were  confirmed  that  day.  Brahmans  join  the  Church  year  by 
year ;  and  many  more  are  sufficiently  convinced  to  do  so  if 
they  dared.  One  Namburi  Brahman — a  very  exclusive  section 
— in  a  great  religious  discussion  among  high- caste  men,  boldly 
defended  both  the  character  and  religion  of  Christ,  and  within  a 
few  weeks  died  in  great  suffering  from  some  unknown  (though 
not  unsuspected)  cause.  Another  Brahman  in  a  railway  carriage 
confessed  to  Mr.  Bower  that  while  outwardly  a  Hindu,  he  was  at 
heart  a  Christian,  and  would  be  baptized  but  for  his  wife  and 
children.  A  third,  a  Namburi,  after  listening  to  a  Christian 
evangelist  addressing  a  crowd  at  a  festival,  rose  and  confirmed 
what  had  been  said,  and  then,  to  show  what  he  thought  of  caste, 
actually  touched  a  low-caste  man  standing  by,  to  the  disgust  of 
the  Hindus  who  saw  him. 

*  See  an  article  by  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Hunt,  CM.  Rev.,  July,  1915. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN.    253 

In  former  years  much  interest  was  taken  by  friends  in  England    PART  n. 
in  the  Arrian  Mission  among  the  aborigines  in  the  Ghat  mountains  ;    ch^_24- 
and  the  first  station  there,  Mundakayam,  was  a  familiar  name.  Arrian 
This  work  is  now  under  the  Melkavu  Church  Council  and  its  four  M 
Indian  pastors :  the  Christians  in  the  area  administered  by  that 
Council  being  about  5000.     Certain  districts  are  the  field  of  the 
"  Church  Mission  "  under  the  Councils,    i  Special  mission  services 
are  also  conducted  by  the  Diocesan  Missioner,  the  Kev.  T.  Kuru- 
wella  Joseph,  who  is  highly  spoken  of. 

One  of  Bishop  Gill's  Archdeacons  (Mr.  Palmer  being  the  other) 
who  succeeded  Archdeacons  Koshi  Koshi  and  Oomen  Mamen  is 
the  Eev.  Jacob  Chandy,  who  was  ordained  in  1875.  He  is  the 
son  of  a  clergyman  of  the  same  name,  who  was  the  second  man 
to  be  ordained  in  Travancore,  in  1847,  and  who  was  originally  a 
Syrian  Christian. 

The  regular  stations  of  the  C.M.S.  Mission  are  Kottayam, 
Pallam,  Tiruwella,  and  Allepie  in  Travancore ;  and  Trichur  and 
Kunnankulam  in  Cochin.  At  Kottayam  are  the  two  chief  educa 
tional  institutions — the  College,  a  "  Second-Grade  College  "  in 
official  parlance,  at  which  a  good  education  is  given  to  Christians 
and  non-Christians  (the  hostel  for  the  former  has  lately  had  new 
buildings),  and  the  Cambridge  Nicholson  Institution,  for  the 
training  of  clergy  and  evangelists  and  teachers.  Both  enjoy  the 
great  advantage  of  having  Principals  who  have  been  so  for  many 
years— Mr,  Askwith  of  the  former,  and  Archdeacon  Palmer  of  the 
latter.  The  Cambridge  Nicholson  Institution,  originally  founded 
in  memory  of  a  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Emmanuel,  Cambridge,  who 
was  once  Secretary  of  the  C.M.  Association  there,  celebrated  its 
Jubilee  in  1909.  In  the.  50  years  it  had  trained  75  clergymen 
and  700  school  teachers,  including  under  both  heads  many 
Syrians  for  the  service  of  their  own  Church.  Also  at  Kottayam 
is  the  Girls'  Boarding  School,  now  called  the  Baker  Memorial 
School  in  memory  of  the  three  generations  of  Bakers  who  have 
conducted  it.  The  name  was  given  to  it  in  1903  when  the  new 
buildings  were  opened  which  had  been  erected  at  the  cost  of  the 
memorial  fund.  Miss  Isabel  Baker  is  now  in  charge,  assisted  by 
three  other  ladies,  two  of  them  graduates,  one  of  London  and  one 
of  Melbourne.  Then  at  Pallam  is  the  Buchanan  Institution,  a 
Girls'  Training  School,  founded  to  do  for  Travancore  what  the 
Sarah  Tucker  Institution  has  done  for  Tinnevelly.  The  Eev.  E.  Bel- 
lerby  was  for  several  years  at  the  head  of  it.  Miss  Kate  Richards, 
daughter  of  Dr.  Eichards,  has  been  in  charge  lately.  There  are 
other  High  Schools  and  numerous  schools  of  lower  grades  at  the 
different  stations.  Some  difficulties  have  arisen  of  late  years 
owing  to  new  measures  taken  by  the  Travancore  Educational 
authorities  which  put  obstacles  in  the  way  of  Christian  teaching. 

An  important  agency  in  the  Mission  is  the  Kottayam  Press. 
It  is  employed,  not  only  locally,  but  also  by  the  Bible  Society, 
Religious  Tract  Society,  and  Christian  Literature  Society;  and 


254    C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN. 


PAST  ii.   it   prints   thousands   of   copies   of    Scriptures   as   well   as   other 
SL24-  books. 


Divisions 
in  the 
Syrian 
Church. 


Walker's 
Meetings. 


Winds  of 
Doctrine. 


THE  SYRIAN  CHURCHES. 

There  have  been  important  movements  among  the  Syrians  in 
recent  years.  The  early  C.M.S.  missionaries  a  century  ago  were 
received  with  open  arms,  and  there  was  for  a  time  good  prospect 
of  revival  and  reform ;  and  though  the  forces  of  corruption  and 
superstition  proved  too  strong  for  a  general  reformation  in  the 
Church,  many  of  both  the  priests  and  the  people  sought  to  revivify 
the  stagnant  waters.  The  result  was  much  ecclesiastical  dissen 
sion  and  division,  and  eventually  the  Church  divided  into  two  parts 
— the  old  Jacobite  and  the  new  Eeformed.*  In  the  latter  section 
there  has  been  much  spiritual  movement,  and  at  the  invitation 
of  the  last  and  the  present  Syrian  Metropolitans,  Mr.  Walker,  of 
Tinnevelly,  conducted  year  by  year  special  missions  and  Conven 
tions  for  the  promotion  of  spiritual  life,  without  in  any  way  touch 
ing  the  ecclesiastical  connexion.  Deeply  interesting  accounts 
came  of  the  tens  of  thousands  who  attended  those  gatherings, 
including  many  of  the  old  Jacobite  Syrians  as  well  as  those  of 
the  Eeformed  Church.  It  was  manifest  that  the  Holy  Spirit  was 
at  work.  Mr.  Walker  suppressed  all  mere  excitement,  and  only 
strove  and  prayed  for  such  conversions  as  issued  in  the  putting 
away  of  sin  and  the  steadfast  purpose  to  lead  a  new  life.  His 
difficulties  were  not  from  the  Syrians,  and  still  less  from  the 
heathen,  but  from  the  Plymouth  Brethren,  Salvationists,  and 
other  irresponsible  free-lances,  who  did  their  best  to  cause  con 
fusion  and  mar  the  work.f  Naturally  many  of  the  people  were 
"  tossed  to  and  fro  and  carried  about  with  every  wind  of  doctrine  "  ; 
and  in  1907,  when  revival  movements  occurred  in  many  parts  of 
India,  some  extravagances  took  place  in  Travancore.  It  is  always 
in  these  ways  that  the  Enemy  of  mankind  seeks  to  damage  a  real 
work  of  grace.  Meanwhile,  the  old  Jacobite  Church  also  shows 
signs  of  revival,  and  in  1911  invited  two  S.P.G.  missionaries — the 
Eev.  H.  Pakenham  Walsh  (now  Bishop  of  Assam)  and  the  Eev. 
C.  F.  W.  Hatchell — to  give  Bible  readings  and  spiritual  addresses. 

The  Anglican  Bishops  have  maintained  friendly  relations  with 
both  the  Old  Jacobite  and  the  Eeformed  Churches.  The  autho 
rities  in  both  recognize  the  good  work  which  the  C.M.S.  Mission 
has  done  both  by  counsel  and  sympathy  and  by  its  work  in  build 
ing  up  the  Christian  community  from  the  Hindu  population. 
A  good  sign  of  the  influence  of  the  Mission  and  the  Anglican 

*  In  1904,  some  English  newspapers  were  misled  by  a  Syrian  who  came  to 
England  and  charged  the  C.M.S.  with  having  property  that  really  belonged  to 
the  old  Church.  The  charge  was  quite  without  foundation,  but  in  case  of 
need  it  may  be  well  to  state  that  a  full  account  of  the  case  was  given  by  the 
Eev.  A.  F.  Painter  in  the  CM.  Intell.,  May  and  August,  1904. 

f  Even  the  deluded  followers  of  "  Pastor  Russell "  have  latterly  appeared  on 
the  scene. 


C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN.    255 

Church  is  the  adoption  by  the  Eeformed  Church  in  1910  of   a    PAST  n. 
"  foreign  mission  district  "  in  the  Kanarese  country  to  the  North,    chap>  24- 
in  connexion  with  the  National  Missionary  Society  of  India,  and  Relations 
the  sending  thither  of  three  missionaries,  one  of  them  a  graduate  Syrian  and 
of   Madras    University,  who   refused  the   episcopate  in  order  to 
devote  himself  to  this  work.      Mr.  Walker  wrote,  "  The  Syrian 
Church,  after   the   supineness  of  centuries,  is  now  beginning  to 
catch  the  first  sun-glow  of  a  rising  missionary  spirit." 

In  1909,  the  Patriarch  of  Antioch,  the  ecclesiastical  head  of  the 
old  Jacobite  Church,  visited  India,  and  was  received  by  the 
people  with  much  reverence.  Bishop  Gill  and  Archdeacon  Palmer 
called  on  him,  and  he,  with  the  local  Metropolitan,  Mar  Diony- 
sius,  returned  the  call.  In  the  same  year,  the  Metropolitan  of  the 
Eeformed  Syrian  Church  or  "  Church  of  St.  Thomas,"  died,  and 
Bishop  Gill  was  invited  to  give  an  address  at  the  funeral,  in  which 
he  testified  to  the  late  prelate's  soundness  in  the  faith  and  holy  life. 
His  successor,  Titus  II.  Mar  Thoma,  received  most  of  his  educa 
tion  at  the  Cambridge  Nicholson  Institution, 

But  the  most  remarkable  incident  in  the  recent  history  of  the  '4'llc. 
Syrian  Churches  of  Travancore  was  their  Conference  with  Dr. 
Mott  when  he  visited  India  in  1912-13.  Some  of  the  leaders 
approached  him  with  a  request  that  he  would  receive  deputations 
from  the  different  bodies  and  give  them  counsel  and  help  towards 
greater  unity  and  closer  co-operation.  But  he  had  regretfully  to 
tell  them  that,  owing  to  his  crowded  programme  of  incessant 
Conferences  and  other  work  in  all  parts  of  India,  he  could  not 
possibly  visit  Travancore,  and  that  their  only  chance  was  to  meet 
him  at  Calcutta,  nearly  2000  miles  away.  Yet  they  actually 
went ! — Mar  Dionysius,  the  Jacobite  Metropolitan,  with  five  of  his  fe 
leading  men  ;  Mar  Thoma,  the  Metropolitan  of  the  Eeformed  Calcuttu- 
Church,  with  several  of  his  workers ;  representatives  of  the  Syrian 
members  of  the  Anglican  Church,  headed  by  Bishop  Gill;  and 
two  delegates  from  a  small  recent  seceding  body.  They  duly 
arrived  at  Calcutta.  They  were  represented  in  the  National  Con 
ference.  They  attended  at  the  consecration  of  Bishop  Azariah. 
And  they  had  a  two  days'  Conference  of  their  own,  with  Dr.  Mott 
as  Chairman  and  Mr.  Eddy  as  Vice-chairman.  Dr.  Mott  himself 
wrote  of  it : — 

"  The  discussions  during  the  two  days  were  characterized  by  such 
wonderful  frankness,  unity,  and  constructive  work  as  to  be  inexplicable 
to  those  familiar  with  the  sad  state  of  friction  hitherto  existing  between 
the  bodies  concerned,  on  any  other  ground  save  that  of  the  over-master 
ing  power  of  God  in  answer  to  prayer." 

The  result  was  a  unanimous  agreement  to  unite  in  Christian 
camps,  local  conferences  for  deepening  spiritual  life,  apologetic 
lectures  to  educated  non-Christians,  and  missions  to  the  depressed 
classes  ;  to  co-operate  with  the  National  Missionary  Society — "  a 
highly  significant  action,"  wrote  Dr.  Mott,  "  because  during  long 


PAKTII. 
Chap. 24. 


Another 

notable 

Gathering 


256    C.M.S.  MISSIONS:   TRAVANCORE  AND  COCHIN. 

centuries  the  Syrian  Church  had  not  been  missionary  "  ;  to  combine 
in  a  college,  and  in  training  workers ;  to  refer  cases  of  dispute  to 
arbitration ;  "  to  forgive  and  forget  the  past,  and  to  regard  each 
other  as  brothers  in  future." 

Mr.  Holland  wrote  of  the  "  amazing  sight  "  when  "two  vene 
rable  figures,  clad  in  strange  and  gorgeous  robes  that  made  them 
resemble  Moses  and  Aaron  of  the  coloured-picture  Bible,"  ap 
peared  in  the  National  Conference,  having  come  all  the  way  to 
Calcutta  "  to  confer  on  unity  with  the  Anglican  Bishop  of  Tra van- 
core  under  the  presidency  of  Dr.  Mott.  .  .  .  Within  the  Syrian 
Church,  hitherto  so  self -centred  and  aloof,  are  stored  immense 
possibilities  for  India's  evangelization.  ...  We  shall  see  fresh 
things.  The  days  are  full  of  hope !  " 

Then  in  April,  1915,  a  remarkable  gathering  of  2000  Christians 
of  the  different  Churches  in  Travancore  and  Cochin  met  at  Kotta- 
yam ;  and  while  six  Syrian  Bishops  were  on  the  platform,  the 
Anglican  Bishop  Gill  was  the  chosen  president.  Many  practical 
subjects  were  discussed,  and  a  proposal  was  made  that  the  various 
questions  at  issue  between  the  Syrian  parties  should  be  submitted 
for  arbitration  to  the  Anglican  Bishops  of  Calcutta,  Bombay, 
Madras,  and  Travancore.  Organic  union  is  not  yet,  perhaps  not 
for  a  great  while ;  but  it  is  good  indeed  to  see  this  new  spirit  of 
Christian  unity. 

Meanwhile  it  is  good  news  that  a  remarkable  series  of  con 
ventions  was  held  in  Travancore  in  January,  1916,  by  Bishop 
Pakenham  Walsh  and  Mr.  Sherwood  Eddy ;  which  were  attended 
by  many  thousands  of  Christians,  Syrian,  Anglican,  and  of  minor 
denominations ;  also  that  of  thirty-three  Indian  Christian  students 
admitted  into  the  C.M.S.  College  at  Calcutta  in  July,  1915,  eighteen 
were  Syrians,  from  that  remotest  province  of  Travancore.  It  may 
well  be  that  the  ancient  Church  has  yet  an  important  part  to  play 
in  the  building  up  of  Indian  Christendom. 


CHAPTER   XXV. 
THE  CEYLON  MISSION. 

Features  of  the  Mission— Losses  of  Senior  Missionaries— The  Native 
Christians— Education  Work :  Trinity  College,  Kandy,  &c.— Varied 
Agencies— Women  Missionaries— Two  Bishops  Copleston. 

HE  Mission  in  the  Island  of  Ceylon,  being  one  of  the    PART  n. 
oldest  of  C.M.S.  Missions,  has  for  many  years  gone   ChaP-  &>• 
steadily  and  quietly  on,  without  much  in  its  work  to  special 
make  it  very  conspicuous ;  but  it  has  special  features  features  of 
of  its  own,  and  it  has  achieved  important  developments  jmss?on.'on 
within  our  period.     Other  Missions  have  geographical  divisions 
with  distinct  languages,  but  in  Ceylon  the  double  staff  necessitated 
by  the  two  languages,  Singhalese  and  Tamil,  work  mainly  in  the 
same  areas.     In  Colombo,  and  in  Kandy,  and  all  over  the  central 
hill  country,  the  work  is  carried  on  in  both   languages;  but  at 
Cotta,    only   six   miles   from    Colombo,   and   at    Baddegama    and 
Dodanduwa  in  the  south-west,  it  is  only  in  Singhalese,  and  in 
the  Jaffna  Peninsula  at  the  north  end  of  the  island,  only  in  Tamil. 
Again,  Ceylon  has  been  almost  unique  in  respect  of  the  interesting 
stories  of   converts  it  has   provided.     Not   that   they  have    been 
especially  numerous,  for  the  work  has  rather  been  exceptionally 
slow ;  nor  yet  that  the  converts  themselves  have  been  conspicuous 
people;  but  while  the  external  circumstances  have  been  usually 
what  we  might  call    common-place,  the   illustrations   of   divine 
grace  have  often  been  very  touching. 

During  the  fifteen  years  Ceylon  has  had  another  quite  excep-  Deaths  of 
tional  feature.  The  deaths  of  its  senior  missionaries  have  been  so  Veterans- 
numerous  that  it  has  now  only  two,  and  their  two  wives,  who  were 
at  work  in  1899  and  are  now  of  thirty  years'  standing.  In  one 
year,  1901,  the  Mission  lost  its  three  oldest  jinen  then  actively  at 
work,  Higgens,  Coles,  and  Dowbiggin,  after  50,  40,  and  34  years' 
service  respectively.  Two  years  later  it  lost  Ireland  Jones,  who 
was  not  on  the  list  of  1899,  having  retired  before  that  after  34 
years'  service  ;  but  he,  in  1900,  had  returned  to  the  Mission,  and 
added  three  more  years  to  his  missionary  career.  Of  two  other 
veterans,  one,  J.  D.  Simmons,  retired  in  1904  after  44  years'  work, 
and  has  died  since;  and  the  other,  W.  E.  Eowlands,  who  was 
at  home  for  some  years,  joined  the  Mission  again  in  1907,  and  is 
there  still ;  his  actual  years  in  the  work,  though  not  continuous, 

3 


258  THE  CEYLON  MISSION. 

PART  n.  being  now  30.  Six  others  died  in  the  field  during  our  period, 
Cnapj>5.  kegj^gg  some  who  passed  away  after  retiring.  The  oldest  of  all 
these,  E.  T.  Higgens,  had  been  one  of  six  men  who  were  com 
missioned  at  one  time,  June  20th,  1851,  whose  names  are  worth 
recording.  Two  were  pioneers  of  the  Punjab  Mission,  E.  Clark 
and  T.  H.  Fitzpatrick.  Two  were  Germans  from  the  Basle 
Seminary,  though  in  English  Orders,  H.  Stern  and  F.  A.  Klein, 
the  latter  a  pioneer  in  Palestine  and  in  the  revived  Egypt  Mission, 
c.  c.  Fenn.  The  sixth  was  C.  C.  Fenn,  who  went  with  Higgens  to  Ceylon, 
afterwards  became  the  much-esteemed  Secretary  of  the  Society  at 
Higgens.  home,  and  only  passed  away  in  1913.  Higgens  himself,  after  many 
years  of  evangelistic  work  among  the  Singhalese,  and  a  few  years 
of  home  service  as  Organizing  Secretary,  had  been  Secretary  in 
Ceylon  for  20  years,  and  for  a  large  part  of  that  time  also  pastor 
of  the  English-speaking  congregation  at  Galle  Face  Church.  He 
came  home  in  1900,  and  died  in  the  following  year. 

Three  of  the  other  Ceylon  veterans  removed  by  death  had  also 
worked  among  the  Singhalese,  Ireland  Jones,  Coles,  and  Dowbiggin. 
Ireland  Jones  was  a  T.  C.  D.  man,  who  was  deeply  respected  both  in 
Jones.  England  and  in  Ceylon,  and  took  a  leading  part  in  the  ecclesiastical 
settlement  made  with  Bishop  Copleston  in  1881.  He  was  chair 
man  of  the  Singhalese  Bible  Eevision  Committee.  His  son,  Philip 
Ireland  Jones,  is  the  well-known  missionary  in  India.  Stephen 
Coles.  Coles  was  an  admirable  trainer  of  pastors  and  teachers;  and  his 
mastery  of  the  language  made  him  a  leading  reviser  of  the  Singhalese 
Bible.  He  actually  died  in  the  chair  at  a  Eevision  Meeting ;  *  and 
his  successor  was  Bishop  Copleston  himself,  afterwards  Metro 
politan  of  India,  and  now  Chairman  of  the  Central  Board  of 
Missions.  It  may  be  parenthetically  added  that  the  revision  of 
both  Bible  and  Prayer  Book  was  completed  in  1908,  after  20  years' 
Dowbiggin.  work.  Dowbiggin  had  the  unusual  experience  of  working  at  one 
station,  Cotta,  all  through  his  quiet  but  faithful  missionary  career. 
He  died  at  sea  on  his  way  home  for  furlough.  A  fourth,  J.  D. 
Simmons,  was  a  diligent  evangelist  among  the  Tamil  population.! 
His  son,  S.  M.  Simmons,  has  lately  retired  after  23  years'  service. 
Among  the  others  who  passed  away  in  the  fifteen  years,  Pilson, 
Eyde,  and  Garrett  represented  severally  the  three  Universities  of 
Oxford,  Cambridge,  and  Dublin.  Pilson  died  within  a  year  or 
two  of  reaching  the  field.  Eyde  was  14  years  in  the  Mission,  and 
Garrett  21  years.  Both  were  excellent  missionaries,  and  the  latter 
was  well-known  at  home  as  well  as  abroad  for  his  Hibernian 
fervour. 

The  staff.  In  1899  the  Ceylon  Mission  had  20  clergymen  and  2  laymen, 
with  16  wives,  and  19  other  women,  total  57.  In  1914,  19 
clergymen,  1  layman,  17  wives,  and  17  other  women, 'total  54. 
That  does  not  seem  a  serious  falling  off,  and  it  is  not  due  to  any 
neglect  of  Ceylon,  for  in  the  15  years  no  less  than  50  names  have 

*  See  the  In  Memoriam,  CM.  Intell,  Nov.,  1901. 

f  See  Mr.  Rowlands's  In  Memoriam  of  him,  C.M.  Review,  June,  1914. 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION.  259 

been  added  to ^ the  list;  but  the  important  educational  work  has    PART  n. 
been  largely  reinforced,  so  the  evangelistic  missionaries  are  pro-    chap-  25' 
portionately  fewer.     The  leakage  by  retirement  has  been  large. 
Of  the  57  of  1899,  13  remain.     But  the  present  list  includes  Mr. 
Rowlands,  already  referred  to,  an  old  veteran,  though  not  in  the 
Mission  in  1899;   and  also  Mr.  Finnimore,  who  had  previously 
served  in  another  C.M.S.  Mission. 

The  native  clergy  have  increased  from  17  to  22,  although  several 
deaths  have  been  reported ;  and  the  lay  teachers  from  625  to  882 
One  of  the  Tamil  clergy  who  died,  the  Eev.  G.  Champion,  had 
been  66  years  in  C.M.S.  service,  45  of  them  in  Orders ;  and  another, 
A.  Gnanamuttu,  55  years,  25  of  them  in  Orders.  A  Singhalese 
pastor,  Johannes  Perera  Kalpage,  died  in  hospital  from  the  effects 
of  a  crushed  finger. 

The  Census  of  1911  showed  a  population  of  4,110,000  in  Ceylon,  Census  of 
of  whom  60  per  cent,  were  Buddhists  (the  Singhalese),  23  per  Ceylon- 
cent.  Hindus  (the  Tamils),  10  per  cent.  Christians,  and    7  per 
cent.  Mohammedans.     Of  the  Christians  the  great  majority  were 
Eoman  Catholics.    The  Protestant  Christians  were  70,000,  of  whom 
41,000  were  Anglicans.    These  include  the  white  population.    The 
Anglicans  were  reckoned   as  28,800,  the  Wesleyans   as    15,000. 
The  Anglicans  include  many  independent  congregations  uncon 
nected  with  either  of  the  Missionary  Societies.    The  S.P.G.  counts 
2900  baptized  members.     The  C.M.S.  figures  in  1914  are  13  480 
an  increase  of  over  4150  on  the  9330  of  1899.     There  were  2906  Baptisms, 
adult  baptisms  in  the  fifteen  years.     This  cannot  compare  with 
the   results  among  the   similar  people  in   South  India,  but   the 
Singhalese,  being  Buddhists,  are  harder  to  influence  than  the  low- 
caste  Hindus ;  and  of  the  Tamil  converts  from  Hinduism,  large 
numbers  of  the  baptized  belong  to  India,  and  return  home  after 
a  time,  which  reduces  the  Ceylon  figures  and  increases  those  of 
South  India. 

'  The  general  character  of  the  Native  Christians  is  very  much  the  character 
same  as  we  have  seen  in  India.  They  are  far  from  perfect,  but  they  chffilZ 
are  conspicuously  different  from  the  heathen;  and  while  the 
missionaries  are  often  disappointed  with  them,  there  is  always 
the  minority  of  devoted  and  fervent  servants  of  the  Lord.  At 
least  they  cannot  be  called  "  rice  Christians,"  except  (as  Mr. 
Butterfield  remarks)  in  a  sense  just  opposite  to  that  usually  meant 
by  the  phrase;  that  is^to  say,  "the  Tamil  house-wife,  when  putting 
the  rice  into  the  cooking-pot  for  the  morning  and  evening  meals, 
places  a  handful  of  the  grain  on  one  side  for  God."  In  the  Tamil 
Coolie  Mission  three  native  pastors  are  supported  by  the  converts. 
A  great  many  striking  instances  of  self-denial  in  this  respect 
are  mentioned  in  the  reports.  Still  better  is  it  to  see  that 
out_  of  fifty-four  persons  baptized  in  one  year  in  one  station,  the 
majority  were  won  by  "  the  consistent  lives  and  earnest  words  of 
Christian  neighbours."  The  accounts  of  conversions  are  again  and  Conver- 
again  most  encouraging.  Sometimes  they  are  of  the  best  type  of sions- 


260 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION. 


1'ART  II, 
Chap.  25 


Buddhist 
Hostility. 


Buddhists 

copy 

Christians. 


Pastoral 
"Work. 


Buddhists  or  Hindus  or  Moslems,  as  in  the  case  of  the  thoughtful 
and  earnest  Buddhist  priest  who  really  desired  the  good  of  his 
people,  and  failing  to  find  the  right  influence  in  his  own  religion, 
turned  to  Christianity,  and  found  it  at  once ;  or  the  prosperous 
Afghan  merchant,  fluent  in  half-a-dozen  languages,  visiting 
Colombo  in  the  way  of  his  trade ;— and  sometimes  of  the  worst : 
now  a  demon  priest,  then  a  gambler  and  drunkard  ;— but  more 
o-enerally  the  ordinary  villager.  It  is  not  surprising  to  find  that 
one  district  is  fruitful  which  is  supported  by  a  band  of  City  men  m 
London  who  meet  regularly  to  pray  for  it. 

The  persecution  of  converts  is  often  bitter^  and  now  and  ther 
successful  in  preventing  their  baptism  or  drawing  them  back  even 
after  they  have  just  publicly  confessed  Christ ;  but  for  the  most 
part  it  has  been   borne  with  exemplary  steadfastness.     It    has, 
however,   been  found   necessary  to   open   Converts'   Homes   for 
women  and  girls  who  desire  to  leave  all  for  Christ  and  find  home- 
life  impossible.      Buddhist  and  Hindu  parents  have,  in  several 
cases,  expressly  allowed  their  daughters  to  come  to  these  Homes. 
For  them  the  lace  industry  has  been  developed.    Younger  children, 
though  sent  to  the  elementary  day  schools,  are  often  forbidden 
to  attend   Sunday  schools.      Hostility  to  the  Mission  has  been 
fostered  by  the  Buddhist  revival  of  the  last  few  years.     Buddhist 
schools  (supported  by  government  grants),  Buddhist  newspapers 
with  large  local  circulation,  Buddhist  tracts  and  books  freely  dis 
tributed     Buddhist  open-air   preaching,   have   been  industriously 
used  to  oppose  and  discredit  Christianity ;  and,  which  is  especially 
grievous,  the  increasing  habit  among  English  professing  Christians 
of  coupling  Buddha  with  our  Lord  as  two  great  reformers/      At 
the  same  time,  let  it  be  frankly  acknowledged  that,  as  the  late 
Mr  Ferguson,  C.M.G.,  editor  of  the  Ceylon  Observer,  expressed  it 
in  his  paper,  Buddhist  imitations  of  Christian  work  have  included 
a  fresh  teaching  in   Buddhist  schools  of  such  virtues  as  truth, 
temperance,    purity,    &c.,   while    "the     example    of    cleanliness, 
sobriety,  and  honesty  given  by  the  Christian  village  communities 
is  telling  widely  upon  their  heathen  neighbours."  t 

The  pastoral  care  of  the  congregations  has  been  almost  entirely 
the  work  of  the  native  clergy.  In  1910  a  new  system  was  intro 
duced,  giving  them  and  their  congregations  a  much  more  inde 
pendent  position  than  before.  This  has  done  not  a  little  to  foster 
self-support;  and  now  not  only  are  the  clergy  supported  by  the 
Church  funds,  but,  in  several  cases,  the  elementary  schools  have 
been  taken  over,  and  in  a  few  the  evangelistic  agency  also.  The 
result  has  been  a  freer  spirit  in  the  people,  a  considerable  increase 

*  In  the  C  M.  Review  of  Sept.,  1912,  Mr.  Senior,  of  Trinity  College,  Kandy, 
described  a  Buddhist  meeting  he  attended  at  the  Dore  Gallery  in  Bond  Street, 
when  a  paper  was  read  to  200  people  by  Mrs.  Rhys  Davids. 

t  In  Vol  V  of  the  Reports  of  the  Pan-Anglican  Congress,  there  is  an  able 
paper  by  Bishop  R.  S.  Copleston  on  the  Presentation  of  Christian  Truth  to 
Buddhists  (p.  177). 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION.  261 

in  their  contributions,  and  a  corresponding  saving  to  the  Society.  PART  11. 
Representatives  of  both  clergy  and  laity  have  also  now  seats  on  the  Chap>  25t 
Missionary  Conference  which  administers  the  Mission. 

One  striking  feature  of  the  Ceylon  Mission  is  the  success  of  its  Educationa 
educational  work.  It  is  the  general  testimony  of  the  missionaries  Work- 
that  the  great  majority  of  the  converts  come  directly  or  indirectly 
from  the  schools.  Many  statements  to  this  effect  occur  in  the 
Reports  of  the  period.  The  strength  of  the  Mission  has,  un 
doubtedly,  been  thrown  into  school  work,  although  the  ordinary 
evangelistic  efforts  in  preaching  and  visiting  are  put  forth  among 
both  Singhalese  and  Tamils.  And  it  is  in  this  department  that 
the  developments  of  the  15  years  are  seen.  The  number  of 
scholars  in  the  schools  has  increased  from  1600  to  20,000.  Of 
course  the  majority  of  these  schools  are  elementary,  but  there  are 
23  of  a  higher  class,  with  over  3000  pupils.  One  of  the  most 
important  of  these  is  a  new  agency  within  the  15  years,  while  the 
development  of  another  is  quite  the  most  conspicuous  feature  of 
the  period.  The  former  is  the  Ladies'  College  at  Colombo,  started  Ladies' 
by  Miss  Nixon,  B.A.  of  the  Royal  University  of  Ireland,  in  1900, 
with  the  assistance  of  Miss  E.  Whitney  of  Montreal.  It  began 
with  two  pupils,  and  ended  its  first  year  with  twelve,  representing 
Tamil,  Singhalese,  Jewish,  and  English  homes.  But  after  three 
years  there  were  140  girls,  mostly  of  the  upper-classes  of  native 
society,  though  including  some  Europeans  of  different  nations ; 
and,  religiously,  Christians,  Jews,  Moslems,  Buddhists,  Hindus, 
and  Parsis.  The  buildings  had  to  be  enlarged,  and  there  was 
attached  to  the  school  a  preparatory  department  for  the  little 
brothers  of  the  pupils.  The  number  of  girls  now  is  228,  and  there 
is  a  Christian  hostel  attached  to  the  School.  The  late  Rev.  C.  L. 
Burrows  gave  £1000  for  this  extension.  Among  the  women 
since  engaged  in  this  work  have  been  Miss  Browne,  B.Sc.,  of  the 
University  of  Wales,  and  Miss  Horsley,  of  Newnham  College,  also, 
for  a  time,  Miss  A.  Wardlaw  Ramsay  (see  p.  125).  Miss  Nixon  has 
lately  retired,  after  fifteen  years'  important  service  ;  and  so  also  has 
Miss  Horsley.  Gotta,  also,  is  a  station  noted  for  its  schools  of 
various  kinds,  which  are  often  visited  by  sympathizing  friends  on 
their  way  to  or  from  the  Far  East  or  Australia,  when  the  great 
liners  that  convey  them  stop  for  a  few  hours  in  the  Colombo 
Harbour.  Training  schools  for  teachers  are  also  provided,  of  four 
different  kinds  for  men  and  for  women  in  both  the  languages,  and 
these  supply  the  needs  not  only  of  the  mission  schools  but  also, 
partly,  of  the  government  schools.  In  1906  compulsory  education 
was  planned  by  the  authorities,  with  a  Conscience  Clause  (modified 
for  mission  schools)  ;  and  this  rendered  the  training  of  teachers 
an  important  department  in  missionary  work. 

The  educational  institution  whose  development  has  excited  the  Trinity 
keenest  interest  is  Trinity  College,  Kandy.     Under  Mr.  Napier-  ^"edgy ' 
Clavering,  Mr.  Ryde,  and  Mr.  Carter,  the  School  had  been  an 
institution  delightful  to  visit,  as  the  present  writer  can  testify  ; 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION. 


Chap. 25. 


Social 
Service. 


PART  n.  but  the  principalship  of  Mr.  Fraser  since  1904  has  carried  its  fame 
over  the  world,  owing  to  his  vigorous  initiative  and  wide  reputa- 
tation.  Mr.  Fraser  went  to  Uganda  in  1900,  but  his  health  failed 
there,  and  in  1904  he  was  sent  to  Ceylon.  In  1906  much  alarm 
was  caused  by  his  being  at  first  said  to  have  sleeping-sickness, 
which  in  Uganda  has  wrought  such  ravages,  but  by  God's 
mercy  he  was  completely  cured.  He  was  the  first  lay  Principal 
of  Trinity  College,  but  he  was  ordained  in  1912.  He  has  succeeded 
in  getting  able  men  from  our  Universities  to  join  him,  and  the 
efficiency  of  the  School  has  been  greatly  enhanced  by  the  co 
operation  of  Mr.  Senior,  Mr.  Walmsley,  Mr.  Gibson,  Mr.  Campbell, 
and  Mr.  Saunders,  and  of  some  able  Indian  graduates  of  Calcutta 
and  Madras ;  while  Mrs.  Walmsley,  who  is  a  B.Sc.  of  London 
University,  and  Mrs.  Fraser,  who  at  Newnham  took  a  good  place 
in  the  History  Tripos,  have  also  rendered  good  service.  In 
addition  to  their  College  duties  some  of  these  have  done  important 
literary  work.  The  boys,  numbering  about  430,  of  whom  120 
are  boarders,  are  largely  of  good  social  standing ;  and  of  the  90 
ruling  Kandyan  families  63  were  (in  1912)  represented.  Efforts 
have  been  successfully  made  to  enlist  them  in  social  service 
on  the  lines  adopted  by  Mr.  Tyndale-Biscoe  in  Kashmir ;  *  and 
the  morale  fostered  by  athletics  is  very  manifest.  Of  this  a 
striking  illustration  was  mentioned  by  Mr.  Fraser  in  1906.  In 
the  swimming  races  two  boys  were  competitors  in  the  final.  One 
of  them  came  and  begged  for  a  postponement  for  a  quarter-of-an- 
hour.  It  turned  out  that  he  wanted  to  rub  down  his  rival,  who 
had  got  cramp.  But  higher  results  than  these  are  achieved. 
There  are  conversions  and  baptisms  year  by  year.  In  30  years 
up  to  1910,  50  boys  had  been  baptized.  In  the  last  year  reported 
on  there  were  thirteen,  one  of  them  from  a  Mohammedan  family 
of  distinction  in  North  India,  and  one  a  Burmese  boy  who  was 
football  captain.  It  is  interesting  to  hear  that  two  sons  of  the 
Katikiro  of  Uganda  are  now  in  the  school.  Of  course  the 
Katikiro  knew  Mr.  Fraser  when  he  \vas  in  Uganda. 

A  new  effort  is  a  "Training  Colony"  for  evangelists,  near 
Kandy,  started  by  Mr.  Gibson,  which  is  in  a  sense  an  offshoot 
from  Trinity  College.  Candidates  for  ordination  are  not  now- 
trained  in  Ceylon,  but  are  sent  to  Madras  or  Kottayam. 

The  other  important  High  School  for  boys  is  St.  John's  College 
at  Jaffna,  under  Mr.  Jacob  Thompson,  which  is  also  doing  excellent 
work.  The  senior  prefect  of  1912  was  baptized  in  1913. 

At  Dodanduwa,  a  fishing  village  on  the  south-west  coast,  there 
has  been  an  Industrial  School  with  an  interesting  origin.  The  first 
of  the  missionaries  sent  to  C.M.S.  Missions  by  the  newly  formed 

*  The  inculcation  of  patriotism  and  social  service  is  shown  in  the  eagerness 
of  the  boys  to  enlist  for  the  war.  No  less  than  28  representatives  of  the 
College  have  joined  the  Forces  of  the  Empire.  They  have  also  been  com 
plimented  by  the  Ceylon  Legislative  Council  on  their  initiative  in  house - 
planning  and  sanitation. 


Baptisms. 


Training 
Colony. 


St.  John's. 
Jaffna. 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION.  263 

Associations  in  Australia  in  1892  was  an  energetic  lady,  Miss  Helen    PART  n. 
Phillips.     She  was  located  to  Ceylon,  and  after  a  few  months  at   chap-  -5- 
Kandy  she  moved  to  Dodanduwa,  and  quickly  made  friends  with  Miss  H. 
the  women  and  children.     Presently  she  started  a  lace  making  P1 
industry,  and  the  lace  gained  prizes  at  exhibitions,  some   being- 
even  sent  to  the  Paris  Exposition  of  1900,  and  there  obtaining 
a  diploma  and  the  only  medal  given  for  Ceylon  lace  ;  which  led 
to  orders  from  other  distant  countries,  including  China.     By  and 
by,  industrial  schools  were  opened  for  both  girls  and  boys,  and 
under  Mr.  Purser's  charge  the  latter  learnt  the  trades  of  tailor, 
printer,  and  joiner,  and  earned  good  Government  grants  as  well 
as  Government  custom  for  printing.     Some  were  Christian  boys 
from  neighbouring  districts,  and  for  them  a  hostel  was  built,  the 
money  being  sent  from  Australia ;  and  conversions  and  baptisms 
of  elder  boys  and  girls  have  been  reported  from  time  to  time. 
Miss  Phillips  retired  in  1905  in  ill-health,  after  13  years  of  self- 
sacrificing  work.      Her   departure   led   to   the  gradual   decay  of 
the  girls'  department ;  and  Mr.  Purser,  on  his  ordination  in  1911, 
removed  to  Baddegama. 

This  last  named  station,  Baddegama,  has  a  long  history,  the  Ceylon  and 
Mission  having  been  founded  by  E.  Mayor,  the  father  of  the  three  Cambridge- 
well-known  brothers  Mayor,  of  St.  John's,  Cambridge,  who  were 
born  in  the  mission  house.  One  of  them,  who  became  Latin 
Professor,  was  startled  in  his  old  age  by  a  visit  from  a  Singhalese 
Christian,  a  scholar  of  Selwyn  College  reading  for  the  Theological 
Tripos,  whose  father  (or  grandfather)  had  been  one  of  E.  Mayor's 
converts,  and  who  himself  had  been  baptized  in  the  same  mission 
church  as  the  Professor.  Mr.  Balding  was,  for  some  years,  the 
missionary  at  Baddegama,  which  is  the  centre  of  work  in  the 
south-west  of  the  Island,  Dodanduwa  being  an  out-station 
from  it. 

In  the  Central  Districts  of  Ceylon  are  carried  on  two  extensive  The  Hill 
evangelistic    missions   which   bear   the  names  of  the   Singhalese  Country- 
Itinerancy  and  the  Tamil  Coolie  Mission.     They  occupy,  roughly- 
speaking,  the  same  area,  seeking  to  reach  the  two  sections  of  the 
population.     The    Singhalese   of    this    hilly   country   are   called  Kandyans. 
Kandyans,  ^  and  are    quite  different  from  the    Singhalese  of   the 
plains.     Higgens  originally  began    systematic  itineration   among 
them,  and   Ireland  Jones  and  others  followed   him.     For  many 
years  Garrett  was  the  most  conspicuous  in  the  work ;  also  S.  M. 
Simmons,  son  of  J.  D.  Simmons  ;  and  at  Anuradhapura,  the  famous 
place  of  Buddhist  pilgrimage,  an  honorary  lay  missionary,  Major 
Mathison,  laboured   for   several  years.     Three   divisions  of   this 
Mission  have  latterly  been  superintended  by  Mr.   Shorten,  Mr. 
T.  S.  Johnson,  and  Mr.  Phair,  the  last  named  a  son  of  Archdeacon 
Phair  of  Manitoba.     The  Tamil  Coolie  Mission,  founded  in  1855,  Tamil 
under  the  auspices  of  the  British  owners  of  what  were  then  coffee 
estates  (now  tea),  and  largely  supported  by  their  contributions, 
aims  at  the  coolies  on  these  plantations,  who  are  Tamils,  mostly 


264 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION. 


PART  IT. 
Chap. 25. 


Work  at 
Jaffna. 


Women's 
Work. 


Colombo 
the  Capital 


from  South  India.  The  veteran  W.  E.  Eowlands  has  long  had  a 
leading  part  in  this  work,  and  still  has ;  and  Mr.  Booth  and  Mr. 
Butterfield  also  have  large  districts.*  Mr.  Finnimore,  formerly  of 
South  India  and  Mauritius,  rejoined  the  Society  in  1909,  and  is 
now  in  the  Tamil  Coolie  Mission.  Both  these  evangelistic 
missions  have  borne  fruit  in  many  baptisms  year  after  year. 

Important  work  among  Tamils  is  also  done  in  the  Jaffna 
peninsula,  at  the  north  end  of  the  Island.  This  is  another  very 
old  Mission,  dating  from  1818.  Its  schools  are  particularly 
efficient.  St.  John's  College  has  been  already  mentioned.  Tamil 
graduates  of  Calcutta  and  Madras  Universities  have  done  excellent 
work.  The  English  Tamil-speaking  missionaries  have  borne  a 
good  deal  of  transference  from  one  part  of  the  field  to  another, 
taking  in  turn  the  charge  of  the  Society's  operations  at  Jaffna,  in 
the  Central  District,  and  at  Colombo  :  among  them  Mr.  Horsley, 
Mr.  Pickford,  Mr.  Ilsley,  Mr.  Hanan,  and  Mr.  Butterfield.  The 
three  first  named  have  retired  after  from  26  to  30  years'  service. 

The  Society  has  given  Ceylon  its  full  share  of  the  women  who 
have  joined  during  the  last  twenty-five  years.  More  than  40  have 
bsen  at  work  during  our  sixteen-year  period  for  longer  or  shorter 
times.  Five  Singhalese  workers  of  1899  are  still  on  the  staff,  namely, 
Miss  A.  Higgens,  daughter  of  the  veteran,  who  has  nearly  com 
pleted  30  years'  service  ;  Miss  Josolyne  and  Miss  Gedge,  20  years  ; 
Miss  Earp  (sent  from  South  Africa  by  the  Association  there),  and 
Miss  S.  H.  Townsend,  18  years ;  and  one  Tamil  worker,  daughter 
of  the  late  J.  D.  Thomas,  who  was  in  C.E.Z.  ranks  nearly  30 
years  ago,  is  now  the  wife  of  the  Rev.  T.  S.  Johnson.  Her 
mother,  Mr.  Thomas's  widow,  continued  in  the  Mission  after  his 
death,  and  retired  in  1909  after  45  years.  Among  other  Singhalese 
workers  should  be  mentioned  Miss  Denyer,  who  retired  in  1911 
after  20  years'  service,  but  still  remains  in  Ceylon  and  helps  as 
she  can,f  and  Miss  Leslie  Melville,  still  at  work  after  15  years  ; 
and  of  the  Tamil  workers,  Miss  E.  S.  Young,  who  retired  after 
20  years.  Several  other  women  have  rendered  excellent  service 
for  shorter  periods.  The  C.E.Z.M.S.  also  has  nine  ladies  working 
at  Kandy  and  Gampola.  Its  Clarence  Memorial  School  for  the 
daughters  of  Kandyan  chiefs  is  one  of  the  most  attractive  mission 
agencies  in  Ceylon.  It  was  visited  in  1901  by  our  present  King 
and  Queen,  then  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Cornwall  and  York. 

At  Colombo,  the  capital,  and  the  great  port  of  call  for  liners  of 
all  kinds,  the  work  is  typified  by  the  services  in  the  principal 
mission  church  at  Galle  Face,  opposite  the  well-known  hotel. 


*  A  picturesque  and  impressive  article  by  Mr.  Butterfield  should  be  noted, 
which  appeared  in  the  C.M.  Review  of  Sept.,  1912,  entitled  "The  Shadow  of 
the  Peak  "  (i.e.  Adam's  Peak,  in  the  centre  of  the  Island).  In  the  Review  of 
July,  1914,  Mr.  Butterfield  described  the  Tamil  Coolie  Mission,  and  Mr. 
Shorten  the  Singhalese  Itinerancy. 

f  Miss  Denyer  has  lately  returned  to  England,  and  finally  retired,— a  real 
loss  to  the  Mission. 


THE  CEYLON  MISSION.  265 

They  are  in  four  languages,  Singhalese,  Tamil,  Portuguese,  and  PARTII. 
English,  each  tongue  having  its  own  congregation.  The  British  chap-  2o 
residents  have  always  been  liberal  supporters  of  the  whole  Mission, 
both  by  money  gifts  and  by  personal  service  in  the  administration 
and  the  school  work.  The  English-speaking  native  community 
is  also  large,  and  presents  an  inviting  sphere  of  work.  The 
Incumbency  of  the  Church  is,  therefore,  an  important  post.  It 
is  usually  held  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Mission,  and  on  Mr. 
Higgens's  retirement  the  Bev.  A.  E.  Dibben  succeeded  to  the 
double  office.  He  had  joined  the  Singhalese  division  of  the 
Mission  in  1890,  so  he  has  now  been  a  quarter  of  a  century  in 
the  work.  Sometimes,  however,  as  at  present,  another  missionary 
has  taken  charge  of  the  church ;  and,  of  course,  both  Singhalese 
and  Tamil-speaking  men  are  needed.  But  the  large  use  of  the 
English  language  has  facilitated  the  holding  of  "  special  missions  " 
and  Conventions,  and  much  blessing  has  attended  the  visits  for 
such  purposes  of  Mr.  Walker  of  Tinnevelly,  Mr.  Eddy  of  Madras, 
and  Dr.  Mott.  In  1907  it  was  noted  that  a  visit  from  a  missionary 
of  the  S.P.G.  resulted  in  definite  spiritual  fruit. 

In  1902  the  Bishop  of  Colombo,  Dr.  E.  S.  Copleston,  was  TWO 
transferred  to  the  See  of  Calcutta  as  Metropolitan  of  India.  His 
departure  from  Ceylon,  after  an  episcopate  there  of  26  years, 
was  universally  regretted.  Old  differences  had  long  since  been 
gladly  forgotten,  and  clergy  and  laity  alike,  British  and  Singhalese 
and  Tamil,  had  learned  to  revere  him  as  a  true  Father  in  God. 
Under  the  constitution  adopted  in  1886,  when  disestablishment 
took  place,  the  Church  had  the  right  of  election  of  his  successor  ; 
but  the  Synod  determined  to  request  the  Archbishop  and  three  of 
the  Bishops  in  England  to  choose  a  Bishop  for  them.  Their 
choice  fell  on  Dr.  Copleston's  brother,  the  Eev.  E.  A.  Copleston, 
who  was  already  a  clergyman  in  the  Island ;  and  he  was  conse 
crated  on  August  30th,  1903.  The  new  constitution  has  continued 
to  work  quite  satisfactorily,  and  the  oneness  of  the  Church,  com 
prising  different  races  and  different  theological  colours,  is  more 
and  more  recognized.  At  the  Meeting  of  the  Synod  in  1912,  it  The  Synod, 
was  stated  that  it  comprised  95  clergymen,  of  whom  33  were 
Europeans,  four  of  Dutch  descent,  and  58  Singhalese  and  Tamils : 
and  that  of  179  lay  delegates,  27  were  Europeans,  24  burghers 
(i.e.  of  mixed  descent  from  the  old  Dutch  possessors),  and  128  of 
the  two  native  races.  An  object  lesson  is  thus  provided  of  the 
successful  working  of  a  Church  predominantly  but  not  exclusively 
native.  We  may  well  thank  God  for  it,  and  invoke  His  best 
blessing  on  the  whole  cause  of  the  Gospel  in  Ceylon. 


CHAPTER  XXVI. 


THE  MAURITIUS  MISSION. 

Retrospect  of  the  Mission  -Linguistic  Difficulties— The  Bishops  and  the 
Mission  Staff— Gradual  Withdrawal. 

HE  Mauritius  Mission  is  the  smallest  of  the  Society's 
enterprises.     The  island  is  about  the  size  of  Herts, 
with  a  population  of  375,000.    There  are  no  aborigines, 
and   it   was    first   peopled  by  Frenchmen    from   the 
neighbouring   Island    of    Bourbon.     These,    and   the 
Negro  slaves  they  acquired  before  the  era  of  emancipation,  are 
Eoman  Catholics.     But  for  the  sugar  plantations  coolies  in  large 
numbers   have   been  imported  from  India,  who  have  for  many 
years  largely  out-numbered   the  Creoles  ;  and   not  only   so,   but 
some  of  those  who  have  remained  in  the  island  when  their  terms 
of  service  were  over  have  become  a  very  prosperous  section  of  the 
population. 

It  is  among  these  coolies  that  the  Society  has  chiefly  worked. 
The  Mission  was  undertaken  at  the  request  of  the  first  Anglican 
Bishop,  Dr.  Eyan,  in  1854.  Its  origin  and  early  story  are  very 
interesting,  and  are  related  in  the  History  of  the  G.M.S.*  It 
prospered  greatly  for  many  years,  especially  during  the  eighteen 
years'  episcopate  of  Bishop  Eoyston,  who  had  been  C.M.S. 
Secretary  of  Madras,  and  also  temporarily  in  Salisbury  Square, 
and  who,  after  a  long  life  of  devoted  service,  has  only  been  taken 
from  us  in  1915.f  Some  thousands  of  Hindi,  Bengali,  and  Tamil 
coolies  were  baptized,  many  of  whom  went  back  to  India  when 
their  terms  of  engagement  were  over.  Hence  the  figures  of 
Native  Christians  in  the  returns  for  any  particular  year  have  never 
given  any  adequate  idea  of  the  work  done.  And  that  work  has 
been  accomplished  in  circumstances  of  unusual  difficulty  owing 
to  the  variety  of  languages  spoken,  English,  French,  the  Creole 
Languages.  patoiSj  various  African  dialects,  Malagasy,  Hindi,  Bengali,  Tamil, 
Telugu,  and  Chinese.  Bishop  Eoyston  described  a  service  at  the 
consecration  of  St.  Paul's  Church  at  the  capital,  Port  Louis,  in 
1864,  thus :  "  The  commencing  Consecration  Service  was  _  in 
English;  Morning  Prayer,  Psalms,  &c.,  in  Bengali;  Venite, 

*  Archdeacon  Buswell  wrote  a  Jubilee  historical  sketch  in  1906,  which 
appeared  in  the  C.M.  Intell.  of  September  that  year. 

f  See  the  In  Memoriam  of  him,  C.M.  Review,  March,  1915. 


Bishop 
Royston 


Many 


THE  MAURITIUS  MISSION.  267 

Jubilate,  and   Hymns  in  Hindustani ;  one  Lesson  in  Tamil  and    PART  n. 
the  other   in  Bengali ;    the  sermon  partly  in  English,  partly  in   Chap- 2Q' 
French,  with  a  Bengali  translation  of  the  greater  part ;  while  the 
elements  of  the  Holy  Communion  were  administered  in  all  these 
languages  according  to  the  vernaculars  of  the  recipients."     And 
Archdeacon  Buswell  says  that  he  still,  when  administering,  has  to 
look  at  each  communicant  in  turn  to  see  what  language  he  should 
use. 

Bishop  Walsh  (late  Bishop  of  Dover)  who  had  followed  Bishop 
Eoyston  in  1891,  had  retired  shortly  before  our  sixteen-year  period 
began,  and  had  been  succeeded  by  Bishop  Pym.  The  latter  was 
transferred  to  Bombay  in  1904,  and  then  a  well-known  and  much- 
respected  S.P.G.  Missionary  in  Madagascar  was  appointed,  the  Bishop 
Kev.  F.  A.  Gregory,  son  of  the  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  who  has  been  <*res°fy- 
a  good  friend  of  the  Mission  ever  since.  When  the  C.M.S. 
Centenary  was  celebrated,  the  mission  staff  comprised  Archdeacon  C.M.S. 
Buswell,  a  veteran  who  had  gone  to  Ceylon  in  1862  and  been  staff- 
transferred  to  Mauritius  in  1866 ;  Y.  W.  Harcourt,  also  a  veteran, 
who  went  to  Tinnevelly  in  1867  and  Mauritius  in  1891  ;  C.  A. 
Blackburn,  who  had  been  ordained  in  the  Island  as  a  Chaplain 
and  had  joined  the  Mission  in  1883 ;  the  wives  of  the  three ;  and 
two  single  women,  Miss  Helen  Wilkinson  and  Miss  Penley.  But 
just  as  the  period  opened,  on  May  1st,  1899,  the  little  band  lost  one 
of  its  members,  Mrs.  Buswell,  who,  as  Miss  A.  H.  C.  Wilkinson, 
had  gone  out  in  1896.  She  was  a  sister  of  the  Eev.  D.  H.  D. 
Wilkinson,  and  cousin  of  Miss  Helen  Wilkinson  just  mentioned ; 
both  being  honorary  workers.  Five  other  women  were  sent  out 
in  the  next  three  or  four  years,  Misses  Gwynn  (also  honorary,  and 
with  the  experience  of  having  been  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Y.W.C.A. 
at  Clifton),  Heaney  (transferred  from  Ceylon),  Bagley,  Smyth,  and 
North.  And  a  son  of  Archdeacon  Buswell  joined  as  a  layman, 
and  was  afterwards  ordained. 

The  general  direction  of  the  Mission  was  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Archdeacon 
Buswell  all  through  our  period,  and  he  is  still  in  charge  after  53  Buswti11- 
years    of   missionary  service.     Mr.  Blackburn   had    a  district   to 
superintend,  and   worked  faithfully  till   his   retirement   in   1910. 
Mr.  H.  H.  Buswell  was  Diocesan  Inspector  of  elementary  schools 
and  took  part  in  evangelistic  work.     Mr.  Harcourt  had  the  Boys' 
Orphanage  at  Plaisance;  but  he  retired  in  1907  after  40  years' 
service,  and  died  in  January,  1914,  as  did  also  Mrs.  Harcourt. 

The   pastoral   work   has    been    arranged    in    six   districts,    the  Native 
Christians  being  much  scattered  among  the  villages.     There  have  clergy- 
generally  been  three  or  four  "  native  "  clergy  to  minister  to  them. 
At  the  beginning  of  our  period  there  were  four,  two  Tamil-speaking 
and  two  Hindi-speaking.     The  two  former,  who  are  still  on  the 
staff,  were  John  Ernest  and  lyanar  Frank  Chorley,  converts  from 
heathenism,  and  were  sent  to  India  to  finish  their  training  in  Tinne 
velly  ;  and  one  of  the  latter,  Samuel  Susunkar,  also  a  convert  from 
heathenism,  was  also  sent   to  India   for   training  at    St.    Paul's 


268 


THE  MAURITIUS  MISSION. 


PART  II. 
Chap. 26. 


Native 
Christians. 


C.M.S. 

withdraws 
gradually. 


Seychelles 
Islands. 


Divinity  College,  Allahabad.  Mr.  Susunkar  had  the  great  trial  of 
losing  his  wife  and  son  by  the  plague  in  1899.  He  was  afterwards 
transferred  to  India  to  work  in  the  United  Provinces,  and  is  now 
in  the  Meerut  district.  Two  other  men  have  lately  been  ordained, 
Solomon  Toolsy  and  James  Nursimooloo  Yerriah. 

In  recent  years  the  work  has  not  prospered  as  it  did  in  earlier 
days.  The  constant  moving  to  and  fro  of  the  Indians  between  the 
Island  and  India  is  one  difficulty,  and  the  open  immorality  of  the 
people  is  another.  Archdeacon  Buswell  describes  the  field  as  "  a 
bad  ward  in  the  great  hospital  that  claims  and  engages  the  great 
Physician's  care."  There  used  to  be  an  average  of  80  or  100  adult 
baptisms  yearly,  but  for  several  years  past  the  number  has  been 
from  10  to  20 ;  the  total  in  the  15  years  being  only  264.  The 
Archdeacon,  however,  attributes  this  to  a  much  greater  strictness 
in  accepting  candidates  for  baptism.  The  Christians  in  1914 
numbered  1600,  which  is  considerably  less  than  it  was  20  years 
ago ;  but  one  cause  of  this,  as  already  stated,  is  the  ebb-tide,  so  to 
speak,  to  India ;  and  another  is  that  the  reduction  of  the  C.M.S. 
grant  has  removed  some  from  the  Society's  care.  There  have 
been  many  individual  conversions  of  deep  interest. 

In  1907,  when  retrenchments  were  necessary,  it  was  resolved  to 
withdraw  gradually  from  the  Island ;  and  no  new  workers  have 
since  been  sent.  There  now  remain  only  the  Archdeacon  and  five 
ladies,  Misses  Wilkinson,  Penley,  Gwynn,  Bagley,  and  North. 
Miss  Ileaney  retired,  and  Miss  Smyth  was  transferred  to  India. 
The  Bishop  now  commits  some  of  the  congregations  to  the 
Chaplains  in  the  Island ;  but  Archdeacon  Buswell  takes  the 
services  in  languages  not  spoken  by  them  whenever  possible. 
The  Society's  grant  was  continued  for  a  time,  but  has  since  been 
reduced  to  one  half,  and  the  expenditure  for  1914  was  about  £750 
against  £1600  in  1899.  It  is  now  reduced  to  £350,  and  in  five 
years  is  to  cease  altogether. 

The  S.P.G.  also  has  work  in  Mauritius.  It  has  three  mission 
aries  and  six  native  clergymen.  Its  Native  Christians  are  about  as 
many  as  those  of  the  C.M.S. 

There  was  formerly  an  outlying  Mission  at  Mane  in  the  Sey 
chelles  Islands,  which  are  'in  the  Diocese  of  Mauritius,  and  Arch 
deacon  Buswell  has  visited  those  islands  to  take  the  chaplain's 
duty  in  his  absence.  In  1900  he  found  there  King  Prempeh  of 
Ashanti,  who  had  been  exiled  there  by  the  British  Government 
after  the  war  in  which  Prince  Henry  of  Battenburg  took  the  illness 
of  which  he  died;  and  the  Archdeacon  had  interviews  with 
Prempeh,  and  set  the  Gospel  before  him.  Two  or  three  years  ago 
he  was  baptized  by  the  then  chaplain.  Two  other  African  kings, 
who  were  likewise  exiled  to  the  Seychelles  in  1901,  have  also  been 
baptized  there,  namely  Mwanga,  ex-king  of  Uganda,  and  Kaba- 
rega,  ex-king  of  Bunyoro  (see  p.  86).  May  we  not  apply  to  the 
Diocese  of  Mauritius  Psalm  Ixxxvii.  5—"  This  and  that  man  was 
born  in  her  "  ? 


CHAPTER   XXVII. 
CHINA  .-  MODERN  CHANGES. 

The  Position  in  1899— Boxer  Massacres— Newspaper  Opinions-  China 
Waking  up — China  and  Japan— The  Opium  Question  :  John  Morley's 
Statement  and  its  Issues — Deaths  of  the  Emperor  and  Dowager 
Empress  —  Overthrow  of  the  Manchu  Dynasty  —  President  Yuan 
Shih-Kai— British  Emergency  Deputation  at  Shanghai— Sir  Hiram 
Maxim's  Attack  on  Missions— Chinese  Attitude  towards  Missions — 
The  Request  for  Prayer. 

!  HEN  the  period  under  review  commenced,  China  was    PARTII. 
absorbing  much  of  the  world's  attention.     Germany,    chap-  27< 
France,  and  Eussia  had  secured  spheres  of  influence,  China  and 
and  Great  Britain,  for  fear  of  exclusion  from  some  of  the  Powers, 
the  most  important  markets  of  the  world,  thereupon 
obtained    Wei-hai-wei ;    all  of   them  by  what  the  C.M.S.  Report 
called  "  the  novel  and  agreeable  fiction  of  lease."     At  the  same 
time  the  young  Emperor,  guided  by  a  party  of  far-seeing  states 
men,  had  initiated  various  promising  reforms ;  but  the  old  Dowager 
Empress,  by  an  audacious  coup  d'etat,  had  again  installed  herself 
as  Regent,  had  rescinded  the  Emperor's  decrees,  and  had  executed 
some  of  his  best  counsellors. 

Meanwhile  trouble  was  caused  in  many  parts  of  China  by — it  is  Roman 
grievous  to  say — the  policy  of  the  Roman  Catholic  missionaries.  policy !° 
Their  habit  of  interposing  on  behalf  of  their  people  engaged  in 
law-suits  or  charged  with  offences  against  the  laws,  and  of  getting 
French  consular  pressure  brought  to  bear  on  the  magistrates,  was 
not  only  inexpedient  in  itself,  but  also  tempted  those  who  were 
not  Roman  Catholics  at  all  to  pretend  that  they  were  in  order  to 
get  similar  protection.  Then,  just  at  this  time,  they  claimed  from 
the  Chinese  Government  certain  definite  grades  of  rank  and 
privilege.  For  instance,  a  bishop  was  to  be  equal  to  a  Viceroy  of 
a  province ;  a  priest  equal  to  a  magistrate,  and  so  on.  In  order 
to  be  fair,  the  Peking  authorities  offered  similar  honours  and 
rights  to  Protestant  missionaries ;  but  they,  including  the  Anglican 
Bishops,  unanimously  refused  them. 

The   general   unrest  in  the  country   was    sadly   illustrated   by  Boxer 
murders  of  missionaries.    On  the  last  day  of  the  year  1899,  an  S.P.G.  M     ers' 
missionary,  Mr.  Brooks,  was  brutally  done  to  death  by  what  was 
stated  to  be  "  a  seditious  society  known  as  tne  Boxers,"  but  which 


270  CHINA  :  MODERN  CHANGES. 

PART  IT.    called  itself  the  League  of  United  Patriots  ;  and  it  was  believed 
chap.jJ7.   tka{.  ft  was  they  who  had  been  responsible  for  the  murder  of  two 
German  Eoman   Catholic  priests  in  1897,  which  had  led  to  the 
German  occupation  of  Kiaochow.     Pre